SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cocaine

Cocaine known as coke, is a strong stimulant most used as a recreational drug. It is snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate and large pupils. High doses can result in high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a high risk, its use increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, sudden cardiac death. Cocaine sold on the street is mixed with local anesthetics, quinine, or sugar, which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure and be physically tired.

Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine. This results in greater concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain, it can cross the blood–brain barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. In 2013, 419 kilograms were produced legally, it is estimated. With further processing, crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine. Cocaine is the second most used illegal drug globally, after cannabis. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year. Use is highest in North America followed by South America. Between one and three percent of people in the developed world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013, cocaine use directly resulted in 4,300 deaths, up from 2,400 in 1990, it is named after the coca plant from. The plant's leaves have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Since 1961, the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime.

Topical cocaine can be used as a local numbing agent to help with painful procedures in the mouth or nose. Cocaine is now predominantly used for lacrimal duct surgery; the major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's potential for cardiovascular toxicity and pupil dilation. Medicinal use of cocaine has decreased as other synthetic local anesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine and tetracaine are now used more often. If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure, the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine; some ENT specialists use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization. In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool, placed in the nostril for the 10–15 minutes before the procedure, thus performing the dual role of both numbing the area to be cauterized, vasoconstriction; when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects.

An alternative method of administration for ENT surgery is mixed with adrenaline and sodium bicarbonate, as Moffett's solution. Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant, its effects can last from 30 minutes to an hour. The duration of cocaine's effects depends on the route of administration. Cocaine can be in the form of fine white powder, bitter to the taste; when inhaled or injected, it causes a numbing effect. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate and water. Crack cocaine is referred to. Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, increased energy and motor activity, increased feelings of competence and sexuality. Coca leaves are mixed with an alkaline substance and chewed into a wad, retained in the mouth between gum and cheek and sucked of its juices; the juices are absorbed by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be consumed like tea.

Ingesting coca leaves is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a alkaline substance can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach; the efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed. Cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped one cup of coca leaf infusion. Orally administered cocaine takes 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream. Only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled settings. Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion.

While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for 60 minutes after their peak is attained. C

Rotherbridge

Rotherbridge is a small, rural community situated 1 mile south-west of Petworth in West Sussex, England. Until 1800, the road from Chichester to Petworth crossed the River Rother by a bridge here. Rotherbridge gave its name to the Hundred of Rotherbridge which comprised several of the surrounding villages, as well as the town of Petworth; the name "Rotherbridge" is derived from the Anglo-Saxon Redrebruge, meaning "cattle bridge", or "cattle way". The original Old English name was "hrÿdõer brycge", meaning "bridge over which cattle are driven". By 1280, the name had become "Rutherbrig", taking its present form in 1550; the name "Rother" for the river is a back formation from "Rotherbidge". Before this the river was known as the "Scir", a Saxon word meaning "bright" or "clear". Rotherbridge was the name of the Saxon Hundred or administrative group of parishes. In the Domesday Book, the Hundred of Rotherbridge comprised the settlements of Sutton, Duncton, Lavington, Burton and Stopham, a total of 194 households.

Rotherbridge was the meeting place for the families from the hundred although this moved to the town of Petworth. In 1872, John Marius Wilson, in The Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described the Hundred of Rotherbridge as "a hundred in Arundel rape, containing Barlavington parish and 11 other parishes. Acres: 40,212. Population in 1851: 9,529. Houses: 1,687." In the late 14th century, a double-arched stone bridge was built across the River Rother by Parson Acon of Petworth. In 1540, John Leland, the antiquary, visited the Rother bridge and wrote that it was "a fayre Bridge of Stone made by one, Parson Acon, who builded the Spire of the faire steeple there in the towne"; until 1800, the turnpike from Chichester to Petworth descended Duncton Hill before crossing the River Rother at Rotherbridge. From there, travellers could proceed towards Petworth via Rotherbridge Lane or due north to Tillington via Hungers Lane; the Petworth Turnpike Trustees, including the Third Earl of Egremont, suspected that William Warren, the miller at Coultershaw was allowing his "friends" to cross the river by using the mill bridge, thus avoiding the toll for use of the turnpike.

By Act of Parliament in 1800, Lord Egremont paid for the construction of a new bridge at Coultershaw Mill and the re-routing of the turnpike direct from there to Petworth. As a result, the former twin-arched bridge was pulled down and the stone was used to build the new bridge at Coultershaw with a toll-house on the west bank of the river. Following the demolition of the bridge, this was replaced by a floating footbridge to connect the farm at Rotherbridge with that at Kilsham on the south bank; the bridge could be passed by boat by lifting this at one end. Following the abandonment of the Rother Navigation, the bridge was replaced with a wooden footbridge, by a fixed suspension bridge in 1935 and by an iron bridge with tubular railings in 1961; this in turn was replaced in 2010. Bruce, Pamela. Northchapel A Village History. Northchapel Parish Council. ISBN 0-9538291-0-3. Jerrome, Peter. Petworth. From the beginnings to 1660. Petworth: The Window Press. Vine, P. A. L.. London's Lost Route to Midhurst: The Earl of Egremont's Navigation.

Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-0968-6. Pictures of the bridge at Rotherbridge Photograph of the bridge in 1930 or 1931

Central Andean dry puna

The Central Andean dry puna is an ecoregion in the Montane grasslands and shrublands biome, located in the Andean high plateau, in South America. It is a part of the Puna grassland; this ecoregion occupies the southwestern portion of the Altiplano and is located east of the Atacama Desert. Salt flats, locally known as Salares, are a characteristic feature of this ecoregion. Among the largest salares are Coipasa, Uyuni and Arizaro. Other major geographical features are the lakes Poopó and Coipasa, the many volcanoes that tower over the altiplano, including Parinacota, Nevado Sajama, Tata Sabaya, Ollagüe, Lascar, Aracar and Llullaillaco. In addition and colorful small lakes and ponds dot this region. There are seasonal as well as permanent, have different degrees of salinity; this ecoregion has a cold desert climate. Typical high Andean wetlands are the Bofedales; these marshy areas are characterized by the presence of cushion bog vegetation. The Yareta grows in well-drained soils. Grasslands are dominated by species of Festuca.

Central Andean dry puna is home to Polylepis species, including the Polylepis tarapacana, the woody plant that grows at the highest elevations in the world. Camelids, such as llamas, vicuñas, are found in this ecoregion. Other mammals include the cougar, Andean mountain cat, Andean fox, the Andean hairy armadillo. Three of the six flamingo species inhabit here, they are Andean flamingo, James's flamingo, Chilean flamingo. Other remarkable birds are the Darwin's rhea, Andean condor, puna tinamou, puna teal, puna ibis and the Andean goose. Animals and plants find refuge in the protected areas of this ecoregion; those include: Lauca National Park Sajama National Park Eduardo Avaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve Los Flamencos National Reserve Olaroz-Cauchari Flora and Fauna Reserve Llullaillaco National Park "Central Andean dry puna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund