Cochin International Airport

Cochin International Airport, Cochin is an international airport serving the city of Kochi, in the state of Kerala, India. Located at Nedumbassery, about 25 kilometres northeast of the city, Cochin International Airport is the first airport in India developed under a public-private partnership model; this project was funded by nearly 10,000 non-resident Indians from 30 countries. It is the largest airport in the state of Kerala; as of 2019, the Cochin International Airport caters to 61.8% of the total air passenger movement in Kerala. It is the fourth busiest airport in India in terms of international traffic and eighth busiest overall. In fiscal year 2018-19, the airport handled more than 10.2 million passengers with a total of 71,871 aircraft movements. The airport is a primary base for Air India Express operations, headquartered in the city; the airport operates one cargo terminal. With over 150,000 square metres in area, the airport's Terminal 3 is one of the largest terminals in India. Cochin International Airport became the world's first solar powered airport with the inauguration of a dedicated solar plant.

For this entrepreneurial vision, the airport won the coveted Champion of the Earth award in 2018, the highest environmental honour instituted by the United Nations. The airport began as an airstrip on Willingdon Island, built in 1936 by the British Residency of Kingdom of Kochi, intended for transporting British officials involved in the development of the Cochin Port; the airstrip was converted into a military airport by the Indian Navy during World War II. The Royal Navy chose it as a strategic site for their headquarters in Southern India and as an air station cum landing craft and seaplane base; the military facility hosted naval fighter planes and was intended to thwart possible Japanese air raids. A small naval unit set up operations just two days before the outbreak of World War II. After Indian Independence, the Indian Navy operated the airport, though it permitted civilian aircraft to use the facility; the Gulf economic boom of the 1980s made it necessary to develop international connections to Kochi in the interests of expatriates working in the Middle East.

The original proposal for the airport outlined an estimated cost of ₹1 billion and an expected date of commission in 1997. Approval was granted in May 1993; the funding was envisaged to be from interest-free loans from non-resident Indians working abroad, donations from industrial undertakings, cooperative societies and loans from the state government. A body called the Cochin International Airport Society, under the chairmanship of the chief minister of Kerala, was registered in July 1993 to execute the project. To better fund mobilisation, as well as administrative convenience, a public limited company under the name Cochin International Airport Ltd. was registered in March 1994 with an authorised capital of ₹900 million. A total of 491 ha of land was acquired for the construction of the airport. 2,300 landowners and 872 families were resettled under a rehabilitation package. Major electric lines and an irrigation canal had to be diverted; the facility was formally inaugurated by the President of India, KR Narayanan on 25 May 1999 and the first commercial service began on 10 June 1999.

The operations from the old naval airport were moved to CIAL on 1 July 1999. The airport had 18,580 m2 of floor space at its inauguration. CIAL envisioned six phases of expansion over 20 years, the third phase of, completed in 2009; the original airport terminal was small enough envisioned to handle just 100 passengers at a time. However, by 2001, the international passenger traffic were growing, making necessary to redevelop the terminal. Most of the expansion has occurred in the international terminal, as it accounts for more than 78% of all traffic. In 2002 the original airport's floor area had risen. With a rising number of airlines operating at the airport, CIAL decided to construct an exclusive terminal for international arrivals which increased the floor space to 37,161 m2, increasing passport controls and baggage carousels in addition to expanding the international departures floor space; as part of phase two of the expansion plans, an airline center complex of 7,500 m2 was constructed on the western side of the terminal to accommodate airline and CIAL's administrative offices.

The cargo terminal was expanded in the second phase. Work on the third phase was intended to accommodate 5 million passenger movements annually and was started in 2007; the third phase involved the commissioning of a central block, connecting the domestic and international terminals and enlarging the airside area to accommodate more gates and waiting areas along with increased shopping areas. This increased the built-up area by another 29,700 m2; the airside area of the international arrivals and departures blocks were integrated and glass walls were installed to allow for more natural light. The runway was re-surfaced in 2008; the number of parking areas were increased from 15 to 24, including three dedicated for cargo airlines. The third phase completed the expansion of the cargo village and a second aircraft taxi-way to the MRO facility; the fourth phase of expansion was planned to upgrade the domestic terminal, which has remained untouched in the past three phases. However, the expansion plans were changed after the new UDF government took over the administration of the state in May 2011.

As per the revised plans, the international terminal is to be converted into a domestic terminal, while a new state-of-the-art international terminal is coming

Agam (band)

Agam is a Bangalore-based contemporary Carnatic progressive rock band. The band was formed in the year 2003; the current lineup consists of Harish Sivaramakrishnan Swamy Seetharaman, T Praveen Kumar, Aditya Kasyap, Sivakumar Nagarajan, Jagadish Natarajan and Yadhunandan. Jagadish Natarajan replaced Suraj Satheesh as the rhythm guitarist in 2012 but the lineup of the band has otherwise remained same. Vignesh Lakshminarayanan was replaced by Aditya Kasyap on backing vocals. Agam is featured in the Malayalam music channel KAPPA TV, a new generation channel with great popularity among youths of Kerala. All the band members are from South India, a majority of them studied at Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani. There Harish and Ganesh started off with short jamming sessions and pursued it after graduation, which led to the formation of the band, their musical journey started in an apartment studio where they started experimenting with various compositions of music under the name ‘Studio F6’, which they renamed as'Agam'.

Agam received its big break in the year 2007 when it participated in a band hunt called “Ooh la la la,” hosted by the Tamil television channel Sun TV. The competition was judged by the Oscar-winning Indian music composer A. R. Rahman. Rahman adjudged them one of the winners of the contest, their success in “Ooh la la la” brought them into mainstream and they performed in concerts and music festivals in South Indian cities like Bangalore and Hyderabad. Post-2010, Agam was started gaining more popularity nationwide and played in several high-profile music festivals such as the Chennai Sangamam, the MAD Festival, the Fireflies Festival and the Storm Festival; the band has played at venues such as Hard Rock Café, both at Hyderabad and Bangalore, Kyra, Bangalore They have performed at college fests such as Pravega in the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, Dhwani in College of Engineering, Symbhav in Symbiosis Law School, Tathva in National Institute of Technology Calicut, R. V. College of Engineering, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram and all three campuses of Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani in India.

Apart from these, Agam has performed in many charitable events. Agam has been featured in other television channels, their well-known performances includes the one for the entertainment channel Rosebowl. They performed in the second season of Coke Studio which started on July 7, 2012; the band performed in the final episode of the season, which has only the performances of independent music producers. Agam has performed at Malaysian Independent Live Fusion Festival in 2017 and 2018 and in Singapore's KalaUtsavam in 2012 and 2017 at the Esplanade Theatres. In June 2018, they performed at London's Southbank Centre as part of the summer contemporary music season. Agam's musical style is Carnatic Progressive Rock, their music is a blend of Rock. The band draws inspirations from Traditional Carnatic music and progressive rock acts like Dream Theater, their logo is inspired by the folk art Theyyam of North Kerala. The band borrows their name from the Malayalam / Tamil word'Agam' which means the'Heart, soul or the Inner soul'.

Agam has collaborated with many individual musicians over the course of 5 years. Among them was their collaboration with acclaimed Indian playback singer Shreya Ghoshal for a song titled Live Again and with Aruna Sairam for Navotsavam Agam released its debut album - The Inner Self awakens in October 2012 at Hard Rock Cafe, Bangalore; the album went on to become the top selling album on Flipkart's flyte as well as on Their sophomore album "A Dream to Remember" was launched in November 2017; the prelude of the album, "Saagara Shayana Vibho" was launched on 11 October 2017. The eight songs in the album, Four of them being Carnatic kritis were launched as an Audio-Visual production, directed by Mithun Raj and sound-engineered by Hriday Goswami Agam's movie debut came out in September 2017 as one of the composers for the movie Solo, directed by Bejoy Nambiar, they have done two tracks - Oru Vanchi Pattu - sung by Harish Sivaramakrishnan & Thaalolam - sung by Shashaa Tirupati. Manu Manjith has penned the lyrics for'Thaalolam'.

"Oru Vanchi Pattu" reuses the lyrics from their earlier track "The Boat Song". Winner of “Ooh la la la” – Music reality show hosted by Sun TV, judged by A. R. Rahman, 2007 Featured in Music of contemporary India commissioned by the Ministry of External Affairs, India Winner of Bite My Music Global awards – for Best Collaboration, Best Instrumental Collaboration with Shreya Ghoshal on the single "Live again" to raise awareness on breast cancer Indian rock Pin Drop Violence Kryptos Bhayanak Maut Nicotine Inner Sanctum Scribe Demonic Resurrection Official website

Commerzbank AG v Keen

Commerzbank AG v Keen EWCA Civ 1536 is a UK labour law case, concerning the construction of terms in a contract of employment. Mr Keen managed the proprietary trading desk in Commerzbank AG, paid a basic salary of £120,000; the bonus was awarded at the bank’s discretion, was not payable if the employee was no longer working or on notice to leave. For each of 2003 and 2004 Mr Keen received €3m, paid the following March; the desk was closed in May 2005, he was made redundant in June. He got no bonus, so claimed there was a breach of contract to not exercise the bank’s discretion irrationally or perversely; the decision to give a bonus for 2003 and 2004, but not 2005 was irrational. The contractual provision the bank relied on was, in any event, contrary to the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 section 3. Morison J held. Commerzbank AG appealed. Mummery LJ held. There was a lack of independent evidence about the size of the bonus pools in 2003 and 2004, the bank did have a wide contractual discretion, so the decision to award the bonuses before was not irrational.

An employee could reasonably be regarded as a ‘consumer’ under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 if the employer supplied him with services or goods for consumption. He was not within the natural meaning of ‘consumer’, but the issue about section 3 did not involve this. The bonus did not come within the ‘standard terms of business’ of banking, it was a term of remuneration of some employees, so there was no real prospect of success. Jacob LJ concurred. Moses LJ gave concurring reasons. United Kingdom labour law