Diving support vessel
A diving support vessel is a ship, used as a floating base for professional diving projects. Commercial Diving Support Vessels emerged during the 1960s and 1970s, when the need arose for offshore diving operations to be performed below and around oil production platforms and associated installations in open water in the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico; until that point, most diving operations were from mobile oil drilling platforms, pipe-lay, or crane barges. The diving system craned on and off the vessels as a package; as permanent oil and gas production platforms emerged, the owners and operators were not keen to give over valuable deck space to diving systems because after they came on-line the expectation of continuing diving operations was low. However, equipment fails or gets damaged, there was a regular if not continuous need for diving operations in and around oil fields; the solution was to put diving packages on ships. These tended to be oilfield supply ships or fishing vessels. Furthermore, seabed operations entailed the raising and lowering of heavy equipment, most such vessels were not equipped for this task.
This is. These were built from scratch or converted pipe carriers or other utility ships; the key components of the diving support vessel are: Dynamic Positioning - Controlled by a computer with input from position reference systems, it will maintain the ships position over a dive site by using multi-directional thrusters, other sensors would compensate for swell and prevailing wind. Saturation diving system - For diving operations below 50m, a mixture of helium and oxygen is required to eliminate the narcotic effect of nitrogen under pressure. For extended diving operations at depth, saturation diving is the preferred approach. A saturation system would be installed within the ship. A diving bell would transport the divers between the saturation system and the work site lowered through a'moon pool' in the bottom of the ship with a support structure'cursor' to support the diving bell through the turbulent waters near the surface. There are a number of support systems for the saturation system on a Diving Support Vessel including a Remotely Operated Vehicle ROV and heavy lifting equipment.
Most of the vessels in the North Sea have been built in the 1980s. The semi-submersible fleet, the Uncle John and similar, have proven to be too expensive to maintain and too slow to move between fields. Therefore, most existing designs are monohull vessels with either a twin bell dive system. There has been little innovation since the 1980s. However, driven by high oil prices since 2004, the market for subsea developments in the North Sea has grown significantly; this have driven the price up. Thus, contractors have ordered a number of newbuild vessels which are expected to enter the market in 2008; these Vessels are built and designed nowadays not only to Support Diving Activities but they support Remotely Operated Vehicles operations with Dedicated Hangar and LARS for ROV's, Support Seismic Survey Operations, Support Cable Laying Operations, etc. Owing to these nature of the modern day vessels, they may have at any time 80 to 150 Project Personnel onboard including Divers, Diving Supervisors and Superintendents, Dive Technicians, Life Support Technicians and Supervisors, ROV Pilots, ROV Superintendents, Survey Team, Clients Personnel, etc.
For all these Personnel to carry out their contracted job with an Oil and Gas Company, a Professional Crew Navigate and Operate the Vessel as per the requirements and instructions of the Diving or ROV or Survey team Superintendents. However, Ultimate responsibility lies on the Master of the Vessel for the Safety of every Personnel onboard. In expanding the Utility of the vessel, just like Liveaboard Dive Boats, these vessels in addition to the usual domestic facilities expected by hotel guests, the vessel will have specialised Mix Gas Diving Compressors and Reclaim systems, Gas Storage and Gas Blending Facilites, as well as purpose built Saturation Chambers where the Divers in compression live; these Vessels are designed to be hired by Diving Service Providing Companies or directly by Oil and Gas Contractors who will hire a Diving or ROV or Survey Service Providing Company which will utilize the Vessel as platform to carry out their activities
INS Viraat was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier of the Indian Navy. INS Viraat was the flagship of the Indian Navy before INS Vikramaditya was commissioned in 2013; the ship was completed and commissioned in 1959 as the Royal Navy's HMS Hermes, decommissioned in 1984. It was sold to India in 1987. INS Viraat was commissioned into the Indian Navy on 12 May 1987, served for 30 years. In February 2015, the Navy stated; the last British-built ship serving with the Indian Navy, she was the oldest aircraft carrier in service in the world. On 23 July 2016, Viraat sailed for the last time under her own power from Mumbai to Kochi, where she was dry-docked and prepared for decommissioning, she was towed out of Kochi on 23 October. Viraat was formally decommissioned on 6 March 2017, it is proposed. INS Viraat had a 14° ski jump to operate the Sea Harrier along with a reinforced flight deck, 1.2 inches of armour over the magazines and machinery spaces. The magazine capacity included at least 80 lightweight torpedoes.
The vessel retained commando transport capability for up to 750 troops and carried four LCVP landing craft in the aft section. In a wartime scenario, the ship could carry up to 26 combat aircraft and was suited for supporting amphibious operations and conducting ASW operations; the aircraft on board INS Viraat were operated by four squadrons of the Naval air arm of the Indian Navy: Primary strike aircraft have been the Sea Harriers operating several modern missiles such as the British anti-ship Sea Eagle missile, the French Matra Magic missile for air-to-air combat. Other ordnance has included 68 mm rockets, runway-denial bombs, cluster bombs, podded 30 mm cannon. In 2006, the Indian Navy started the'Limited Upgrade Sea Harrier' program by upgrading up to 15 Sea Harriers in collaboration with Israel by installing the Elta EL/M-2032 radar and the Rafael'Derby' medium-range air-to-air BVR missile; the fleet consisted of Kamov Ka-31 Helix-B airborne early warning aircraft and Kamov Ka-28 Helix-A helicopters.
All Sea Harrier operations from the deck of INS Viraat ceased on 6 May 2016 following the retirement of Harrier fleet. INS Viraat was commissioned by the British Royal Navy as HMS Hermes on 18 November 1959, 15 years after she was laid down in June 1944, she served as the flagship of the Royal Navy's task force during the Falklands War in 1982 and was decommissioned from active duty in 1985. In April 1986, Hermes was towed from Portsmouth Dockyard to Devonport Dockyard to be refitted, re-activated and sold to India. After evaluating vessels from several countries, the Indian Navy purchased the vessel in April 1986 and gave her an extensive refit at Devonport Dockyard in Plymouth, England, to allow for continued carrier operations into the next decade. New fire control equipment, navigation radars, improved NBC protection, deck landing aids were installed in this refit. Boilers were converted to operate on distillate fuel. In September 1993, the engine room of the ship was flooded, putting the vessel out of service for several months.
The vessel was fitted with a new search radar. Between July 1999 and April 2001, the ship completed another life-extension refit expected to extend her serviceability until 2010; this refit upgraded propulsion systems, added a package of sensors to sound emergency alerts and introduced modern communication systems. In addition, a long-range surveillance radar, weapon systems, a new hangar with fire curtains were installed; the lift system was revamped to reduce reaction time in the event of an attack and a new flood alarm system was installed. The vessel took part in the International Fleet Review in Mumbai in February 2001; the vessel was towed back to dry dock for another refit in mid-2003 and returned to service in November 2004, during which the vessel was fitted with the Barak SAM. The ship underwent a fourth refit in Indian service from January to August 2009 at Cochin Shipyard, Kochi; the refit was expected to ensure her continued service in the Indian Navy until 2015, the ship went through exercises in the Arabian Sea for a month and a half before being deployed to the Gulf of Aden.
Navy officers reported that the carrier might be kept in service until 2020, as two Indigenous Aircraft Carriers seemed to be operational by then. On 12 July 2011, the ship arrived at Cochin shipyard for a short refit scheduled to be completed in two months and it was repainted. Indian Navy indicated that the ship could remain in service until 2020, provided that there are still Sea Harriers available for ship-borne operations. On 2 November 2012, the ship arrived in Kochi for the first part of a major two-phase refit. In the first phase, the hull was cleaned, probed for corrosion, worn hull plates were reinforced and received a fresh coat of corrosion-resistant paint; the carrier sailed to Mumbai for further upgrades to her machinery before rejoining the fleet in the summer of 2013. The refit would enable her to serve through 2016 and was the final major refit before her decommissioning. In August–September 2015, the ship underwent a short refit to reinforce her hull and inspection before her participation in the International Fleet Review in February 2016.
By 2013, Viraat's age and cost of maintenance prompted the navy to begin the process to obtain Defence Ministry clearance for her decommissioning. In February 2015, the navy announced plans to decommission the ship in 2016 and began the process to obtain Defence Ministry clearance for the carrier's decommiss
Kochi known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea. It is part of the district of Ernakulam in the state of Kerala and is referred to as Ernakulam. Kochi is the most densely populated city in Kerala; as of 2011, it has a corporation limit population of 677,381 within an area of 94.88 km² and a total urban population of more than of 2.1 million within an area of 440 km², making it the largest and the most populous metropolitan area in Kerala. Kochi city is part of the Greater Cochin region and is classified as a Tier-II city by the Government of India; the civic body that governs the city is the Kochi Municipal Corporation, constituted in the year 1967, the statutory bodies that oversee its development are the Greater Cochin Development Authority and the Goshree Islands Development Authority. Called the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the west coast of India from the 14th century onward, maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era.
Occupied by the Portuguese in 1503, Kochi was the first of the European colonies in colonial India. It remained the main seat of Portuguese India until 1530; the city was occupied by the Dutch and the British, with the Kingdom of Cochin becoming a princely state. Kochi ranks first in the total number of domestic tourist arrivals in Kerala; the city was ranked the sixth best tourist destination in India according to a survey conducted by the Nielsen Company on behalf of the Outlook Traveller magazine. Kochi was one of the 28 Indian cities among the emerging 440 global cities that will contribute 50% of the world GDP by the year 2025, in a 2011 study done by the McKinsey Global Institute. In July 2018, Kochi was ranked the topmost emerging future megacity in India by global professional services firm JLL. Kochi is known as the financial and industrial capital of Kerala, it has the highest GDP as well as the highest GDP per capita in the state. The city is home to the Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy and is the state headquarters of the Indian Coast Guard with an attached air squadron, named Air Squadron 747.
Commercial maritime facilities of the city include the Port of Kochi, an International Container Transshipment Terminal, the Cochin Shipyard, offshore SPM of the BPCL Kochi Refinery and the Kochi Marina. Kochi is home for the Cochin Stock Exchange, International Pepper Exchange, Marine Products Export Development Authority, Coconut Development Board, companies like HMT, Apollo Tyres and Synthite, petrochemical companies like the FACT, TCC, IREL, Petronet LNG, Merchem, HOCL and Kochi Refineries, electrical companies like TELK, V-Guard and industrial parks like the Cochin Special Economic Zone, Smart City and Kinfra Hi-Tech Park. Kochi is home for the High Court of Kerala and Lakshadweep, Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Indian Maritime University, Sree Sankaracharya Sanskrit University and the Cochin University of Science and Technology. Kochi is home to Kerala's National Law School, the National University of Advanced Legal Studies. Kochi has been hosting India's first art biennale, the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, since 2012, which attracts international artists and tourists.
Ancient travellers and tradesmen referred to Kochi, variously alluding to it as Cocym, Cochym and Kochi. The Cochin Jewish community called Cochin "Kogin", seen in the seal of the synagogue owned by the community; the origin of the name "Kochi" is thought to be from the Malayalam word kochu azhi, meaning'small lagoon'. Yet another theory is that Kochi is derived from the word Kaci, meaning "harbour". Accounts by Italian explorers Nicolo Conti, Fra Paoline in the 17th century say that it was called Kochchi, named after the river connecting the backwaters to the sea. After the arrival of the Portuguese, the British, the name Cochin stuck as the official appellation; the city reverted to a closer transliteration of its original Malayalam name, Kochi, in 1996. This change in name was challenged by the city municipal corporation but court dismissed the plea. Kochi was the centre of Indian spice trade for many centuries, was known to the Yavanas as well as Jews, Syrians and Chinese since ancient times.
It rose to significance as a trading centre after the port Muziris around Kodungallur was destroyed by massive flooding of Periyar in 1341. The earliest documented references to Kochi occur in books written by Chinese voyager Ma Huan during his visit to Kochi in the 15th century as part of Admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet. There are references to Kochi in accounts written by Italian traveller Niccolò Da Conti, who visited Kochi in 1440. On the Malabar coast during the early 15th century and Kochi were in an intense rivalry, so the Ming dynasty of China decided to intervene by granting special status to Kochi and its ruler known as Keyili to the Chinese. Calicut had been the dominant port-city in the region. For the fifth Ming treasure voyage, Admiral Zheng He was instructed to confer a seal upon Keyili of Kochi and enfeoff a mountain in his kingdom as the Zhenguo Zhi Shan. Zheng He delivered a stone tablet, inscribed with a proclamation composed by the Yongle Emperor himself, to Kochi; as long as Kochi remained under the protection of Ming China, the Zamorin of Calicut was unable to invade Kochi and a military conflict was averted.
The cessation of the Ming treasure voyages had negative results for Kochi, as the Zamorin of Calicut would launch
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming and recovering aircraft. It is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighters, strike aircraft and other types of aircraft. While heavier aircraft such as fixed-wing gunships and bombers have been launched from aircraft carriers, it is not possible to land them. By its diplomatic and tactical power, its mobility, its autonomy and the variety of its means, the aircraft carrier is the centerpiece of modern combat fleets. Tactically or strategically, it replaced the battleship in the role of flagship of a fleet. One of its great advantages is that, by sailing in international waters, it does not interfere with any territorial sovereignty and thus obviates the need for overflight authorizations from third party countries, reduce the times and transit distances of aircraft and therefore increase the time of availability on the combat zone.
There is no single definition of an "aircraft carrier", modern navies use several variants of the type. These variants are sometimes categorized as sub-types of aircraft carriers, sometimes as distinct types of naval aviation-capable ships. Aircraft carriers may be classified according to the type of aircraft they carry and their operational assignments. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, RN, former First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy, has said, "To put it countries that aspire to strategic international influence have aircraft carriers." Henry Kissinger, while United States Secretary of State said: "An aircraft carrier is 100,000 tons of diplomacy". As of April 2019, there are 41 active aircraft carriers in the world operated by thirteen navies; the United States Navy has 11 large nuclear-powered fleet carriers—carrying around 80 fighter jets each—the largest carriers in the world. As well as the aircraft carrier fleet, the U. S. Navy has nine amphibious assault ships used for helicopters, although these carry up to 20 vertical or short take-off and landing fighter jets and are similar in size to medium-sized fleet carriers.
China, India and the UK each operate a single large/medium-size carrier, with capacity from 30 to 60 fighter jets. Italy operates two light fleet carriers and Spain operates one. Helicopter carriers are operated by Japan, Australia, Brazil, South Korea, Thailand. Future aircraft carriers are under construction or in planning by Brazil, India, the United Kingdom, the United States. Amphibious assault ship Anti-submarine warfare carrier Balloon carrier and balloon tenders Escort carrier Fleet carrier Flight deck cruiser Helicopter carrier Light aircraft carrier Sea Control Ship Seaplane tender and seaplane carriers Aircraft cruiser A fleet carrier is intended to operate with the main fleet and provides an offensive capability; these are the largest carriers capable of fast speeds. By comparison, escort carriers were developed to provide defense for convoys of ships, they were slower with lower numbers of aircraft carried. Most were built from mercantile hulls or, in the case of merchant aircraft carriers, were bulk cargo ships with a flight deck added on top.
Light aircraft carriers were fast enough to operate with the main fleet but of smaller size with reduced aircraft capacity. The Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Kusnetsov was termed a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser; this was a legal construct to avoid the limitations of the Montreux Convention preventing'aircraft carriers' transiting the Turkish Straits between the Soviet Black Sea bases and the Mediterranean. These ships, while sized in the range of large fleet carriers, were designed to deploy alone or with escorts. In addition to supporting fighter aircraft and helicopters, they provide both strong defensive weaponry and heavy offensive missiles equivalent to a guided missile cruiser. Aircraft carriers today are divided into the following four categories based on the way that aircraft take off and land: Catapult-assisted take-off barrier arrested-recovery: these carriers carry the largest and most armed aircraft, although smaller CATOBAR carriers may have other limitations. All CATOBAR carriers in service today are nuclear powered.
Two nations operate carriers of this type: ten Nimitz class and one Gerald R. Ford class fleet carriers by the United States, one medium-sized carrier by France, for a world total of twelve in service. Short take-off but arrested-recovery: these carriers are limited to carrying lighter fixed-wing aircraft with more limited payloads. STOBAR carrier air wings, such as the Sukhoi Su-33 and future Mikoyan MiG-29K wings of Admiral Kuznetsov are geared towards air superiority and fleet defense roles rather than strike/power projection tasks, which require heavier payloads. Today China and Russia each operate one carrier of this type – a total of three in service currently. Short take-off vertical-landing: limited to carrying STOVL aircraft. STOVL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet family and Yakovlev Yak-38 have limited payloads, lower perfor
A tanker is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, gas carrier. Tankers carry commodities such as vegetable oils and wine. In the United States Navy and Military Sealift Command, a tanker used to refuel other ships is called an oiler but many other navies use the terms tanker and replenishment tanker. Tankers can range in size of capacity from several hundred tons, which includes vessels for servicing small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, for long-range haulage. Besides ocean- or seagoing tankers there are specialized inland-waterway tankers which operate on rivers and canals with an average cargo capacity up to some thousand tons. A wide range of products are carried by tankers, including: Hydrocarbon products such as oil, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas Chemicals, such as ammonia and styrene monomer Fresh water Wine Molasses Citrus juice Tankers are a new concept, dating from the years of the 19th century.
Before this, technology had not supported the idea of carrying bulk liquids. The market was not geared towards transporting or selling cargo in bulk, therefore most ships carried a wide range of different products in different holds and traded outside fixed routes. Liquids were loaded in casks—hence the term "tonnage", which refers to the volume of the holds in terms of how many tuns or casks of wine could be carried. Potable water, vital for the survival of the crew, was stowed in casks. Carrying bulk liquids in earlier ships posed several problems: The holds: on timber ships the holds were not sufficiently water, oil or air-tight to prevent a liquid cargo from spoiling or leaking; the development of iron and steel hulls solved this problem. Loading and discharging: Bulk liquids must be pumped - the development of efficient pumps and piping systems was vital to the development of the tanker. Steam engines were developed as prime-movers for early pumping systems. Dedicated cargo handling facilities were now required ashore too - as was a market for receiving a product in that quantity.
Casks could be unloaded using ordinary cranes, the awkward nature of the casks meant that the volume of liquid was always small - therefore keeping the market more stable. Free surface effect: a large body of liquid carried aboard a ship will impact on the ship's stability when the liquid is flowing around the hold or tank in response to the ship's movements; the effect was negligible in casks, but could cause capsizing if the tank extended the width of the ship. Tankers were first used by the oil industry to transfer refined fuel in bulk from refineries to customers; this would be stored in large tanks ashore, subdivided for delivery to individual locations. The use of tankers caught on because other liquids were cheaper to transport in bulk, store in dedicated terminals subdivide; the Guinness brewery used tankers to transport the stout across the Irish Sea. Different products require different handling and transport, with specialised variants such as "chemical tankers", "oil tankers", "LNG carriers" developed to handle dangerous chemicals and oil-derived products, liquefied natural gas respectively.
These broad variants may be further differentiated with respect to ability to carry only a single product or transport mixed cargoes such as several different chemicals or refined petroleum products. Among oil tankers, supertankers are designed for transporting oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East; the supertanker Seawise Giant, scrapped in 2010, was 458 meters in length and 69 meters wide. Supertankers are one of the three preferred methods for transporting large quantities of oil, along with pipeline transport and rail. Despite being regulated, tankers have been involved in environmental disasters resulting from oil spills. Amoco Cadiz, Erika, Exxon Valdez and Torrey Canyon were examples of coastal accidents. Many modern tankers are designed for a specific route. Draft is limited by the depth of water in loading and unloading harbors. Cargoes with high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures may require pressurized tanks or vapor recovery systems. Tank heaters may be required to maintain heavy crude oil, residual fuel, wax, or molasses in a fluid state for offloading.
Tankers used for liquid fuels are classified according to their capacity. In 1954, Shell Oil developed the average freight rate assessment system, which classifies tankers of different sizes. To make it an independent instrument, Shell consulted the London Tanker Brokers’ Panel. At first, they divided the groups as General Purpose for tankers under 25,000 tons deadweight; the ships became larger during the 1970s, the list was extended, where the tons are long tons: 10,000–24,999 DWT: Small tanker 25,000–34,999 DWT: Intermediate tanker 35,000–44,999 DWT: Medium Range 1 45,000–54,999 DWT: Medium Range 2 55,000–79,999 DWT: Large Range 1 80,000–159,999 DWT: Large Range 2 160,000–319,999 DWT: Very Large Crude Carrier 320,000–549,999 DWT: Ultra Large Crude Carrier Very Large Crude Carrier size rangeAt nearly 380 vessels in the size range 279,000 t DWT to 320,000 t DWT, these are by far the most popular size range among the larger
Government of India
The Government of India abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in the capital of India. Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state, the union government is composed of the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister and the supreme court; the President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, the Rajya Sabha the upper house; the judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, the criminal procedure code.
Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law; the full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases; the terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are used and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi; the powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
The Lok Sabha is considered the House of the people. The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court. However, it does exercise some control over the executive; the members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha; the Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved; the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term. The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy; the division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The executive power is vested in the President of India, as per Article 53 of the constitution.
The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53. The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India; the council of ministers remains in power during the'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha; the president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the president, as the head of state receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time in cases involving punishment of death; the decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister; the vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president; the vice president has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The