The term cockney has had several distinct geographical and linguistic associations. A pejorative term applied to all city-dwellers, it was restricted to Londoners, to "Bow-bell Cockneys": those born within earshot of Bow Bells, the bells of St Mary-le-Bow in the Cheapside district of the City of London, it came to be used to refer to those in London's East End, or to all working-class Londoners generally. Cockney English is the dialect of English traditionally spoken by working-class Londoners. In the 1980s, some features of cockney became more frequent in broadcasting, the media began to speak of a new standard called Estuary English, but most linguists rejected this analysis and the term is less used now; the earliest recorded use of the term is 1362 in passus VI of William Langland's Piers Plowman, where it is used to mean "a small, misshapen egg", from Middle English coken + ey. Concurrently, the mythical land of luxury Cockaigne appeared under a variety of spellings, including Cockayne and Cockney, became humorously associated with the English capital London.
The present meaning of cockney comes from its use among rural Englishmen as a pejorative term for effeminate town-dwellers, from an earlier general sense of a "cokenay" as "a child tenderly brought up" and, by extension, "an effeminate fellow" or "a milksop". This may have developed from the sources above or separately, alongside such terms as "cock" and "cocker" which both have the sense of "to make a nestle-cock... or darling of", "to indulge or pamper". By 1600, this meaning of cockney was being associated with the Bow Bells area. In 1617, the travel writer Fynes Moryson stated in his Itinerary that "Londoners, all within the sound of Bow Bells, are in reproach called Cockneys." The same year, John Minsheu included the term in this newly restricted sense in his dictionary Ductor in Linguas. The region in which cockneys are thought to reside is not defined; when London consisted of little more than the City, the term applied to all Londoners, but as the city grew this was replaced by less universal definitions.
A common view is that in order to be a cockney, one must have been born within earshot of Bow Bells, the bells of St Mary-le-Bow, which were cast at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry. However, the church of St Mary-le-Bow was destroyed in 1666 by the Great Fire of London and rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren. Although the bells were destroyed again in 1941 in the Blitz, they had fallen silent on 13 June 1940 as part of the British anti-invasion preparations of World War II. Before they were replaced in 1961, there was a period when, by the "within earshot" definition, no "Bow Bell" cockneys could be born; the use of such a literal definition produces other problems, since the area around the church is no longer residential and the noise of the area makes it unlikely that many people would now be born within earshot of the bells, there were in the past, several hospitals in audible range. The terms “East End of London” and “within the sound of bow bells” are used interchangeably, the bells are a symbol of East End identity.
However the Bow Bells definition reflects the earlier definition of Cockney as relating to all Londoners (at a time when London extended beyond the square mile. The use of the term to describe all Londoners however, survived into the 19th century before becoming restricted to the working class and their particular accent; the term is now used loosely to describe all East Londoners, irrespective of their speech. A study was carried out by the City in 2000 to see how far away Bow Bells could be heard, it was estimated that the bells would have been heard up to six miles to the east, five miles to the north, three miles to the south, four miles to the west. According to the legend of Dick Whittington the bells could once be heard from as far away as the Highgate Archway. Based on a definition of the bells audible range, all East Enders are cockneys, but not all cockneys are East Enders; the traditional core districts of the East End are Bethnal Green, Spitalfields, Wapping, Poplar, Aldgate, Millwall, Cubitt Town, Hoxton and Mile End.
The area north of the Thames expanded to include East Ham, Leyton, West Ham and Plaistow as more land was built upon. Writing in 1981, the dialectologist Peter Wright identified the building of the Becontree estate near Dagenham in Essex as influential in the spread of cockney dialect; this large estate was built by the Corporation of London to house poor residents of London's East End on what was a rural area of Essex, the residents kept their native cockney dialect rather than adopt an Essex dialect. Wright reports that cockney dialect spread along the main railway routes to towns in the surrounding counties as early as 1923, cockney spread further after World War II as many refugees left London owing to the bombing, but continued to speak cockney in their new homes. Danny Baker Michael Caine Alfie Bass actor from Bethnal Green. Charlie Chaplin Alan Ford, Steve Har
Solo discography of the Blur guitarist and member Graham Coxon. Live at the Zodiac Download only EP Burnt to Bitz: At the Astoria Limited edition CD and download Live at the Zodiac Great Xpectations - "For Tomorrow" The Pink Floyd & Syd Barrett Story - "Love You" The Xfm Sessions - "Dawn Said" Sleeper - Smart Assembly Line People - Subdivision of Being Idlewild - "Rusty" Mower - Mower Beastie Boys - "Triple Trouble" Lowgold - "Beauty Dies Young" Sham 69 - "Hurry Up England - The People's Anthem" Ed Harcourt - The Beautiful Lie Crisis featuring Beth Ditto, Paul Weller, The Enemy, Supergrass - "Consequences" John McCusker - Under One Sky Paul Weller - 22 Dreams Pete Doherty - Grace/Wastelands Gorillaz - Humanz Gorillaz - The Now Now Blur discography Damon Albarn discography Graham Coxon discography at Discogs Graham Coxon discography at AllMusic Graham Coxon discography at MusicBrainz
Jeanie Marie Buss is the controlling owner and president of the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. Buss is a daughter of Jerry Buss, a real estate investor who owned the Lakers and other sports businesses. At age 19, she started in the family business as general manager of the Los Angeles Strings professional tennis team. Buss became the owner of the Los Angeles Blades professional roller hockey team, she was president of the Great Western Forum before becoming vice president of the Lakers. After Buss's father died in 2013, his controlling ownership of the Lakers passed to his six children via a family trust, with each sibling receiving an equal vote. Buss represents the Lakers on the NBA Board of Governors. Born in Santa Monica, Buss was the third of four children to Joann and Jerry Buss, one of two daughters, their parents divorced in 1972, leaving Buss feeling abandoned. At age 14, Buss attended World Team Tennis meetings with her dad; when she was 17, she moved in with her dad at Pickfair.
She became so familiar with the estate. Buss attended college at the University of Southern California, where she majored in business and graduated with honors. World TeamTennis folded in 1978, was revived in 1981 as TeamTennis. Jerry once again owned the second incarnation of the Strings, he appointed the 19-year-old Buss as the general manager while she was studying at USC. "Basically, my dad bought me the team," said Buss. After the Strings folded in 1993, Buss brought professional roller hockey to Los Angeles as owner of the Los Angeles Blades in Roller Hockey International; the league named her Executive of the Year. Buss served four years as president of the Great Western Forum the home arena of the Lakers. Throughout her stint with the Forum, her role with the Lakers increased, she served as the Alternate Governor on the NBA Board of Governors since 1995. In 1999, she was named executive vice president of business operations for the Lakers, her brother Jim was promoted to vice president of player personnel in 2005.
Their father's plan was to have Buss handle the business decisions of the team, while Jim handled the basketball side of the Lakers. Sporting News in 2005 named Buss as one of the Top 20 Most Influential Women in Sports. In 2011, Forbes called Buss "one of few powerful women in sports management", ESPN said she is "one of the most powerful women in the NBA". After her father died in 2013, his 66% controlling ownership of the Lakers passed to his six children via a trust, with each child receiving an equal vote. Jerry's succession plan had Buss assume his previous title as the Lakers' governor as well as its team representative at NBA Board of Governors meetings; that summer, Buss commented that "I would be more comfortable if I understood what the decision process was, I’m not always involved in it." In 2013–14, she became president of the Lakers. Buss terminated Mitch Kupchak as General Manager and accepted the resignation of her brother Jim as VP of Basketball Operations on February 21, 2017, installing Magic Johnson as President of Basketball Operations.
Johnson, who played for the Lakers from 1979–91 and in 1996, had served as VP, part-owner of the organization. Buss would hire sports agent Rob Pelinka to be the new general manager. Buss divorced after three years. According to Buss, "I never put my marriage first... It was always business which attracted me." She posed nude in the May 1995 issue of Playboy. She was engaged to former Lakers coach and former New York Knicks President Phil Jackson, whom she began dating in December 1999. On December 27, 2016, Jackson released a statement announcing the termination of their engagement. Buss, Jeanie. Laker Girl. Triumph Books. ISBN 9781600785115. Sports portal Media related to Jeanie Buss at Wikimedia Commons