A cocktail is alcoholic mixed drink, either a combination of spirits, or one or more spirits mixed with other ingredients such as fruit juice, flavored syrup, or cream. There are various types of cocktails, based on the kind of ingredients added; the origins of the cocktail are debated. The Oxford Dictionaries define cocktail as "An alcoholic drink consisting of a spirit or spirits mixed with other ingredients, such as fruit juice or cream". A cocktail can contain alcohol, a sugar, a bitter/citrus; when a mixed drink contains only a distilled spirit and a mixer, such as soda or fruit juice, it is a highball. Many of the International Bartenders Association Official Cocktails are highballs; when a mixed drink contains only a distilled spirit and a liqueur, it is a duo, when it adds a mixer, it is a trio. Additional ingredients may be sugar, milk and various herbs. Mixed drinks without alcohol that resemble cocktails are known as "mocktails" or "virgin cocktails"; the origin of the word cocktail is disputed.
The first recorded use of cocktail not referring to a horse is found in The Morning Post and Gazetteer in London, March 20, 1798: The Oxford English Dictionary cites the word as originating in the U. S; the first recorded use of cocktail as a beverage in the United States appears in The Farmer's Cabinet, April 28, 1803: Drank a glass of cocktail—excellent for the head... Call'd at the Doct's. found Burnham—he looked wise—drank another glass of cocktail. The first definition of cocktail known to be an alcoholic beverage appeared in The Balance and Columbian Repository May 13, 1806, it is said to be of great use to a democratic candidate: because a person, having swallowed a glass of it, is ready to swallow any thing else. Etymologist Anatoly Liberman endorses as "highly probable" the theory advanced by Låftman, which Liberman summarizes as follows: It was customary to dock the tails of horses that were not thoroughbred... They were called cocktailed horses simply cocktails. By extension, the word cocktail was applied to a vulgar, ill-bred person raised above his station, assuming the position of a gentleman but deficient in gentlemanly breeding....
Of importance is... the mention of water as an ingredient.... Låftman concluded that cocktail was an acceptable alcoholic drink, but diluted, not a "purebred", a thing "raised above its station". Hence the appropriate slang word used earlier about inferior horses and sham gentlemen. In his book Imbibe!, David Wondrich speculates that cocktail is a reference to a practice for perking up an old horse by means of a ginger suppository so that the animal would "cock its tail up and be frisky."Several authors have theorized that cocktail may be a corruption of cock ale. There is a lack of clarity on the origins of cocktails. Traditionally cocktails were a mixture of spirits, sugar and bitters. By the 1860s, however, a cocktail included a liqueur; the first publication of a bartenders' guide which included cocktail recipes was in 1862 – How to Mix Drinks. In addition to recipes for punches, slings, shrubs, flips, a variety of other mixed drinks were 10 recipes for "cocktails". A key ingredient differentiating cocktails from other drinks in this compendium was the use of bitters.
Mixed drinks popular today that conform to this original meaning of "cocktail" include the Old Fashioned whiskey cocktail, the Sazerac cocktail, the Manhattan cocktail. The ingredients listed match the ingredients of an Old Fashioned, which originated as a term used by late 19th century bar patrons to distinguish cocktails made the "old-fashioned" way from newer, more complex cocktails. In the 1869 recipe book Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks, by William Terrington, cocktails are described as: Cocktails are compounds much used by "early birds" to fortify the inner man, by those who like their consolations hot and strong; the term highball appears during the 1890s to distinguish a drink composed only of a distilled spirit and a mixer. The first "cocktail party" thrown was by Mrs. Julius S. Walsh Jr. of St. Louis, Missouri, in May 1917. Walsh invited 50 guests to her home at noon on a Sunday; the party lasted an hour. The site of this first cocktail party still stands. In 1924, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. Louis bought the Walsh mansion at 4510 Lindell Boulevard, it has served as the local archbishop's residence since.
During Prohibition in the United States, when alcoholic beverages were illegal, cocktails were still consumed illegally in establishments known as speakeasies. The quality of the liquor available during Prohibition was much worse than previously. There was a shift from whiskey to gin, which does not require aging and is therefore easier to produce illicitly. Honey, fruit juices, other flavorings served to mask the foul taste of the inferior liquors. Sweet cocktails were easier to drink an important consideration when the establishment might be raided at any moment. With wine and beer less available, liquor-based cocktails took their place becoming the centerpiece of the new cocktail party. Cocktails became less popular in the late 1960s and through the 1970s, until resurging in the 1980s wit
SubArachnoid Space was a San Francisco, California-based psychedelic rock band founded in 1996 by Mason Jones, the owner of the independent music label Charnel Music. The band was a trio and the debut 7" single release was by the trio. Before the band's first live show, performed at KFJC radio, second guitarist Melynda Jackson joined; that quartet toured for a few years before Michelle moved to Texas and Chris Van Huffle joined as drummer. The role of bassist shifted several times from that point on but the rest of the lineup remained consistent until 2003, when Mason left the group so they could tour more. Shortly thereafter the band's core of Melynda and Chris relocated to Portland Oregon, where they continued to perform and release albums; the band completed a fall tour of the US with the Italian group OVO in September/October 2009 before disbanding on August 13, 2010. This was accompanied by a farewell show at Mississippi studios. Melynda Jackson and Chris Van Huffle went on to form Eight Bells.
"Char-Broiled Wonderland" 7-inch single, Charnel Music Delicate Membrane, Charnel Music Ether Or, Unit Circle Records Almost Invisible, Release Records Endless Renovation, Release Records The Sleeping Sickness, Elsie & Jack These Things Take Time, Release Records A New and Exact Map, September Gurls Tigris / Euphrates split LP with Bardo Pond, Camera Obscura Also Rising, Strange Attractors The Red Veil, Strange Attractors Eight Bells, Crucial Blast Melynda Jackson – guitar Chris Van Huffel – drums Daniel Barone – bass Erik Moggridge – guitar Mason Jones – guitar Andey Koa Stephens– bass guitar Chris Cones – guitar Diego Gonzalez – bass guitar Stooert Odom – bass guitar Michael Shiono - bass Rus Archer - guitar Daniel Osborne - guitar Lauren K. Newman - drums Bryan Sours - drums Oregonian Sound Check: Band's biography / discography Official site Official MySpace Band's site on Epitonic
Marcelo Germán Montoya is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Argentine Primera División side Belgrano. Montoya started his professional career with Belgrano in the 2000 Apertura of the Primera División, he became a starter for Belgrano during the 2006 Clausura of the Primera B Nacional, relegating Colombian international Róbinson Zapata to the bench. Belgrano was promoted at the end of the season and Montoya played his first full season in the first division in the 2006–07. However, his team was relegated at the end of the season. After Belgrano's relegation, Montoya stayed in the first division, being transferred to Vélez Sársfield. At first, he was a substitute for Sebastián Peratta, but became a starter from the 12th fixture onwards due to a knee injury suffered by Peratta. During the 2008 Apertura, Montoya was a starter, but was relegated by Marcelo Barovero by the end of the tournament. Subsequently, when Ricardo Gareca replaced Hugo Tocalli as the team's coach for the 2009 Clausura, Montoya regained his position as a starter.
Vélez won the tournament and Montoya had the lowest goals-to-games ratio, therefore being awarded the Ubaldo Fillol Award. During the 2010 Apertura, Montoya lost his place again to Barovero, played only when the new starter was injured, he was an un-used substitute in Vélez' 2011 Clausura winning campaign. In 2016, Montoya signed for Atletico Rafaela. Six months he rejoined former club Belgrano. Vélez SársfieldArgentine Primera División: 2009 Clausura, 2011 Clausura, 2012 Inicial, 2012–13 SuperfinalIndividualUbaldo Fillol Award: 2009 Clausura Profile at Vélez Sársfield official website Argentine Primera statistics at Fútbol XXI Germán Montoya at Soccerway