In geomorphology, a butte is an isolated hill with steep vertical sides and a small flat top. The word "butte" comes from a French word meaning "small hill"; because of their distinctive shapes, buttes are landmarks in plains and mountainous areas. In differentiating mesas and buttes, geographers use the rule of thumb that a mesa has a top, wider than its height, while a butte has a top, narrower than its height; the Mitten Buttes of Monument Valley in Arizona are two of the most distinctive and recognized buttes. Monument Valley and the Mittens provided backgrounds in scenes from many western-themed films, including seven movies directed by John Ford; the Devils Tower in northeastern Wyoming is a laccolithic butte composed of igneous rock rather than sandstone, limestone or other sedimentary rocks. Three other notable formations that are either named butte or may be considered buttes though they do not conform to the formal geographer's rule are Scotts Bluff in Nebraska, a collection of five bluffs, Crested Butte, a 12,168 ft mountain in Colorado, Elephant Butte, now an island in Elephant Butte Reservoir in New Mexico.
Among the well-known non-flat-topped buttes in the United States are Bear Butte, South Dakota, Black Butte and the Sutter Buttes in California. In many cases, buttes have been given other names that do not use the word butte, for example, Courthouse Rock, Nebraska; some large hills that are technically not buttes have names using the word butte, examples of which are Kamiak Butte and Chelan Butte in Washington state. Buttes form by weathering and erosion when hard caprock overlies a layer of less resistant rock, worn away; the harder rock on top of the butte resists erosion. The caprock provides protection for the less resistant rock below from wind abrasion which leaves it standing isolated; as the top is further eroded by abrasion and weathering, the excess material that falls off adds to the scree or talus slope around the base. On a much smaller scale, the same process forms hoodoos. Media related to Buttes at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of butte at Wiktionary "Butte". Collier's New Encyclopedia.
1921. "Butte". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
A cinder cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, volcanic ash, or cinder, built around a volcanic vent. They consist of loose pyroclastic debris formed by explosive eruptions or lava fountains from a single cylindrical, vent; as the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as either cinders, clinkers, or scoria around the vent to form a cone, symmetrical. Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit; the rock fragments called cinders or scoria, are glassy and contain numerous gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and cooled quickly. Cinder cones range in size from tens to hundreds of meters tall. Cinder cones are made of pyroclastic material. Many cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit. During the waning stage of a cinder-cone eruption, the magma has lost most of its gas content; this gas-depleted magma does not fountain but oozes into the crater or beneath the base of the cone as lava.
Lava issues from the top because the loose, uncemented cinders are too weak to support the pressure exerted by molten rock as it rises toward the surface through the central vent. Because it contains so few gas bubbles, the molten lava is denser than the bubble-rich cinders. Thus, it burrows out along the bottom of the cinder cone, lifting the less dense cinders like a cork on water, advances outward, creating a lava flow around the cone's base; when the eruption ends, a symmetrical cone of cinders sits at the center of a surrounding pad of lava. If the crater is breached, the remaining walls form an amphitheatre or horseshoe shape around the vent. Cinder cones are found on the flanks of shield volcanoes and calderas. For example, geologists have identified nearly 100 cinder cones on the flanks of Mauna Kea, a shield volcano located on the island of Hawaii; these cones are referred to as'scoria cones' and'cinder and spatter cones.'The most famous cinder cone, grew out of a corn field in Mexico in 1943 from a new vent.
Eruptions continued for nine years, built the cone to a height of 424 meters, produced lava flows that covered 25 km². The Earth's most active cinder cone is Cerro Negro in Nicaragua, it is part of a group of four young cinder cones NW of Las Pilas volcano. Since its initial eruption in 1850, it has erupted more than 20 times, most in 1995 and 1999. Based on satellite images it was suggested that cinder cones might occur on other terrestrial bodies in the solar system too, they were reported on the flanks of Pavonis Mons in Tharsis, in the region of Hydraotes Chaos on the bottom of the Coprates Chasma, or in the volcanic field Ulysses Colles. It is suggested that domical structures in Marius Hills might represent lunar cinder cones; the size and shape of cinder cones depend on environmental properties as different gravity and/or atmospheric pressure might change the dispersion of ejected scoria particles. For example, cinder cones on Mars seem to be more than two times wider than terrestrial analogues as lower atmospheric pressure and gravity enable wider dispersion of ejected particles over a larger area.
Therefore, it seems that erupted amount of material is not sufficient on Mars for the flank slopes to attain the angle of repose and Martian cinder cones seem to be ruled by ballistic distribution and not by material redistribution on flanks as typical on Earth. Some cinder cones are monogenetic -- the result of a never-to-be-repeated eruption. Parícutin in Mexico, Diamond Head, Koko Head, Punchbowl Crater and some cinder cones on Mauna Kea are monogenetic cinder cones. Monogenetic eruptions can last for more than 10 years. Parícutin erupted from 1943 to 1952. List of cinder cones Volcanic cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape Capulin Volcano National Monument
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра from the Kildin Sami word тӯндар meaning "uplands", "treeless mountain tract". Tundra vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs and grasses, lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra regions; the ecotone between the tundra and the forest is known as timberline. There are three regions and associated types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, Antarctic tundra. Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt; the word "tundra" refers only to the areas where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. Permafrost tundra includes vast areas of northern Canada; the polar tundra is home to several peoples who are nomadic reindeer herders, such as the Nganasan and Nenets in the permafrost area. Arctic tundra is frozen for much of the year; the soil there is frozen from 25 to 90 cm down. Instead and sometimes rocky land can only support certain kinds of Arctic vegetation, low growing plants such as moss and lichen.
There are two main seasons and summer, in the polar tundra areas. During the winter it is cold and dark, with the average temperature around −28 °C, sometimes dipping as low as −50 °C. However, extreme cold temperatures on the tundra do not drop as low as those experienced in taiga areas further south. During the summer, temperatures rise somewhat, the top layer of seasonally-frozen soil melts, leaving the ground soggy; the tundra is covered in marshes, lakes and streams during the warm months. Daytime temperatures during the summer rise to about 12 °C but can drop to 3 °C or below freezing. Arctic tundras are sometimes the subject of habitat conservation programs. In Canada and Russia, many of these areas are protected through a national Biodiversity Action Plan. Tundra tends to be windy, with winds blowing upwards of 50–100 km/h. However, in terms of precipitation, it is desert-like, with only about 15–25 cm falling per year. Although precipitation is light, evaporation is relatively minimal. During the summer, the permafrost thaws just enough to let plants grow and reproduce, but because the ground below this is frozen, the water cannot sink any lower, so the water forms the lakes and marshes found during the summer months.
There is a natural pattern of accumulation of fuel and wildfire which varies depending on the nature of vegetation and terrain. Research in Alaska has shown fire-event return intervals that vary from 150 to 200 years, with dryer lowland areas burning more than wetter highland areas; the biodiversity of tundra is low: 1,700 species of vascular plants and only 48 species of land mammals can be found, although millions of birds migrate there each year for the marshes. There are a few fish species. There are few species with large populations. Notable animals in the Arctic tundra include reindeer, musk ox, Arctic hare, Arctic fox, snowy owl and polar bears near the ocean. Tundra is devoid of poikilotherms such as frogs or lizards. Due to the harsh climate of Arctic tundra, regions of this kind have seen little human activity though they are sometimes rich in natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas and uranium. In recent times this has begun to change in Alaska and some other parts of the world: for example, the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug produces 90% of Russia's natural gas.
A severe threat to tundra is global warming. The melting of the permafrost in a given area on human time scales could radically change which species can survive there. Another concern is that about one third of the world's soil-bound carbon is in taiga and tundra areas; when the permafrost melts, it releases carbon in the form of carbon dioxide and methane, both of which are greenhouse gases. The effect has been observed in Alaska. In the 1970s the tundra was a carbon sink. Methane is produced when vegetation decays in wetlands; the amount of greenhouse gases which will be released under projected scenarios for global warming have not been reliably quantified by scientific studies, although a few studies were reported to be underway in 2011. It is uncertain whether the impact of increased greenhouse gases from this source will be minimal or massive. In locations where dead vegetation and peat has accumulated, there is a risk of wildfire, such as the 1,039 km2 of tundra which burned in 2007 on the north slope of the Brooks Range in Alaska.
Such events may both contribute to global warming. Antarctic tundra occurs on Antarctica and on several Antarctic and subantarctic islands, including South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the Kerguelen Islands. Most of Antarctica is too cold and dry to support vegetation, most of the continent is covered by ice fields. However, some portions of the continent the Antarctic Peninsula, have areas of rocky soil that support plant life; the flora presently consists of around 300–400 lichens, 100 mosses, 25 liverworts, aro
Yavapai are a Native American tribe in Arizona. The Yavapai – “people of the sun” – were divided into four geographical bands who identified as separate, independent peoples: the Ɖo:lkabaya, or Western Yavapai. Another Yavapai band, which no longer exists, was the Mađqwadabaya or "Desert People." Its people are believed to have mixed with the Quechan peoples. The Yavapai have much in common with their linguistic relatives to the north, the Havasupai and the Hualapai; the Yavapai were mistaken as Apache by American settlers, who referred to them as "Mohave-Apache," "Yuma-Apache," or "Tonto-Apache". Before the 1860s, when settlers began exploring for gold in the area, the Yavapai occupied an area of 20,000 mi² bordering the San Francisco Peaks to the north, the Pinaleno Mountains and Mazatzal Mountains to the southeast, the Colorado River to the west, to the Gila River and the Salt River to the south. Before being confined to reservations, the Yavapai were hunter-gatherers, following an annual round, migrating to different areas to follow the ripening of different edible plants and movement of game.
Some tribes supplemented this diet with small-scale cultivation of the "three sisters" – maize and beans – in fertile streambeds. In particular, the Ɖo:lkabaya, who lived in lands that were less supportive of food gathering, turned to agriculture more than other Yavapai, they had to work to cultivate crops, as their land was less supportive of agriculture. In turn, Ɖo:lkabaya traded items such as animal skins and agave to Quechan groups for food; the main plant foods gathered were walnuts, saguaro fruits, juniper berries, sunflower seeds, manzanita berries and apples, the bulbs of the Quamash, the greens of the Lamb's quarters and Lupinus plants. Agave was the most crucial harvest, as it was the only plant food available from late fall through early spring; the hearts of the plant were roasted in stone-lined pits, could be stored for use. Primary animals hunted were deer, jackrabbit and woodrat. Fish and water-borne birds were eschewed by most Yavapai groups; some groups of Tolkepaya began eating fish after contact with their Quechan neighbors.
The early Yavapai practiced traditional dances such as the Mountain Spirit Dance, War Dances, Victory Dances and Social Dances. The Mountain Spirit dance was a masked dance, used for guidance or healing of a sick person; the masked dancers represented Mountain Spirits, who were believed by Yavapai to dwell in Four Peaks, McDowell Mountains, Red Mountain, Mingus Mountain- near Camp Verde, Granite Mountain near present-day Prescott. The Yavapai believe that the Mountain Spirits dwelled in the caves of Montezuma Castle and Montezuma Well in the Verde Valley; the modern Yavapai take part in several dances and singing, such as the Apache Sunrise Dance and the Bird Singing and Dancing of the Mojave people. The Sunrise Dance Ceremony is not an ancient Yavapai ceremony. Apache and Yavapai intermarried and adopted elements of each other's cultures; the Sunrise Dance is a four-day rite-of-transition for young Apache girls, which takes place from March through October. The sunrise dance is an ancient practice, unique to the Apache.
It is related to the myth of the Changing Woman, a powerful figure in Apache culture, believed to grant longevity. The power of Changing Woman is transferred to the pubescent girl through songs sung by the Medicine Man. A medicine man is joined by other tribal members in singing a series of songs, up to 32 which are believed to have first been sung by Changing Woman. Bird Singing and Dancing Originally part of the culture of the Mojave people of the Colorado River region, bird singing and dancing has been adopted by modern Yavapai culture. Bird singing and dancing does not belong to the Yavapai people as a whole but this practice has been picked up by different tribes of the Yuman family. According to Mohave elders, the bird songs tell a story. An entire night is needed to sing the whole cycle, from sun down to sun up; this story tells the creation of the Yuman people. Bird songs are sung accompanied by a gourd painted with various designs and made with a handle made of cottonwood. Modern bird singing and dancing is used for various purposes such as mourning and social purposes.
The Yavapai built. In summer, they built simple lean-tos without walls. During winter months, closed huts would be built of ocotillo branches or other wood and covered with animal skins, bark, and/or dirt. In the Colorado River area, Ɖo:lkabaya built Uwađ a'mađva, a rectangular hut, that had dirt piled up against its sides for insulation, a flat roof, they sought shelter in caves or abandoned pueblos to escape the cold. The Yavapai main social-political organization were local groups of extended families, which were identified with certain geographic regions in which they resided; these local groups would form bands in times of raiding or defense. For most of Yavapai history, the family was the focal group, extended; this is because most food-providing sites were not large enough to support larger populations. However, exceptions are known. Near Fish Creek, was Ananyiké (Quail's Roos
Pinus ponderosa known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, or western yellow-pine, is a large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada. It is the most distributed pine species in North America, it grows in various erect forms from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 western U. S. states and has been introduced in temperate regions of Europe. It was first documented into modern science in 1826 in eastern Washington near present-day Spokane. On that occasion, David Douglas misidentified it as Pinus resinosa. In 1829, Douglas concluded that he had a new pine among his specimens and coined the name Pinus ponderosa for its heavy wood. In 1836, it was formally described by Charles Lawson, a Scottish nurseryman, it is the official state tree of Montana. Pinus ponderosa is a large coniferous pine tree; the bark helps to distinguish it from other species. Mature to over-mature individuals have yellow to orange-red bark in broad to broad plates with black crevices.
Younger trees have blackish-brown bark, referred to as "blackjacks" by early loggers. Ponderosa pine's five subspecies, as classified by some botanists, can be identified by their characteristically bright-green needles; the Pacific subspecies has the longest—7.8 in —and most flexible needles in plume-like fascicles of three. The Columbia ponderosa pine has long—4.7–8.1 in —and flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Rocky Mountains subspecies has shorter—3.6–5.7 in —and stout needles growing in scopulate fascicles of two or three. The southwestern subspecies has 4.4–7.8 in, stout needles in fascicles of three. The central High Plains subspecies is characterized by the fewest needles. Needles are widest and fewest for the species. Sources differ on the scent of P. ponderosa. Some state. Others state that it has no distinctive scent, while still others state that the bark smells like vanilla if sampled from a furrow of the bark. Sources agree that the Jeffrey pine is more scented than the ponderosa pine.
The National Register of Big Trees lists a Ponderosa Pine, 235 ft tall and 324 in in circumference. In January 2011, a Pacific ponderosa pine in the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon was measured with a laser to be 268.35 ft high. The measurement was performed by Michael Taylor and Mario Vaden, a professional arborist from Oregon; the tree was climbed on October 13, 2011, by Ascending The Giants and directly measured with tape-line at 268.29 ft high. This is the second tallest known pine after the sugar pine; this species is grown as an ornamental plant in large gardens. During Operation Upshot–Knothole in 1953, a nuclear test was performed in which 145 ponderosa pines were cut down by the United States Forest Service and transported to Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, where they were planted into the ground and exposed to a nuclear blast to see what the blast wave would do to a forest; the trees were burned and blown over. Pinus ponderosa is a dominant tree in the ponderosa shrub forest.
Like most western pines, the ponderosa is associated with mountainous topography. However, it is found on banks of the Niobrara River in Nebraska. Scattered stands occur in the Willamette Valley of Oregon and in the Okanagan Valley and Puget Sound areas of Washington. Stands occur throughout low level valleys in British Columbia reaching as far north as the Thompson and Columbia watersheds. In its Northern limits, it is most common below 800m. Ponderosa covers 80 %, of the Black Hills of South Dakota, it is found on foothills and mid-height peaks of the northern and southern Rocky Mountains, in the Cascade Range, in the Sierra Nevada, in the maritime-influenced Coast Range. In Arizona, it predominates on the Mogollon Rim and is scattered on the Mogollon Plateau and on mid-height peaks in Arizona and New Mexico, it does not extend into Mexico. The fire cycle for ponderosa pine is 5 to 10 years, in which a natural ignition sparks a low-intensity fire. Pinus ponderosa needles are the only known food of the caterpillars of the gelechiid moth Chionodes retiniella.
Blue stain fungus, Grosmannia clavigera, is introduced in sapwood of P. ponderosa from the galleries of all species in the genus Dendroctonus, which has caused much damage. Modern forestry research has identified five different taxa of P. ponderosa, with differing botanical characters and adaptations to different climatic conditions. Four of these have been termed "geographic races" in forestry literature; some botanists treated some races as distinct species. In modern botanical usage, they have been formally published. Pinus ponderosa subsp. Brachyptera Engelm. — southwestern ponderosa pine. Four corners transition zone including southern Colorado, southern Utah and central New Mexico and Arizona, westernmost Texas, a single disjunct population in the far northwestern Oklahoma panhandle; the Gila Wilderness conta
Sedona is a city that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai counties in the northern Verde Valley region of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,031. Sedona's main attraction is its array of red sandstone formations; the formations appear to glow in brilliant orange and red when illuminated by the rising or setting sun. The red rocks form a popular backdrop for many activities, ranging from spiritual pursuits to the hundreds of hiking and mountain biking trails. Sedona was named after Sedona Arabella Miller Schnebly, the wife of Theodore Carlton Schnebly, the city's first postmaster, celebrated for her hospitality and industriousness, her mother, Amanda Miller, claimed to have made the name up because "it sounded pretty". The first documented human presence in the Sedona area dates to between 11,500 and 9000 B. C, it was not until 1995 that a Clovis projectile point discovered in Honanki revealed the presence of the Paleo-Indians, who were big game hunters.
Around 9000 B. C. the pre-historic Archaic people appeared in the Verde Valley. These were hunter-gatherers and their presence in the area was longer than in other areas of the Southwest, most because of the ecological diversity and large amount of resources, they left by 300 A. D. There is an assortment of rock art left by the Archaic people in places near Sedona such as Palatki and Honanki. Around 650 A. D. the Sinagua people entered the Verde Valley. Their culture is known for its art such as pottery and their masonry, they left rock art and cliff dwellings such as Montezuma Castle, Honanki and Tuzigoot in the period of their presence. The Sinagua abandoned the Verde Valley about 1400 A. D. Researchers believe the Sinagua and other clans moved to the Hopi mesas in Arizona and the Zuni and other pueblos in New Mexico; the Yavapai came from the west when the Sinagua were still there in the Verde Valley around 1300 A. D, they were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Some archaeologists place the Apache arrival in the Verde Valley around 1450 A.
D. Many Apache groups traveled over large areas; the Yavapai and Apache tribes were forcibly removed from the Verde Valley in 1876, to the San Carlos Indian Reservation, 180 miles southeast. About 1,500 people were marched, to San Carlos. Several hundred lost their lives; the survivors were interned for 25 years. About 200 Yavapai and Apache people returned to the Verde Valley in 1900 and have since intermingled as a single political entity although culturally distinct residing in the Yavapai-Apache Nation; the first Anglo settler, John J. Thompson, moved to Oak Creek Canyon in 1876, an area well known for its peach and apple orchards; the early settlers were ranchers. In 1902, when the Sedona post office was established, there were 55 residents. In the mid-1950s, the first telephone directory listed 155 names; some parts of the Sedona area were not electrified until the 1960s. Sedona began to develop as a tourist vacation-home and retirement center in the 1950s. Most of the development seen today was constructed in the 1990s.
As of 2007, there are no large tracts of undeveloped land remaining. In 1956, construction of the Chapel of the Holy Cross was completed; the chapel rises 70 feet out of a 1,000-foot redrock cliff. The most prominent feature of the chapel is the cross. A chapel was added. Inside the chapel there is a cross with benches and pews. Sedona played host to more than sixty Hollywood productions from the first years of movies into the 1970s. Stretching as far back as 1923, Sedona's red rocks were a fixture in major Hollywood productions—including films such as Johnny Guitar and the Badman, Desert Fury, Blood on the Moon, The Last Wagon, 3:10 to Yuma. However, the surroundings were identified to audiences as the terrain of Texas, California and Canada–US border territory. On June 18, 2006, a wildfire started by campers, began about one mile north of Sedona; the Brins Fire covered 4,317 acres on Brins Mesa, Wilson Mountain and in Oak Creek Canyon before the USDA Forest Service declared it 100 percent contained on June 28.
Containment cost was estimated at $6.4 million. On May 20, 2014, a wildfire started from an unknown cause began north of Sedona at Slide Rock State Park; the Slide Fire spread across 21,227 acres in Oak Creek Canyon over nine days and prompted evacuations. State Route 89A opened to Flagstaff in June, but all parking and canyon access was closed to the public until Oct. 1, 2014. Sedona is located in the Upper Sonoran Desert of northern Arizona. Sedona has hot summers. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.2 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.22%, is water. The red rocks of Sedona are formed by a unique layer of rock known as the Schnebly Hill Formation; the Schnebly Hill Formation is a thick layer of red to orange-colored sandstone found only in the Sedona vicinity. The sandstone, a member of the Supai Group, was deposited during the Permian Period. Sedona has a temperate semi-arid climate. In January, the average high temperature is 57 °F with a low of 31 °F.
In July, the average high temperature is 97 °F with a low of 64 °F. Annual precipitation is just over 19 inches; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,192 people, 4,928 households, 2,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 548.0 people per square mile. There were 5,684 housing units at an average density of 305.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.17% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.94%