The coconut tree is a member of the palm tree family and the only known living species of the genus Cocos. The term "coconut" can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut; the term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning'head' or'skull' after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. Coconuts are known for their versatility of uses; the inner flesh of the mature seed, as well as the coconut milk extracted from it, forms a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called coconut water or coconut juice. Mature, ripe coconuts can be used as edible seeds, or processed for oil and plant milk from the flesh, charcoal from the hard shell, coir from the fibrous husk. Dried coconut flesh is called copra, the oil and milk derived from it are used in cooking – frying in particular – as well as in soaps and cosmetics.
The hard shells, fibrous husks and long pinnate leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. The coconut has cultural and religious significance in certain societies in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals; the name coconut derives from seafarers during the 16th and 17th century for its resemblance to a head. Coco and coconut came from 1521 encounters by Portuguese and Spanish explorers with Pacific islanders, with the coconut shell reminding them of a ghost or witch in Portuguese folklore called coco; the specific name nucifera is Latin for'nut-bearing'. Literary evidence from the Ramayana and Sri Lankan chronicles indicates that the coconut was present in the Indian subcontinent before the 1st century BCE. Another early mention of the coconut dates back to the "One Thousand and One Nights" story of Sinbad the Sailor. In the earliest description of the coconut palm known, given by Cosmas Indicopleustes in his Topographia Christiana written around 545, there is a reference to the argell tree and its drupe.
In the West it was called nux indica, a name used by Marco Polo in 1280 while in Sumatra, taken from the Arabs who called it جوز هندي jawz hindī, translating to'Indian nut'. Thenga, its Malayalam name, was used in the detailed description of coconut found in Itinerario by Ludovico di Varthema published in 1510 and in the Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. In March 1521, a description of the coconut was given by Antonio Pigafetta writing in Italian and using the words "cocho"/"cochi", as recorded in his journal after the first European crossing of the Pacific Ocean during the Magellan circumnavigation and meeting the inhabitants of what would become known as Guam and the Philippines, he explained how at Guam "they eat coconuts" and that the natives there "anoint the body and the hair with coconut and beniseed oil". The American botanist Orator F. Cook was one of the earliest modern researchers to propose a hypothesis in 1901 on the location of the origin of Cocos nucifera based on its current worldwide distribution.
He hypothesized that the coconut originated in the Americas, based on his belief that American coconut populations predated European contact and because he considered pan-tropical distribution by ocean currents improbable. Genetic studies have identified the center of origin of coconuts as being the region between Southwest Asia and Melanesia, where it shows greatest genetic diversity, their cultivation and spread was tied to the early migrations of the Austronesian peoples who carried coconuts as canoe plants to islands they settled. The similarities of the local names in the Austronesian region is cited as evidence that the plant originated in the region. For example, the Polynesian and Melanesian term niu. A study in 2011 identified two genetically differentiated subpopulations of coconuts, one originating from Island Southeast Asia and the other from the southern margins of the Indian subcontinent; the Pacific group is the only one to display clear genetic and phenotypic indications that they were domesticated.
The distribution of the Pacific coconuts correspond to the regions settled by Austronesian voyagers indicating that its spread was the result of human introductions. It is most strikingly displayed in Madagascar, an island settled by Austronesian sailors at around 2000 to 1500 BP; the coconut populations in the island show genetic admixture between the two subpopulations indicating that Pacific coconuts were brought by the Austronesian settlers that interbred with the local Indo-Atlantic coconuts. Genetic studies of coconuts have confirmed pre-Columbian populations of coconuts in Panama in South America. However, it display a genetic bottleneck resulting from a founder effect. A study in 2008 showed that the coconuts in the Americas are genetically closest related to coconuts in the Philippines, not to any other nearby coconut populations; such an origin indicates that the coconuts were not introduced such as by sea currents. The researchers concluded that it was brought by early Austronesian sailors to the Americas from at least 2,250 BP, may be proof of pre-Columbian contact between Austronesian cultures and South A
Sweets was a Japanese girl group formed by Avex Trax in 2003. It consists of five members: Aki, Haruna and Mai; the group debuted in 2003 with the song "Lolita Strawberry in Summer" and released in 2004 the song "Love Like Candy Floss." While active as a group, Sweets was part of the supergroup Girl's Box along with other Avex artists. After three years of activity, Sweets disbanded in 2006. During the Avex Auditions 2002, five 12-year-old girls were selected out of fifteen finalists to create a new girl group, with the project planned by TV Tokyo's variety show Platinum Ticket, they first performed at A-nation'03 Avex Summer Festa on April 12, 2003. On August 27, they released their first single, "Lolita Strawberry in Summer", as the fourth ending theme to Monkey Typhoon; the song was produced by Bounceback, who had written songs for BoA and Ayumi Hamasaki. On November 19, 2003, Sweets released their second single, "Love Raspberry Juice", featured as the theme song in the commercial for the game Tokyo Friend Park II: Friend Park e Asobi ni Ikō!!
100 girls appeared as extras in the music video. At the end of 2003, Sweets collaborated with Dream and Fruits Punch as the supergroup Girl's Box to release the single 1st X'mas. Sweets' third single, "Love Like Candy Floss", was released on February 11, 2004 as the theme song in the commercial for Circle K's bakery; the song's theme was described as "falling in love with a friend." The music video was filmed in Nagano, making it the first of their videos to be filmed outside of a studio, was described as "drama-like", featuring Haruna following an older man. The music video was featured on the television show Pop Jam for four weeks. On March 3, 2004, Sweets released Sweets. On June 16, 2004, they released their fourth single, a triple A-side titled "Growin' into Shinin' Stars / Never Ending Story / Shochū Omimai Mōshiagemasu." The song "Growin' into Shinin' Stars" was the official cheer song for the Yomiuri Giants beginning April 2004. On November 3, 2004, Sweets released the song "Sky" as the ending theme to Genseishin Justirisers.
By the end of the year, Sweets was voted number 1 in the magazine CD-Data. Sweets participated in a second Christmas collaboration single with Dream and Aiko Kayō, which released on December 1, 2004. On February 2, 2005, Sweets released the double A-side single "Countdown / Our Song", followed up with the release of their second mini album, Keep On Movin', on February 23, 2005. "Mienai Tsubasa" was released on June 1, 2005. The music video, as well as their behind-the-scenes DVD Wings of My Heart, were shot in Hawaii. Several members became ill during the shooting because of the rain. On August 10, 2005, Sweets released their 8th single, "Earthship", followed up by their first concert tour named after the song, with three shows in Osaka and Tokyo. Shortly after their tour, they performed at A-nation'05 and released their first photo book, Sweets #1. Afterwards and Aya went on hiatus from September 2005 to April 2006 to focus on their high school entrance exams; the remaining three members continued to promote without them and released "On the Way" as their 9th single.
On October 5, 2005, Sweets released 5 Elements. On November 16, 2005, Sweets collaborated with Dream, Nao Nagasawa, Nanase Hoshii, Aiko Kayō, Paradise Go! Go!, Michi Saito for Girl's Box's third Christmas collaboration single. Aki and Aya returned from hiatus, Sweets released the single "Bitter Sweets" on March 23, 2006. During a promotional event at Tokyo Dome City Hall on March 26, 2006, all five members of Sweets announced that they were disbanding, citing interest in different career paths, as well as Aki and Aya retiring to focus on high school. Afterwards, on June 7, 2006, they released "Color of Tears" as their final single along with Hi Ma'am, their "graduation" photo book, Precious Memories, their final behind-the-scenes DVD. Aki - leader Aya Haruna Miori Mai Official website
The five dots tattoo is a tattoo of five dots arranged in a quincunx on the outer surface of the hand, between the thumb and the index finger. The tattoo has different meanings in different cultures—it has been variously interpreted as a fertility symbol, a reminder of sayings on how to treat women or police, a recognition symbol among the Romani people, a group of close friends, standing alone in the world, or time spent in prison. Thomas Edison had this pattern tattooed on his forearm; the five dots tattoo is most prevalent amongst gangsters. For example, in northern California it is a tattoo that symbolizes the membership of the "15 Street Locos", a juvenile institution gang and founded in Monterey County, CA and spread across the county streets. In the US, it is believed to have spread from Vietnamese gangs, who use it to mean, "A group of friends"; the five dot tattoo resembles the five shields on the Portuguese flag — the shields representing the five Holy Wounds inflicted upon Jesus during his crucifixion — and was worn by many members of the Portuguese armed forces.
It has since become a popular tattoo for first generation Portuguese-Americans and Portuguese-Canadians. Criminal tattoo Prison tattooing