Black people is a term used in certain countries in based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies both between and within societies, depends on context. For many other individuals and countries, "black" is perceived as a derogatory, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding, classified as "black", these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds.
The Romans interacted with and conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, subsequently rendered as Moors in English. Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. Others are descendants of the historical Trans-Saharan trade in peoples and/or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, descendants of slaves from the Arab Slave Trade in North Africa. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Warrior King" raised a corps of 150,000 black soldiers, called his Black Guard. According to Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's University of the State of Bahia, in the 21st century Afro-multiracials in the Arab world, including Arabs in North Africa, self-identify in ways that resemble multi-racials in Latin America.
He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother, a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman and a father, a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, "I am not white but I am not black either. My blackness is tending to reddish". Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men, they used more black female slaves in domestic agriculture than males. The men interpreted the Qur'an to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children; when an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab master's child, she was considered as umm walad or "mother of a child", a status that granted her privileged rights. The child was given rights of inheritance to the father's property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father.
Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers' social status at birth and were born free. Some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608, he was not technically considered as a mixed-race child of a slave. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs. Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens; the government was accused of "deftly manipulat Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing. American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. According to Ayittey, "In Sudan... the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid." Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid.
In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "Negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, were either purchased by the Tuareg nobles from slave markets in the Western Sudan or taken during raids, their origin is denoted via the Ahaggar Berber word Ibenheren, which alludes to slaves that only speak a Nilo-Saharan language. These slaves were sometimes known by the borrowed Songhay term Bella; the Sahrawi autochthones of the Western Sahara observed a class system consisting of high castes and low castes. Outside of these traditional tribal boundaries were "Negro" slaves, who were drawn from the surrounding areas. In parts of the Horn of Africa, the local Afroasiatic speaking populations have long adhered to a construct similar to that of the Sahara and Maghreb. In Ethiopia and Somalia, the slave classes consisted of individuals of Nilotic and Bantu origin who were collectively known as Shanqella and Adone; these captives and others of analogous morphology were distinguished as tsalim barya in contrast with the Afroasiatic-speaking nobles or saba qayh.
The earliest representation of this tradition dates from a seventh or eighth century BC inscription belonging to the Kingdom of Damat. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Kho
Coral Way is a neighborhood within Miami, Florida, defined by Coral Way, a road established by Coral Gables founder George E. Merrick during the 1920s, it is located in Miami-Dade County, United States. The Coral Way neighborhood is served by the Miami Metrorail at Coconut Grove stations; the Architecture in the Coral Way neighborhoods reflects the early-20th Century. Some of the oldest sections contain a mixture of Mission Revival Style architecture and Bungalow homes of the 1920s, along with the Art Deco style from the 1930s and the modest post-World War II dwellings; the Coral Way area is best known for its historic urban boulevard along SW 22nd Street. One of the main thoroughfares between Coral Gables and the City of Miami, Coral Way passes through the City of Miami between SW 37th Avenue and Brickell Avenue; the Coral Way Corridor began in 1922 with citrus lined streets. In 1929, a Roadside Beautification Program was started, 1200 Banyan trees were planted along the median of the boulevard.
Today, Coral Way remains one of the most beautiful corridors in South Florida. The sub-neighborhoods within Coral Way include: Shenandoah, Silver Bluff, Vizcaya-Roads, Coral Gate, Parkdale-Lyndale, South Miami, Bryan Park, Golden Pines. Coral Gate is a smaller sub-neighborhood within the larger Coral Way neighborhood, it is located south of SW 16th Street, east of SW 37th Avenue, north of Coral Way and west of SW 32nd Avenue. Coral Gate borders Coral Gables to Golden Pines to the south; the north and east boundaries of Coral Gate are enclosed by walls or street barriers with all vehicles blocked from entering or exiting through these directions. Golden Pines is a smaller sub-neighborhood within the larger Coral Way neighborhood, it is located east of City of Coral Gables, bounded by SW 22 St, South Dixie Highway. 27 Ave and 37 Ave. It is located at 25.734°N 80.242°W / 25.734. Shenandoah is an important neighborhood in Miami, boasting a large number of houses from the 1920s and 1930s and rich in revivalist Architecture.
It is located directly south of Little Havana, between SW 9th Street and Coral Way, SW 27th Avenue and SW 12th Avenue. It is located at 25.76°N 80.222°W / 25.76. Silver Bluff Estates is a smaller sub-neighborhood within the larger Coral Way neighborhood, it is located just south of Coral Way, west of SW 17th Avenue, east of SW 27th Avenue and north of South Dixie Highway. Much of this territory was the "City of Silver Bluff", annexed into the City of Miami in 1926, it is located at 25.749°N 80.236°W / 25.749. As of 2000, Coral Way had a population of 55,951 and 69,041 residents, with 21,363 households, 14,105 families residing in the city; the median household income was $37,168.89. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 81.10% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.41% Black or African American, 17.28% White, 1.21% Other races. The zip codes for Coral Way include 33129, 33133, 33135, 33145; the area covers 6.697 square miles. As of 2000, there were 36,162 females; the median age for males were 38.6 years old.
The average household size had 2.5 people. The percentage of married-couple families was 42.3%, while the percentage of married-couple families with children was 15.7%, the percentage of single-mother households was 7.1%. The percentage of never-married males 15 years old and over was 14.6%, while the percentage of never-married females 15 years old and over was 12.1%. As of 2000, the percentage of people that speak English not well or not at all made up 35.8% of the population. The percentage of residents born in Florida was 19.4%, the percentage of people born in another U. S. state was 8.1%, the percentage of native residents but born outside the U. S. was 2.1%, while the percentage of foreign born residents was 70.4%. The Consulate-General of Costa Rica in Miami is located in Suite 401 at 2730 SW 3rd Avenue in Coral Way. See also: Transportation in MiamiCoral Way is served by Metrobus throughout the area, by the Miami Metrorail at: Vizcaya Coconut Grove Douglas Road Miami-Dade County Public Schools operates area public schools: Silver Bluff Elementary School Frances S Tucker Elementary School Coral Way K-8 Center Merrick Educational Center Coral Way K-8 Center The English Center José Martí Schools Lincoln Martí School Brito Miami Private School Douglas Park Coral Gate Park Cuban Memorial Boulevard Park Woodlawn Park Cemetery
Florida House of Representatives
The Florida House of Representatives is the lower house of the Florida Legislature, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Florida, the Florida Senate being the upper house. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution of Florida, adopted in 1968, defines the role of the Legislature and how it is to be constituted; the House is composed of 120 members, each elected from a single-member district with a population of 157,000 residents. Legislative districts are drawn on the basis of population figures, provided by the federal decennial census. Senators' terms begin upon their election; as of 2019, Republicans hold the majority in the State House with 71 seats. Three seats are vacant due to resignations. Members of the House of Representatives are referred to as Representatives; because this shadows the terminology used to describe members of U. S. House of Representatives and the news media, using The Associated Press Stylebook refer to members as State Representatives to avoid confusion with their Federal counterparts.
Article III of the Florida Constitution defines the terms for State Legislators. The Constitution requires State Representatives to be elected for two-year terms. Upon election, legislators take office immediately. On November 3, 1992 77 percent of Florida voters backed Amendment 9, the Florida Term Limits Amendment, which amended the State Constitution, to enact eight-year term limits on federal and state officials. Under the Amendment, former members can be elected again after a break. In 1995, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not enact congressional term limits, but ruled that the state level term limits remain; each legislator shall be at least 21 years of age, an elector and resident of the District from which elected and shall have resided in the state for a period of two years prior to election. Each year during which the Legislature meets constitutes a new Legislative Session. Legislators start Committee activity in September of the year prior to the Regular Legislative Session.
Because Florida is a part-time legislature, this is necessary to allow legislators time to work their bills through the Committee process, prior to the Regular Legislative Session. The Florida Legislature meets in a 60-day Regular Legislative Session each year. Regular Legislative Sessions in odd-numbered years must begin on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March. Under the State Constitution, the Legislature can begin even-numbered year Regular Legislative Sessions at a time of its choosing. Prior to 1991, the Regular Legislative Session began in April. Senate Joint Resolution 380 proposed to the voters a Constitutional Amendment that shifted the starting date of Regular Legislative Session from April to February. Subsequently, Senate Joint Resolution 2606 proposed to the voters a Constitutional Amendment shifting the start date to March, where it remains; the reason for the "first Tuesday after the first Monday" requirement stems back to the time when Regular Legislative Session began in April.
Regular Legislative Session could start any day from April 2 through April 8, but never on April 1 – April Fool's Day. In recent years, the Legislature has opted to start in January in order to allow lawmakers to be home with their families during school spring breaks, to give more time ahead of the legislative elections in the Fall. On the fourteenth day following each General Election, the Legislature meets for an Organizational Session to organize and select officers. Special Legislative Sessions may be called by the Governor, by a joint proclamation of the Senate President and House Speaker, or by a three-fifths vote of all Legislators. During any Special Session the Legislature may only address legislative business, within the purview of the purpose or purposes stated in the Special Session Proclamation; the Florida House is authorized by the Florida Constitution to create and amend the laws of the U. S. state of Florida, subject to the Governor's power to veto legislation. To do so, Legislators propose legislation in the forms of bills drafted by a nonpartisan, professional staff.
Successful legislation must undergo Committee review, three readings on the floor of each house, with appropriate voting majorities, as required, either be signed into law by the Governor or enacted through a veto override approved by two-thirds of the membership of each legislative house. Its statutes, called "chapter laws" or generically as "slip laws" when printed separately, are compiled into the Laws of Florida and are called "session laws"; the Florida Statutes are the codified statutory laws of the state. In 2009, legislators filed 2,138 bills for consideration. On average, the Legislature has passed about 300 bills into law annually. In 2013, the Legislature filed about 2000 bills. About 1000 of these are "member bills." The remainder are bills by committees responsible for certain functions, such as budget. In 2016, about 15% of the bills were passed. In 2017, 1,885 lobbyists registered to represent 3,724 entities; the House has the power to propose Amendments to the Florida Constitution.
Additionally, the House has the exclusive power to impeach officials, who are tried by the Senate. The House is headed by a speaker, elected by the members of the House to a two-year term; the speaker presides over the House, appoints committee members and committee chairs, influences the placement of bills on the calendar, rules on procedural motions. The speaker pro tempore presides if there is a vacancy; the speaker, along with the Senate president and governor of Florida, control most of the agenda of state business in Florida. The majority and minority caucus each elect a le
Cape Florida Light
The Cape Florida Light is a lighthouse on Cape Florida at the south end of Key Biscayne in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Constructed in 1825, it guided mariners off the Florida Reef, which starts near Key Biscayne and extends southward a few miles offshore of the Florida Keys, it was operated by staff, with interruptions, until 1878, when it was replaced by the Fowey Rocks lighthouse. The lighthouse was put back into use in 1978 by the U. S. Coast Guard to mark the deepest natural channel into Biscayne Bay, they decommissioned it in 1990. Within the Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park since 1966, the lighthouse was relit in 1996, it is operated by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The construction contract called for a 65-foot-tall tower with walls of solid brick, five feet thick at the bottom tapering to two feet thick at the top, it was found that the contractor had scrimped on materials and built hollow walls. The first keeper of the lighthouse was Captain John Dubose. In 1835 a major hurricane struck the island, damaging the lighthouse and the keeper's house, flooding the island under three feet of water.
When the Second Seminole War started in 1835, the Seminoles attacked the few European-American settlers in southern Florida. In January 1836 the Seminoles massacred the family of William Cooley at their coontie plantation on the New River, in what is now Fort Lauderdale. On hearing of the massacre, the settlers on the mainland around the Miami River crossed over Biscayne Bay to the lighthouse; as the island was not considered safe, the settlers and Captain Dubose's family moved to Key West for refuge. In January, Lt. George M. Bache, U. S. Navy, arrived from Key West with a small work party to fortify the lighthouse tower. On July 18, 1836, Captain Dubose went to visit his family in Key West; the assistant keeper, John W. B. Thompson, was in charge, aided by an African American. Five days on July 23, 1836, a band of Seminole attacked the lighthouse. Thompson and Carter reached the lighthouse tower; the Seminoles grabbed the door. Thompson exchanged rifle fire with the Seminoles from upper windows in the tower for the rest of the day but after dark, the raiders approached the tower, setting fire to the door and a boarded-up window at ground level.
Rifle balls had penetrated tanks in the bottom of the tower, which held 225 gallons of lamp oil for the light, the oil caught fire. Thompson's clothing had been soaked with oil, he and Carter retreated to the top of the tower, taking a keg of gunpowder, a rifle with them; the two men cut away a part of the wooden stairway below them in the tower before being driven out of the top by the searing flames. The fire flaming up the interior was so bad that Thompson and Carter had to leave the lantern area at the top and lie down on the 2-foot-wide tower platform that ran around the outside of the lantern. Thompson's clothes were burning, both he and Carter had been wounded by the Seminoles' rifle shots; the lighthouse lens and the glass panes of the lantern shattered from the heat. Sure that he was going to die and wanting a quick end, Thompson threw the gunpowder keg down the inside of the tower; the keg did not topple the tower. It dampened the fire but the flames soon returned as fierce as before dying down.
Thompson found that Carter had died from the fire. The next day Thompson saw the Seminoles looting and burning the other buildings at the lighthouse station, they thought that Thompson was dead, as they had stopped firing at him. After the Seminoles left, Thompson was trapped at the top of the tower, he had three rifle balls in each foot, the stairway in the tower had been burned away. That day he saw an approaching ship; the United States Navy schooner Motto had heard the explosion of the gunpowder keg from twelve miles away and had come to investigate. The men from the ship were surprised to find Thompson alive. Unable to get him down from the tower, they returned to their ship for the night; the next day the men from the Motto returned, along with men from the schooner Pee Dee. They fired a ramrod tied to a small line up to Thompson, used it to haul up a rope strong enough to lift two men to the top, who could get the wounded man down. Thompson was taken first to Key West, to Charleston, South Carolina, to recover from his wounds.
The Cape Florida Light was extinguished from 1836 to 1846. In 1846 a contract was let to rebuild the keeper's dwelling; the contractor was permitted to reuse the old bricks from house. New bricks were sent from Massachusetts; the contract went to the low bidder at US$7,995. The lighthouse was completed and re-lit in April, 1847, it was equipped with 17 Argand lamps, each with 21-inch reflectors. The new keeper was Reason Duke, who had lived with his family on the Miami River before he moved to Key West because of the Second Seminole War. In Key West his daughter Elizabeth had married son of John Dubose, the first keeper. Temple Pent became the Cape Florida Light keeper in 1852, he was replaced by Robert R. Fletcher in 1854. Charles S. Barron became the keeper in 1855. In an 1855 renovation, the tower was raised to 95 feet, to extend the reach of the light beyond the off-shore reefs; that year the original lamp and lens system was replaced by a second-order Fresnel lens brought to Cape Florida by Lt. Col. George Meade of the United States Army Corps of Topographical Engineers.
The heightened tower with its new
The Dixie Highway was a United States automobile highway, first planned in 1914 to connect the US Midwest with the Southern United States. It was part of the National Auto Trail system, grew out of an earlier Miami to Montreal highway; the final result is better understood as a network of connected paved roads, rather than one single highway. It was constructed and expanded from 1915 to 1929; the Dixie Highway was inspired by the example of the earlier Lincoln Highway, the first road across the United States. The prime booster of both projects was businessman Carl G. Fisher, it was overseen by the Dixie Highway Association, funded by a group of individuals, local governments, states. In the early years the U. S. federal government played little role, but from the early 1920s on it provided increasing funding, until 1927, when the Dixie Highway Association was disbanded and the highway was taken over as part of the U. S. Route system, with some portions becoming state roads; the route was marked by a red stripe with the white letters "DH" with a white stripe above and below.
The logo was painted on utility poles. The Dixie Highway, an idea of Carl G. Fisher of the Lincoln Highway Association, was organized in early December 1914 in Chattanooga. On April 3, 1915, governors of the interested states met at Chattanooga, each selected two commissioners to lay out the route from Chicago to Miami. On May 22, 1915, the commission decided on a split route; the route left Chicago to the south via Danville and turned east to Indianapolis, where it split. The west branch headed south through Tennessee via Louisville and Nashville to Chattanooga, while the east route went east from Indianapolis to Dayton, Ohio before turning south via Cincinnati. Two alternate routes were included between Chattanooga and Atlanta, again between Atlanta and Macon, Georgia. Between Macon and Jacksonville, the west route went south to Tallahassee, Florida before turning east, while the east route had yet to be defined in detail. From Jacksonville, the route followed the east coast south to Miami along the John Anderson Highway.
The commission voted to invite Michigan and to extend a branch of the east route from Dayton north to Detroit via Toledo, as well as to study a loop around Lake Michigan and a western route between Tallahassee and Miami. Within a week, Michigan agreed to construct a loop around the Lower Peninsula, passing via South Bend, Mackinaw City and Toledo. Detroit became the northern end of the eastern division, with the old route to Indianapolis becoming a connecting link. In early April 1916, the commission approved the route between Macon and Jacksonville via Savannah and designated the more direct route via Waycross, Georgia as the central division. At the urging of locals, the eastern division was realigned to a more direct path northwest from Milledgeville, Georgia to Atlanta over the "Old Capitol Route", bypassing Macon, the old eastern division via McDonough and Macon was removed from the system in early July 1916. By early 1917, the western division had been modified in Florida to go southeast from Tallahassee via Kissimmee and Bartow to the eastern division at Jupiter.
The Carolina division, connecting to the eastern division at Knoxville and Waynesboro, was approved in mid-May 1918. By mid-1919, a short piece on Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan became part of the eastern division of the highway, extended north from Detroit to Mackinaw City and across the Straits of Mackinac. For local details about the routes, see the individual articles linked; the Western route connected Chicago and Miami, Florida via Danville in Illinois. Except for realignments made since the 1920s, the western route is now Illinois Route 1 and U. S. Route 136 to Indianapolis, Indiana State Road 37 and U. S. Route 150 to Louisville, U. S. Route 31W, U. S. Route 68, U. S. Route 431 to Nashville, U. S. Route 41, U. S. Route 231, U. S. Route 41A, U. S. Route 41 to Chattanooga. At Chattanooga, the western and eastern routes intersected. S. Route 27 to Rome and returned to U. S. Route 41 at Cartersville via U. S. Route 411. At Atlanta, the eastern route split off toward Madison, with the western continuing to Macon along the present U.
S. Route 41. S. Route 19, U. S. Route 319 to Tallahassee. S. Route 27 and U. S. Route 441 to Orlando. S. Route 17 and U. S. Route 41 to Miami; the Eastern route connected Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan with Miami, running via Saginaw and Detroit in Michigan. In Michigan's Upper Peninsula, the highway followed what is now M-129 from Sault Ste. Marie to Pickford and west to follow a short portion of former U. S. Route 2, replaced by Mackinaw Trail, it crossed the Straits of Mackinac and used what is now U. S. Route 23 and old U. S. Route 10 to Detroit, it still exists in Michigan as the name of a secondary road from Saginaw southeast to the county line, from southeast Flint to northwest Pontiac, from Flat Rock southwest to Monro
Coral Gables, Florida
Coral Gables the City of Coral Gables, is a city in Miami-Dade County, United States, located southwest of Downtown Miami. The United States Census Bureau estimates conducted in 2017 yielded the city had a population of 51,095. Coral Gables is home to the University of Miami. Coral Gables was one of the first planned communities, its planning was based on the popular early twentieth century City Beautiful Movement, it is infamous for its strict zoning regulations. The city was developed by George Merrick during the Florida land boom of the 1920s; the city's architecture is entirely Mediterranean Revival style, mandated in the original plan, including the Coral Gables Congregational Church, donated by Merrick. The domed Catholic Church of the Little Flower was built somewhat in a similar Spanish Renaissance style. By 1926, the city covered 10,000 acres and had netted $150 million in sales, with over $100 million spent on development. Merrick meticulously designed the downtown commercial district to be only four blocks wide and more than two miles long.
The main artery bisected the business district. Merrick could boast; the city used to have an electric trolley system, replaced by the popularity of modern automobiles, but now a new free circulator trolley system, initiated in November 2003, runs down Ponce de León Boulevard. In 1925 simultaneous to the founding of Coral Gables, the city was selected as the home to the University of Miami, constructed that year on 240 acres of land just west of U. S. Route 1 two miles south of downtown Coral Gables. During World War II many Navy pilots and mechanics were housed in Coral Gables. Today, Coral Gables is known as the Fine Dining Capital of South Florida. Coral Gables is located at 25°43′42″N 80°16′16″W, it is bordered on the west by Red Road north of Sunset Drive and West 49th Avenue and Old Cutler Roads south of Sunset Drive. It is bordered on the north by Tamiami Trail/U. S. Route 41, except for a small section that extends north of 8th Street for eight blocks between Ponce de Leon Boulevard and Douglas Road.
On the east, it is bordered by Douglas Road north of South 26th Street, Monegro Street south of South 26th Street to Cadima Avenue, Ponce De Leon Boulevard south of Cadima Avenue to South Dixie Highway, LeJeune Road south of U. S. 1 to Battersea Road, by Biscayne Bay south of Battersea Road. On the south, it is bordered by the Charles Deering Estate. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.2 square miles. 13.1 square miles of it is land and 24.0 square miles of it is water. Unincorporated Miami-Dade county, Miami Unincorporated Miami-Dade county, Flagami Miami West Miami, Coral Terrace, South Miami, Palmetto Bay Coconut Grove, Coral Way, Biscayne Bay Palmetto Bay Biscayne Bay Palmetto Bay, Biscayne Bay As of 2010, there were 20,266 households, of which 11.4% were vacant. In 2000, 24.45% had children under the age of 18 living with them. In Coral Gables, 61.11% were family households, 17.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.89% were non-families.
The average household size was 2.36, the average household had 1.68 vehicles. In 2000, the city population was spread out with 17.4% under the age of 18, 14.58% from 18 to 24, 25.02% from 25 to 44, 27.01% from 45 to 64, 16% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.44 years. The population consisted of 48.69 % males. In 2015, estimated income figures for the city were as follows: median household income, $93,934. About 7.6% of citizens were estimated to be living below the poverty line. As of 2000, Spanish was spoken at home by 51.06% of residents, while English was the only language spoken at home by 43.83%. Other languages spoken by the population were French 1.09%, Portuguese 0.80%, Italian 0.72%, German speakers made up 0.53% of the populace. As of 2000, Coral Gables had the eighteenth highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 28.72% of the populace. It had the sixty-fourth highest percentage of Colombian residents in the US, at 2.27% of the city's population, the sixteenth highest percentage of Venezuelan residents in the US, at 1.17% of its population.
Coral Gables is a pedestrian-friendly destination. Located four miles from Miami International Airport, the "City Beautiful" has around 140 dining establishments and gourmet shops, many notable international retailers. Among the landmarks in Coral Gables are the Venetian Pool, Douglas Entrance and the Miami Biltmore hotel; the city of Coral Gables has its own newspaper, Coral Gables News, published bi-weekly and Coral Gables is covered by several local and regional radio and television stations, several Coral-Gables-focused websites, one weekly printed newspaper, part of Miami Community Newspapers. The Gables' one remaining printed newspaper, The Coral Gables News Tribune, is still published twice monthly and is part of Miami's Community Newspapers, now online. At the University of Miami in Coral Gables, The Miami Hurricane, the official student newspaper, is published twice weekly. Portions of the 1995 film Fair Game were filmed in Coral Gables; the University of Miami has been the largest employer in Coral Gables since the city's beginning.
Baptist Hospital of Miami is the second largest employer in Coral Gables. Bacardi has its headquarters with 300 employees at 2701 Le Jeune Road. Capital Bank Financial has its headquarters in C
Donna Edna Shalala is an American politician, the U. S. Representative for Florida's 27th congressional district, which includes just over half of Miami as well as many of its eastern suburbs, she served as the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services under President Bill Clinton from 1993 to 2001. She was the president of the University of Miami, a private university in Coral Gables, from 2001 through 2015, she was the chancellor of the University of Wisconsin–Madison from 1988 to 1993. Shalala served as Trustee Professor of Political Science and Health Policy at the University of Miami, was President of the Clinton Foundation from 2015 to March 2017. Shalala was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in November 2018. Shalala was born in Cleveland, Ohio of Maronite Catholic Lebanese descent, the daughter of Edna Smith and James Abraham Shalala. Shalala's father sold real estate and her mother, one of the first Lebanese-Americans to graduate from Ohio State University, was a teacher who worked two jobs and attended law school at night to become a lawyer at 41—and practiced for 50 years, retiring at 91.
Donna Shalala has a twin sister Diane Fritel. The sisters played youth baseball. Shalala attended West Technical High School, she went on to receive a bachelor's degree in 1962 from Western College for Women. From 1962 to 1964 she was among the first volunteers to serve in the Peace Corps, her placement took her to Iran where she worked with other volunteers to construct an agricultural college. In 1970, she earned a Ph. D. from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University in Syracuse New York. Shalala began her teaching career as a political science professor at Baruch College, where she was a member of the American Federation of Teachers union. In 1972 Shalala became a professor of politics and education at Teachers College, Columbia University, a job she held until 1979. In 1975, Shalala became the only woman on the Municipal Assistance Corporation, a group tasked with saving New York City from a financial crisis, she gained notoriety as the only woman on the Corporation.
Concurrently, from 1977 to 1980, she served as the assistant secretary for policy development and research at the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development during the Carter Administration. Shalala's first experience with academic administration came on October 8, 1980 when she became the 10th president of Hunter College, serving in this capacity until 1988, she next served as chancellor of the University of Wisconsin–Madison. At the time of her chancellorship, the university included 42,000 students, employed 16,500 people, had an annual budget of $1 billion, she was the first woman to lead a Big Ten Conference school, only the second woman in the country to head a major research university. Under Shalala's chancellorship and with her support, the university adopted a broad speech code subjecting students to disciplinary action for communications that were perceived as hate speech; that speech code was found unconstitutional by a federal judge. While chancellor, Shalala supported passage of a revised faculty speech code broadly restricting "harmful" speech in both "noninstructional" and "instructional" settings.
The faculty speech code was abolished ten years after a number of professors were investigated for alleged or suspected violations. As Madison chancellor, with athletic director Pat Richter and hired football coach Barry Alvarez who went on to become Wisconsin's all-time leader in football wins, with numerous appearances by Wisconsin at the Rose Bowl. Following a year serving as chair of the Children's Defense Fund, Shalala was nominated in 1992 by President-elect Bill Clinton for the position of United States Secretary of Health and Human Services; the Washington Post labeled her "one of the most controversial Clinton Cabinet nominees". Her nomination went before the Senate Finance Committee in January 1993. At the start of her tenure, the Department of Health and Human Services employed 125,000 people and had a budget of $539 billion, she served in this role for all eight years of his administration, becoming the nation's longest serving HHS secretary. In 1996, Shalala was the designated survivor during Clinton's State of the Union address.
She was known for her fervent anti-drug stance. She was the first Lebanese-American to serve in a Cabinet position. After the end of the Clinton administration in 2001, Shalala became president of the University of Miami, she created a UM fundraising campaign called "Momentum," designed to raise UM's endowment from $750 million to $1 billion. In February 2012 the University of Miami announced Momentum2: The Breakthrough Campaign for the University of Miami, with $906 million raised at the time of the public launch. On October 26, 2012, UM announced that Momentum2 hit the $1 billion mark, on track to reach the fundraising goal of $1.6 billion in 2016. Drawing on her experience after serving as Secretary of Health and Human Services, Shalala taught a course covering the United States healthcare system every spring semester. On January 20, 2012, the Chronicle of Higher Education reported that Shalala had been paid a half a million dollars in 2010 to serve on the boards of three companies, two of which were run by UM trustees.
Shalala faced some criticism for her response to a nationally publicized custodial workers' strike at the University of Miami, which lasted from February 28 to May 1, 2006. Critics called UM's custodial workers among the lowest