Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated to about 1754 BC. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world; the sixth Babylonian king, enacted the code. A partial copy exists on a 2.25-metre-tall stone stele. It consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" as graded based on social stratification depending on social status and gender, of slave versus free, man versus woman. Nearly half of the code deals with matters of contract, establishing the wages to be paid to an ox driver or a surgeon for example. Other provisions set the terms of a transaction, the liability of a builder for a house that collapses, or property, damaged while left in the care of another. A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family relationships such as inheritance, divorce and reproductive behavior. Only one provision appears to impose obligations on a government official.

A few provisions address issues related to military service. The code was discovered by modern archaeologists in 1901, its editio princeps translation published in 1902 by Jean-Vincent Scheil; this nearly complete example of the code is carved into a diorite stele in the shape of a huge index finger, 2.25 m tall. The code is inscribed in the Akkadian language; the material was imported into Sumeria from Magan - today the area covered by the United Arab Emirates and Oman. It is on display in the Louvre, with replicas in numerous institutions, including the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, the Northwestern Pritzker School of Law in Chicago, the Clendening History of Medicine Library & Museum at the University of Kansas Medical Center, the library of the Theological University of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, the Pergamon Museum of Berlin, the Arts Faculty of the University of Leuven in Belgium, the National Museum of Iran in Tehran, the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, the University Museum at the University of Pennsylvania, the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts in Russia, the Prewitt-Allen Archaeological Museum at Corban University, Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary, Museum of the Bible in Washington, DC.

Hammurabi ruled from 1792 to 1750 BC. At the head of the stone slab is Hammurabi receiving the law from Shamash, in the preface, he states, "Anu and Bel called by name me, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; the 282 laws were arranged in 28 paragraphs. It was taken as plunder by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte in the 12th century BC and was taken to Susa in Elam, where it was no longer available to the Babylonian people. However, when Cyrus the Great brought both Babylon and Susa under the rule of his Persian Empire and placed copies of the document in the Library of Sippar, the text became available for all the peoples of the vast Persian Empire to view. In 1901, Egyptologist Gustave Jéquier, a member of an expedition headed by Jacques de Morgan, found the stele containing the Code of Hammurabi during archaeological excavations at the ancient site of Susa in Khuzestan; the Code of Hammurabi was one of the only sets of laws in the ancient Near East and one of the first forms of law.

The code of laws was arranged in orderly groups, so that all who read the laws would know what was required of them. Earlier collections of laws include the Code of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur, the Laws of Eshnunna and the codex of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, while ones include the Hittite laws, the Assyrian laws, Mosaic Law; these codes come from similar cultures in a small geographical area, they have passages that resemble each other. The Code of Hammurabi is the longest surviving text from the Old Babylonian period; the code has been seen as an early example of a fundamental law, regulating a government – i.e. a primitive constitution. The code is one of the earliest examples of the idea of presumption of innocence, it suggests that both the accused and accuser have the opportunity to provide evidence; the occasional nature of many provisions suggests that the code may be better understood as a codification of Hammurabi's supplementary judicial decisions, that, by memorializing his wisdom and justice, its purpose may have been the self-glorification of Hammurabi rather than a modern legal code or constitution.

However, its copying in subsequent generations indicates that it was used as a model of legal and judicial reasoning. While the Code of Hammurabi was trying to achieve equality, biases still existed against those categorized in the lower end of the social spectrum and some of the punishments and justice could be gruesome; the magnitude of criminal penalties was based on the identity and gender of both the person committing the crime and the victim. The Code issues justice following the three classes of Babylonian society: property owners, freed men, slaves. Punishments for someone assaulting someone from a lower class were far lighter than if they had assaulted someone of equal or higher status. For example

Mazi Sou (song)

"Mazi Sou" is a song by Greek artist, Elena Paparizou. It was released on the official'Mazi Sou Soundtrack' as a track on the bonus CD of Υπάρχει Λόγος: Platinum Edition album, was a promo and radio single. At first it was released in Greece at the beginning of 2007 as the opening theme tune to Greek TV drama, Mazi Sou, it was released on May 18, 2007, on a CD single, "Fos", along with four other new tracks, including "Min Fevgis" and a cover of "Le Temps Des Fleurs". "Mazi Sou "Na Ksipnao Kai Na Mai Mazi Sou" The music video was directed by Giorgos Gavalos one of the biggest directors in Greece. The video starts showing many scenes from the serial and Elena starts singing on a lake with many candles around her. Many special effects are used. Many scenes are shown changing behind Elena; the song was another commercial success for Elena. It topped the Nielsen's Official Radio Airplay chart in Greece staying at the top for 12 weeks. After the smash success of the song on airplay chart, when the single Fos was released it peaked number one on the Greek Singles Chart and stayed in the chart for 40 weeks.

The single was certified Gold. Official site


Sfiha, is a pie-like dish originating from the Levant. It was introduced in Brazil and Argentina by Levantine immigrants, where it is known as esfiha or esfirra. In contrast to the modern use of lamb or beef, traditional sfiha are open-faced meat pies made with ground mutton. In Brazil, sfihas are popular street food because they are fast. Sfihas are oven baked and come in two shapes: folded into a triangular pastry like fatayer, open-faced; every family has their own preference on. In Lebanon, the main ingredients are: meat, tomatoes, pine nuts, pepper; the city of Baalbeck in Lebanon has its own famous version of Sfiha known as “Sfiha Baalbakiyye”. It is served with Sour Yogurt. Food portal Fatayer Lahmajoun List of lamb dishes Manakish Pita Taboon bread