Telecine is the process of transferring motion picture film into video and is performed in a color suite. The term is used to refer to the equipment used in the post-production process. Telecine enables a motion picture, captured on film stock, to be viewed with standard video equipment, such as television sets, video cassette recorders, DVD, Blu-ray Disc or computers; this allowed television broadcasters to produce programmes using film 16mm stock, but transmit them in the same format, quality, as other forms of television production. Furthermore, telecine allows film producers, television producers and film distributors working in the film industry to release their products on video and allows producers to use video production equipment to complete their filmmaking projects. Within the film industry, it is referred to as a TK, because TC is used to designate timecode. With the advent of popular broadcast television, producers realized they needed more than live television programming. By turning to film-originated material, they would have access to the wealth of films made for the cinema in addition to recorded television programming on film that could be aired at different times.
However, the difference in frame rates between film and television meant that playing a film into a television camera would result in flickering. The kinescope was used to record the image from a television display to film, synchronized to the TV scan rate; this could be re-played directly into a video camera for re-display. Non-live programming could be filmed using the same cameras, edited mechanically as normal, played back for TV; as the film was run at the same speed as the television, the flickering was eliminated. Various displays, including projectors for these "video rate films", slide projectors and film cameras were combined into a "film chain", allowing the broadcaster to cue up various forms of media and switch between them by moving a mirror or prism. Color was supported by using a multi-tube video camera and filters to separate the original color signal and feed the red and blue to individual tubes. However, this still left film shot at cinema frame rates as a problem; the obvious solution is to speed up the film to match the television frame rates, but this, at least in the case of NTSC, is rather obvious to the eye and ear.
This problem is not difficult to fix, however. For NTSC, the difference in frame rates can be corrected by showing every fourth frame of film twice, although this does require the sound to be handled separately to avoid "skipping" effects. A more convincing technique is to use "2:3 pulldown", discussed below, which turns every second frame of the film into three fields of video, which results in a much smoother display. PAL uses a similar system, "2:2 pulldown". However, during the analogue broadcasting period, the 24 frame per second film was shown at a slighly faster 25 frames per second rate, to match the PAL video signal; this resulted in a fractionally higher audio soundtrack, resulted in feature films having a shorter duration, by being shown 1 frame per second faster. In recent decades, telecine has been a film-to-storage process, as opposed to film-to-air. Changes since the 1950s have been in terms of equipment and physical formats. Home movies on film may be transferred to video tape using this technique, it is not uncommon to find telecined DVDs where the source was recorded on videotape.
The same is not true for modern DVDs of cinematic films, which are recorded in their original frame rate—in these cases the DVD player itself applies telecining as required to match the capabilities of the television receiver. The most complex part of telecine is the synchronization of the mechanical film motion and the electronic video signal; every time the video part of the telecine samples the light electronically, the film part of the telecine must have a frame in perfect registration and ready to photograph. This is easy when the film is photographed at the same frame rate as the video camera will sample, but when this is not true, a sophisticated procedure is required to change frame rate. To avoid the synchronization issues, higher-end establishments now use a scanning system rather than just a telecine system; this allows them to scan a distinct frame of digital video for each frame of film, providing higher quality than a telecine system would be able to achieve. Best results are achieved by using a smoothing rather than a frame duplication algorithm to adjust for speed differences between the film and video frame rate.
Similar issues occur when using vertical synchronization to prevent screen tearing, a different problem encountered when frame rates mismatch. In countries that use the PAL or SECAM video standards, film destined for television is photographed at 25 frames per second; the PAL video standard broadcasts at 25 frames per second, so the transfer from film to video is simple. Theatrical features photographed at 24 frame/s are shown at 25 frame/s. While this is not noticed in the picture, the 4% increase in playback speed causes a noticeable increase in audio pitch by just over 0.679 semitones, sometimes corrected using a pitch shifter, though pitch shifting is a recent innovation and supersedes an alternative method of tele
Forensic identification is the application of forensic science, or "forensics", technology to identify specific objects from the trace evidence they leave at a crime scene or the scene of an accident. Forensic means "for the courts". People can be identified by their fingerprints; this assertion is supported by the philosophy of friction ridge identification, which states that friction ridge identification is established through the agreement of friction ridge formations, in sequence, having sufficient uniqueness to individualize. Friction ridge identification is governed by four premises or statements of facts: Friction ridges develop on the fetus in their definitive form prior to birth. Friction ridges are persistent throughout life except for permanent scarring, disease, or decomposition after death. Friction ridge paths and the details in small areas of friction ridges are unique and never repeated. Overall, friction ridge patterns vary within limits. People can be identified from traces of their DNA from blood, hair and semen by DNA fingerprinting, from their ear print, from their teeth or bite by forensic odontology, from a photograph or a video recording by facial recognition systems, from the video recording of their walk by gait analysis, from an audio recording by voice analysis, from their handwriting by handwriting analysis, from the content of their writings by their writing style, or from other traces using other biometric techniques.
Since forensic identification has been first introduced to the courts in 1980, the first exoneration due to DNA evidence was in 1989 and there have been 336 additional exonerations since then. Those who specialize in forensic identification continue to make headway with new discoveries and technological advances to make convictions more accurate. Body identification is a subfield of forensics concerned with identifying someone from their remains. Feet have friction ridges like fingerprints do. Friction ridges have been accepted as a form of identification with fingerprints but not with feet. Feet have creases which remain over time due to the depth it reaches in the dermal layer of the skin, making them permanent; these creases are valuable. The concept of no two fingerprints are alike is applied to foot creases. Foot creases can grow as early as 13 weeks after conception when the volar pads begin to grow and when the pads regress, the creases remain; when foot crease identification is used in a criminal case, it should be used in conjunction with morphology and friction ridges to ensure precise identification.
There is record of foot crease identification used in a criminal case to solve a murder. Sometimes with marks left by the foot with ink, mud, or other substances, the appearance of creases or ridges become muddled or extra creases may appear due to cracked skin, folded skin, or fissures. In order to compare morphological feature, the prints of feet must be clear enough to distinguish between individuals; the two basic conceptual foundations of forensic identification is that everyone is individualized and unique. This individualization belief was invented by a police records clerk, Alphonse Bertillon, based on the idea that "nature never repeats," originating from the father of social statistics, Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet; the belief was passed down through generations being accepted, but it was never scientifically proven. There was a study done intending to show that no two fingerprints were the same, but the results were inconclusive. Many modern forensic and evidentiary scholars collectively agree that individualization to one object, such as a fingerprint, bite mark, handwriting, or ear mark is not possible.
In court cases, forensic scientists can fall victim to observer bias when not sufficiently blinded to the case or results of other pertinent tests. This has happened in cases like State v. Langill; the proficiency tests that forensic analysts must do are not as demanding to be considered admissible in court. Forensic DNA analysis can be a useful tool in aiding forensic identification because DNA is found in all cells of our bodies except red blood cells. Deoxyribonucleic acid is located in two different places of the nucleus. Similar to fingerprints, an individual’s DNA profile and characteristics are unique. Forensic identification using DNA can be useful in different cases such as determining suspects in violent crimes, solving paternity/maternity, identifying human remains of victims from mass disasters or missing person cases, it is used to link suspects or victims to each other or to crime scenes. When a sample is located at a crime scene, it must be collected and transported, along with a chain of custody, to the laboratory for analysis, so that if a DNA profile is generated it can be accepted in court.
Proper evidence collection and preservation is crucial to ensure. Main procedures investigators must use when packaging biological material is allowing the evidence to air dry and package into paper bags. Plastic bags should never be used on biological evidence because it could degrade DNA or lead to bacterial growth. DNA can be sourced from biological material such as semen, saliva, urine, teeth and hair, left behind from an individual. There are different presumptive and confirmatory tests used for each type of biological material found at a scene. Presumptive tests are quick and are specific to bodily fluids that give the analyst an idea of what might be pre
The EURion constellation is a pattern of symbols incorporated into a number of banknote designs worldwide since about 1996. It is added to help imaging software detect the presence of a banknote in a digital image; such software can block the user from reproducing banknotes to prevent counterfeiting using colour photocopiers. According to research from 2004, the EURion constellation is used for colour photocopiers but not used in computer software, it has been reported that Adobe Photoshop will not allow editing of an image of a banknote, but this is believed to be due to a different, unknown digital watermark rather than the EURion constellation. The name "EURion constellation" was coined by security researcher Markus Kuhn, who uncovered the pattern on the 10 Euro banknote in early 2002 while experimenting with a Xerox colour photocopier that refused to reproduce banknotes; the word is a portmanteau of EUR, the euro's ISO 4217 designation, Orion, a constellation of similar shape. The EURion constellation first described by Kuhn consists of a pattern of five small yellow, green or orange circles, repeated across areas of the banknote at different orientations.
The mere presence of five of these circles on a page is sufficient for some colour photocopiers to refuse processing. Some banks integrate the constellation with the remaining design of the note. On 50 DM German banknotes, the EURion circles formed the innermost circles in a background pattern of fine concentric circles. On the front of former Bank of England Elgar £20 notes, they appear as green heads of musical notes. On some U. S. bills, they appear as the digit zero in yellow numbers matching the value of the note. On Japanese yen, these circles sometimes appear as flowers. Technical details regarding the EURion constellation are kept secret by its users. A 1995 patent application suggests that the pattern and detection algorithm were designed at Omron Corporation, a Japanese electronics company, it is not clear whether the feature has any official name. The term "Omron anti-photocopying feature" appeared in an August 2005 press release by the Reserve Bank of India. In 2007 the term "Omron rings" was used in an award announcement by a banknote collectors society.
The following table lists the banknotes. Countries where all recent banknotes use the constellation are in bold. Since 2003, image editors such as Adobe Photoshop CS or Paint Shop Pro 8 refuse to print banknotes. According to Wired.com, the banknote detection code in these applications, called the Counterfeit Deterrence System, was designed by the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group and supplied to companies such as Adobe as a binary module. Experiments by Steven J. Murdoch and others showed that this banknote detection code does not rely on the EURion pattern, it instead detects a digital watermark embedded in the images, developed by Digimarc. Printer steganography, used by some colour laser printers to add hidden encoded information to printouts Coded anti-piracy, an anti–copyright-infringement technology which marks each film print of a motion picture with a distinguishing patterns of dots, used as a forensic identifier to identify the source of illegal copies "Photoshop and CDS". Adobe Systems Incorporated.
The rules for currency image use- website of the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group Nieves, J.. & Bringas, P.'Recognizing Banknote Patterns for Protecting Economic TransactionsDatabase and Expert Systems Applications, 2010 Workshop on', IEEE, 247--249. Data Genetics, Anti Counterfeit Measures
Motion Picture Association of America
The Motion Picture Association of America is an American trade association representing the five major film studios of Hollywood, streaming service giant, Netflix. Founded in 1922 as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, its original goal was to ensure the viability of the American film industry. In addition, the MPAA established guidelines for film content which resulted in the creation of the Production Code in 1930; this code known as the Hays Code, was replaced by a voluntary film rating system in 1968, managed by the Classification and Rating Administration. More the MPAA has advocated for the motion picture and television industry, with the goals of promoting effective copyright protection, reducing piracy, expanding market access, it has long worked to curb copyright infringement, including recent attempts to limit the sharing of copyrighted works via peer-to-peer file-sharing networks and by streaming from pirate sites. Former United States Ambassador to France Charles Rivkin is the current chairman and CEO of the MPAA.
The MPAA was founded as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America in 1922 as a trade association of member motion picture companies. At its founding, MPPDA member companies produced 70 to 80 percent of the films made in the United States. Former Postmaster General Will H. Hays was named the association's first president; the main focus of the MPPDA in its early years was on producing a strong public relations campaign to ensure that Hollywood remained financially stable and able to attract investment from Wall Street, while ensuring that American films had a "clean moral tone". The MPPDA instituted a code of conduct for Hollywood's actors in an attempt to govern their behavior offscreen; the code sought to protect American film interests abroad by encouraging film studios to avoid racist portrayals of foreigners. From the early days of the association, Hays spoke out against public censorship, the MPPDA worked to raise support from the general public for the film industry's efforts against such censorship.
Large portions of the public opposed censorship, but decried the lack of morals in movies. At the time of the MPPDA's founding, there was no national censorship, but some state and municipal laws required movies to be censored, a process oveseen by a local censorship board. Thus, in certain locations in the U. S. films were edited to comply with local laws regarding the onscreen portrayal of violence and sexuality, among other topics. This resulted in negative publicity for the studios and decreasing numbers of theater goers, who were uninterested in films that were sometimes so edited that they were incoherent. In 1929, more than 50 percent of American moviegoers lived in a location overseen by such a board. In 1924, Hays instituted "The Formula", a loose set of guidelines for filmmakers, in an effort to get the movie industry to self-regulate the issues that the censorship boards had been created to address. "The Formula" requested that studios send synopses of films being considered to the MPPDA for review.
This effort failed, however, as studios were under no obligation to send their scripts to Hays's office, nor to follow his recommendations. In 1927, Hays oversaw the creation of a code of "Be Carefuls" for the industry; this list outlined the issues. Hays created a Studio Relations Department with staff available to the studios for script reviews and advice regarding potential problems. Again, despite Hays' efforts, studios ignored the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls," and by the end of 1929, the MPPDA received only about 20 percent of Hollywood scripts prior to production, the number of regional and local censorship boards continued to increase. In 1930, the MPPDA introduced the Production Code, sometimes called the "Hays Code"; the Code consisted of moral guidelines regarding. Unlike the "Dont's and Be Carefuls", which the studios had ignored, the Production Code was endorsed by studio executives; the Code incorporated many of the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls" as specific examples of what could not be portrayed.
Among other rules, the code prohibited inclusion of "scenes of passion" unless they were essential to a film's plot. Because studio executives had been involved in the decision to adopt the code, MPPDA-member studios were more willing to submit scripts for consideration. However, the growing economic impacts of the Great Depression of the early 1930s increased pressure on studios to make films that would draw the largest possible audiences if it meant taking their chances with local censorship boards by disobeying the Code. In 1933 and 1934 the Catholic Legion of Decency, along with a number of Protestant and women's groups, launched plans to boycott films that they deemed immoral. In order to avert boycotts which might further harm the profitability of the film industry, the MPPDA created a new department, the Production Code Administration, with Joseph Breen as its head. Unlike previous attempts at self-censorship, PCA decisions were binding—no film could be exhibited in an American theater without a stamp of approval from the PCA, any producer attempting to do so faced a fine of $25,000.
After ten years of unsuccessful voluntary codes and expanding local censorship boards, the studio approved and agreed to enforce the codes, the nationwide "Production Code" was enforced starting on July 1, 1934. In the years that followed the
To counterfeit means to imitate something authentic, with the intent to steal, destroy, or replace the original, for use in illegal transactions, or otherwise to deceive individuals into believing that the fake is of equal or greater value than the real thing. Counterfeit products are unauthorized replicas of the real product. Counterfeit products are produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product; the word counterfeit describes both the forgeries of currency and documents, as well as the imitations of items such as clothing, shoes, pharmaceuticals and automobile parts, electronics, works of art and movies. Counterfeit products tend to have fake company logos and brands, have a reputation for being lower quality and may include toxic elements such as lead; this has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, due to automobile and aviation accidents, poisoning, or ceasing to take essential compounds. The counterfeiting of money is attacked aggressively by governments worldwide.
Paper money is the most popular product counterfeited. Counterfeit money is currency, produced without the legal sanction of the state or government and in deliberate violation of that country's laws; the United States Secret Service known for its guarding-of-officials task, was organized to combat the counterfeiting of American money. Counterfeit government bonds are public debt instruments that are produced without legal sanction, with the intention of "cashing them in" for authentic currency or using them as collateral to secure legitimate loans or lines of credit. Forgery is the process of adapting documents with the intention to deceive, it is a form of fraud, is a key technique in the execution of identity theft. Uttering and publishing is a term in United States law for the forgery of non-official documents, such as a trucking company's time and weight logs. Questioned document examination is a scientific process for investigating many aspects of various documents, is used to examine the provenance and verity of a suspected forgery.
Security printing is a printing industry specialty, focused on creating legal documents which are difficult to forge. The spread of counterfeit goods has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to infringement has increased significantly. Apparel and accessories accounted for over 50 percent of the counterfeit goods seized by U. S Customs and Border Control. According to the study of Counterfeiting Intelligence Bureau of the International Chamber of Commerce, counterfeit goods make up 5 to 7% of World Trade. A report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development indicates that up to US$200 Billion of international trade could have been in counterfeit and illegally copied goods in 2005. In November 2009, the OECD updated these estimates, concluding that the share of counterfeit and illegitimate goods in world trade had increased from 1.85% in 2000 to 1.95% in 2007. That represents an increase to US$250 billion worldwide. In a detailed breakdown of the counterfeit goods industry, the total loss faced by countries around the world is $600 billion, with the United States facing the most economic impact.
When calculating counterfeit products, current estimates place the global losses at $400 billion. On November 29, 2010, the Department of Homeland Security seized and shut down 82 websites as part of a U. S. crackdown of websites that sell counterfeit goods, was timed to coincide with "Cyber Monday," the start of the holiday online shopping season. Some see the rise in counterfeiting of goods as being related to globalisation; as more and more companies, in an effort to increase profits, move manufacturing to the cheaper labour markets of the third world, areas with weaker labour laws or environmental regulations, they give the means of production to foreign workers. These new managers of production have little or no loyalty to the original corporation, they see that profits are being made by the global brand for doing little and see the possibilities of removing the middle men and marketing directly to the consumer. This can result in counterfeit products being indistinguishable from original products, as they are being produced in the same company, in damage to the parent corporation due to copyright infringement.
Certain consumer goods very expensive or desirable brands or those that are easy to reproduce cheaply, have become frequent and common targets of counterfeiting. The counterfeiters either attempt to deceive the consumer into thinking they are purchasing a legitimate item, or convince the consumer that they could deceive others with the imitation. An item which makes no attempt to deceive, such as a copy of a DVD with missing or different cover art or a book without a cover, is called a "bootleg" or a "pirated copy" instead. Counterfeiting has been issued to "cash in" on the growing record collecting market. One major example is bootleggers have cloned copies of Elvis Presley's early singles for Sun Records since original copies starting changing hands amongst music fans for hundreds of US$; some who produce these do so with the wrong material. For example the song "Heartbreak Hotel", never released on Sun, as by the time Elvis' first heard it, prior to recording
Videotape is magnetic tape used for storing video and sound in addition. Information stored can be in the form of either digital signal. Videotape is used in both video tape recorders or, more videocassette recorders and camcorders. Videotapes are used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram; because video signals have a high bandwidth, stationary heads would require high tape speeds, in most cases, a helical-scan video head rotates against the moving tape to record the data in two dimensions. Tape is a linear method of storing information and thus imposes delays to access a portion of the tape, not under the heads; the early 2000s saw the introduction and rise to prominence of high quality random-access video recording media such as hard disks and flash memory. Since videotape has been relegated to archival and similar uses; the electronics division of entertainer Bing Crosby's production company, Bing Crosby Enterprises, gave the world's first demonstration of a videotape recording in Los Angeles on November 11, 1951.
Developed by John T. Mullin and Wayne R. Johnson since 1950, the device gave what were described as "blurred and indistinct" images using a modified Ampex 200 tape recorder and standard quarter-inch audio tape moving at 360 inches per second. A year an improved version using one-inch magnetic tape was shown to the press, who expressed amazement at the quality of the images although they had a "persistent grainy quality that looked like a worn motion picture". Overall the picture quality was still considered inferior to the best kinescope recordings on film. Bing Crosby Enterprises hoped to have a commercial version available in 1954 but none came forth; the BBC experimented from 1952 to 1958 with a high-speed linear videotape system called VERA, but this was unfeasible. It used half-inch tape on 20-inch reels traveling at 200 inches per second. RCA demonstrated the magnetic tape recording of both black-and-white and color television programs at its Princeton laboratories on December 1, 1953.
The high-speed longitudinal tape system, called Simplex, in development since 1951, could record and play back only a few minutes of a television program. The color system used half-inch tape on 10-1/2 inch reels to record five tracks, one each for red, green and audio; the black-and-white system used quarter-inch tape on 10-1/2 inch reels with two tracks, one for video and one for audio. Both systems ran at 360 inches per second with 2,500 feet on a reel. RCA-owned NBC first used it on The Jonathan Winters Show on October 23, 1956 when a prerecorded song sequence by Dorothy Collins in color was included in the otherwise live television program. In 1953, Dr. Norikazu Sawazaki developed a prototype helical scan video tape recorder. BCE demonstrated a color system in February 1955 using a longitudinal recording on half-inch tape. CBS, RCA's competitor, was about to order BCE machines when Ampex introduced the superior Quadruplex system. BCE was acquired by 3M Company in 1956. In 1959, Toshiba released the first commercial helical scan video tape recorder.
The first commercial professional broadcast quality videotape machines capable of replacing kinescopes were the two-inch quadruplex videotape machines introduced by Ampex on April 14, 1956 at the National Association of Broadcasters convention in Chicago. Quad employed a transverse four-head system on a two-inch tape, stationary heads for the sound track. CBS Television first used the Ampex VRX-1000 Mark IV at its Television City studios in Hollywood on November 30, 1956 to play a delayed broadcast of Douglas Edwards and the News from New York City to the Pacific Time Zone. On January 22, 1957, the NBC Television game show Truth or Consequences, produced in Hollywood, became the first program to be broadcast in all time zones from a prerecorded videotape. Ampex introduced a color videotape recorder in 1958 in a cross-licensing agreement with RCA, whose engineers had developed it from an Ampex black-and-white recorder. NBC's special, An Evening With Fred Astaire, is the oldest surviving television network color videotape, has been restored by the UCLA Film and Television Archive.
On December 7, 1963, instant replay was used for the first time during the live transmission of the Army–Navy Game by its inventor, director Tony Verna. Although Quad became the industry standard for thirty years, it has drawbacks such as an inability to freeze pictures, no picture search. In early machines, a tape could reliably be played back using only the same set of hand-made tape heads, which wore out quickly. Despite these problems, Quad is capable of producing excellent images. Subsequent videotape systems have used helical scan, where the video heads record diagonal tracks onto the tape. Many early videotape recordings were not preserved. While much less expensive and more convenient than kinescope, the high cost of 3M Scotch 179 and other early videotapes meant that most broadcasters erased and reused them, regarded videotape as a better and more cost-effective means of time-delaying broadcasts than kinescopes, it was the four time zones of the continental United States which had made the system desirable in the first place.
However, some classic television programs recorded on studio videotape still exist, are available on DVD – among them NBC's Peter Pan with Mary Martin as Peter, several episodes o
Machine Identification Code
A Machine Identification Code known as printer steganography, yellow dots, tracking dots or secret dots, is a digital watermark which certain color laser printers and copiers leave on every single printed page, allowing identification of the device with which a document was printed and giving clues to the originator. Developed by Xerox and Canon in the mid-1980s, its existence became public only in 2004. In 2018, scientists developed privacy software to anonymize prints in order to support whistleblowers publishing their work. In the mid-1980s Xerox pioneered an encoding mechanism for a unique number represented by tiny dots spread over the entire print area. Xerox developed the machine identification code "to assuage fears that their color copiers could be used to counterfeit bills" and received U. S. Patent No 5515451 describing the use of the yellow dots to identify the source of a copied or printed document. In October 2004, consumers first heard of the hidden feature, when it was used by Dutch authorities to track down counterfeiters who had used a Canon color laser printer.
In November 2004, PC World broke the news that this machine identification code had been used for decades in some printers, allowing law enforcement to identify and track down counterfeiters. The Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group has denied. In 2005, the civil rights group Electronic Frontier Foundation encouraged the public to send in sample printouts and subsequently decoded the pattern; the pattern has been demonstrated on a wide range of printers from different manufacturers and models. The EFF stated in 2015 that the documents that we received through FOIA suggested that all major manufacturers of color laser printers entered a secret agreement with governments to ensure that the output of those printers is forensically traceable. In 2007, the European Parliament was asked about the question of invasion of privacy; the pattern consists of a dot-matrix spread of yellow dots, which can be seen with the naked eye. The dots have a diameter of a spacing of about one millimeter, their arrangement encodes the serial number of the device and time of the printing, is repeated several times across the printing area in case of errors.
For example, if the code consists of 8 × 16 dots in a square or hexagonal pattern, it spreads over a surface of about 4 square centimetres and appears on a sheet of size DIN-A4 paper about 150 times. Thus, it can be analyzed if only fragments or excerpts are available; some printers arrange yellow dots in random point clouds. According to the Chaos Computer Club in 2005, color printers leave the code in a matrix of 32 × 16 dots and thus can store 64 bytes of data; as of 2011, Xerox was one of the few manufacturers to draw attention to the marked pages, stating in a product description, "The digital color printing system is equipped with an anti-counterfeit identification and banknote recognition system according to the requirements of numerous governments. Each copy shall be marked with a label which, if necessary, allows identification of the printing system with which it was created; this code is not visible under normal conditions."In 2018, scientists at the TU Dresden analyzed the patterns of 106 printer models from 18 manufacturers and found four different encoding schemes.
The Machine Identification Code can be made visible by printing or copying a page and subsequently scanning a small section with a high-resolution scanner. The yellow color channel can be enhanced with an image processing program, to make any dots of the MIC visible. Under good lighting conditions, a magnifying glass may be enough to see the pattern. Under UV-light the yellow dots are recognizable. Using this steganographic process, high-quality copies of an original under blue light can be made identifiable. Using this process shredded prints can be restored: The 2011 "Shredder Challenge" initiated by the DARPA was solved by a team called "All Your Shreds Are Belong To U. S." consisting of Otavio Good and two colleagues. Copies or printouts of documents with confidential personal information, for example health care information, account statements, tax declaration or balance sheets, can be traced to the owner of the printer and the creation date of the documents can be revealed; this traceability is unknown to many users and inaccessible, as manufacturers do not publicize the code that produces these patterns.
It is unclear which data may be unintentionally passed on with printout. In particular, there are no mentions of the technique in the support materials of most affected printers. In 2005 Electronic Frontier Foundation sought a decoding method and made available a python script for analysis. In 2018, scientists from the TU Dresden developed and published a tool to extract and analyze the steganographic codes of a given color printer and subsequently to anonymize prints from that printer; the anonymization works by printing additional yellow dots on top of the Machine Identification Code. The scientists made the software available in order to support whistleblowers in their efforts to publicize grievances. Other methods of identification are not as recognizable as yellow dots. For example, a modulation of laser intensity and a variation of shades of grey in texts are feasible; as of 2006, it was unknown. EURion constellation, a dot matrix spread over a bank note, which stops some printers and color copiers from processing.
Laudatio der deutschen BigBrotherAwards 2004 Information by the Chaos Computer Club Information by the Electronic Frontier Foundation EFF list of printers, which do or do