An airline alliance is an aviation industry arrangement between two or more airlines agreeing to cooperate on a substantial level. Alliances may provide marketing branding to facilitate travelers making inter-airline codeshare connections within countries; this branding may involve unified aircraft liveries of member aircraft. In 2015, Star Alliance was the largest with 23% of total scheduled traffic in revenue passenger miles /revenue passenger kilometres, followed by SkyTeam with 20.4% and Oneworld with 17.8%, leaving 38.8% for others. Benefits can consist of: An extended network realised through codeshare agreements. Many alliances started as only codeshare networks. Cost reduction from sharing of: sales offices maintenance facilities operational facilities, e.g. catering or computer systems. Operational staff, e.g. ground handling personnel, at check-in and boarding desks. Investments and purchases, e.g.. Traveler benefits can include: lower prices due to lowered operational costs for a given route.
More departure times to choose from on a given route. More destinations within easy reach. Shorter travel times as a result of optimised transfers. A wider range of airport lounges shared with alliance members fast track access on all alliance members if having frequent flyer status faster mileage rewards by earning miles for a single account on several different carriers. Round-the-world tickets, enabling travelers to fly over the world for a low price. Airline alliances may create disadvantages for the traveler, such as: Higher prices when competition is erased on a certain route. Less frequent flights: for instance, if two airlines separately fly three and two times a day on a shared route, their alliance might fly less than 5 times a day on the same route; this might be true between hub cities for each airline. E.g. flights between Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. The ability of an airline to join an alliance may be restricted by laws and regulations or subject to approval by authorities.
Competition law issues must be considered in some countries. The first airline alliance was formed in the 1930s, when Panair do Brasil and its parent company Pan American World Airways agreed to exchange routes to Latin America. In 1990, the African Joint Air Services Accord between Tanzania and Zambia led to the launch of Alliance Air in 1994, with South African Airways, Air Tanzania, Uganda Airlines and the governments of Uganda and Tanzania as shareholders; the first large alliance began in 1989, when Northwest Airlines and KLM agreed to large-scale codesharing. In 1992, the Netherlands signed the first open skies agreement with the United States, in spite of objections from the European Union, which gave both countries unrestricted landing rights on the other's soil. Landing rights are granted for a fixed number of flights per week to a fixed destination; each adjustment requires negotiations between governments rather than between the companies involved. In return, the United States granted antitrust immunity to the alliance between Northwest Airlines and KLM.
Other alliances would struggle for years to overcome the transnational barriers and lack of antitrust immunity, still do so. The Star Alliance was founded in 1997, which brought competing airlines to form Oneworld in 1999 and SkyTeam in 2000. In 2010 Richard Branson, chairman of the Virgin Group, announced his intention to form a fourth alliance among Virgin branded airlines. In September 2011, Branson said that Virgin Atlantic would join one of the existing alliances. In December 2012, Delta Air Lines purchased Singapore Airlines' 49% stake in Virgin Atlantic for £224 million. Virgin America was absorbed into Alaska Airlines, not a member of any alliance, in April 2018. On February 14, 2013, it was announced that American Airlines and US Airways would merge, retaining the American Airlines name and would remain in the Oneworld alliance. US Airways' participation in the Star Alliance lapsed. In 2012, in South America, LAN Airlines and TAM Airlines began their merger. In March 2014, with the merger complete, TAM became part of LAN in Oneworld.
On September 21, 2015, the Vanilla Alliance was formed between several airlines based in the Indian Ocean region, in order to improve air connectivity within the region. The founding members are Air Austral, Air Mauritius, Air Madagascar, Air Seychelles, Int'Air Îles. On January 18, 2016, the first alliance of low-cost carriers was formed, U-FLY Alliance; the founding members—HK Express, Lucky Air, Urumqi Air, West Air—are all affiliated with HNA Group, although the alliance is seeking airlines not within the group. On May 16, 2016, the world's largest alliance of low-cost carriers was formed, Value Alliance; the founding members are Cebu Pacific, Jeju Air, Nok Air, NokScoot, Scoot Airlines, Tigerair Australia, Vanilla Air. Star Alliance, founded in 1997 has 27 members: Former members: Juneyao Airlines, 2017 Oneworld, founded in 1999 has 13 members: Future members: Former members: Aer Lingus, left One World Alliance on 31st March 2007 Fiji Airways, 2018 SkyTeam, founded in 2000 has 19 members: Former members: Vanilla Alliance, founded in 2015 has 5 members: U-FLY Alliance, founded in 2016 has 5 members: Value Alliance, founded in 2016 has 8 members: Former members: Tigerair, 2016–2017, merged with Scoot Oneworld SkyTeam Star Alliance Value Alliance Graham Dunn.
"The 20-year history of globa
Warsaw Chopin Airport
Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport, more referred to as Chopin Airport or Warsaw-Chopin Airport, is an international airport located in the Włochy district of Warsaw, Poland. As Poland's largest, covering 834 hectares of land, busiest airport, Warsaw Chopin handles just under 40% of the country's air passenger traffic. Warsaw Chopin handles 300 scheduled flights daily and an ever-rising number of charters. London, Frankfurt and Amsterdam are the busiest international connections, while Kraków, Wrocław, Gdańsk are the most popular domestic ones. Warsaw Chopin Airport is, with 17.7 million passengers in 2018, the busiest airport in the newer EU member states. Known as Warsaw-Okecie Airport or Okecie International Airport, the airport bore the name of its Okęcie neighborhood throughout its history, until its renaming for Polish composer and former Warsaw resident Frédéric Chopin in 2001. Despite the official change, "Okecie" remains in popular and industry use, including air traffic and aerodrome references.
An underground railway station connected from the airport to Warsaw's suburban rail system was opened in June 2012 in time for the Euro 2012 football championships, on 25 November 2013, the airport announced accommodating – for the first time in history – its 10 millionth passenger in a single year. The secondary international airport of the city is the much smaller Warsaw Modlin Airport, which opened in 2012 and is used for low-cost traffic. In 1924, when urban development around Warsaw's aerodrome at Mokotów Field began affecting air traffic, the Ministry of Railways purchased land near the village of Okęcie to construct a new airport. On 29 April 1934, the Polish president, Ignacy Mościcki, opened Central Airport, which from on took over the handling of all traffic from the former civilian aerodrome at Pole Mokotowskie. In the weeks after its opening, a journalist from the magazine Flight and Air Defence of Poland reported the following: "In a large pastel-coloured hall, we see a ticket office, a customs post and post office, police station and a kiosk with various newspapers etc...
On the first floor, there is a restaurant and viewing terrace, from where one can see the entire territory of the airport." With the building finished in 1933, the new modernist premises of the Warsaw airport cost the State Treasury around 10 million Zloty. The new complex included three hangars, exhibition space, of course a large, modern terminal building with a concrete taxiway complete with stands for a number of aircraft. Warsaw thus received an airport befitting of any European capital city. In its first year of operation, Okęcie served around 10,750 passengers. After the aerodrome's civilian buildings were finished, the military potential of the site began to be developed, with a Polish Air Force base opening soon after; as air traffic and the number of aircraft movements grew year on year, the authorities identified the need to develop a new system for air traffic navigation and control. The state, as a result, marked a number of air corridors for use by civil airlines, whilst radio stations were established to regulate such traffic and divert it away from sensitive and restricted areas.
By 1938, the airport was equipped with 16 immigration checkpoints for passengers both departing and arriving on international flights. These posts were manned by the Polish Border Guard. By 1937, the airport had received new radio navigation equipment and was using Lorenz beam technology to assure the safety of landings and approaches over Warsaw, during periods of poor visibility or bad weather. On the eve of World War II, Okęcie airport was connected by regular scheduled flights with 6 domestic and 17 foreign airports, among which were Tel-Aviv and Beirut in Lebanon. During World War II, Okęcie was used as a battleground between the German Army and Polish resistance and was completely destroyed. From the first day of the war in Poland, Okęcie became a target for bombing by the German Luftwaffe. Once Warsaw was occupied by the German army, the airport became the base for two German aviation schools and a Junkers aircraft repair works. During this period, the airport received its first concrete runway and taxiways.
However, with the German withdrawal from the city, both Okęcie's remaining buildings and ground infrastructure were intentionally destroyed in order to deny their use to the advancing Red Army and Polish First Army. After the war, LOT Polish Airlines resumed operations at Okęcie using what was left of the pre-war infrastructure. By the end of the 1940s, the airport had been reconnected with most of Poland's most important cities and a number of international services, including those to Belgrade, Bucharest, Brussels, Copenhagen and Stockholm. In the first half of the 1950s, this development continued and the airport authorities continued to hold talks with many international airlines on the subject of opening
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
An airline ticket is a document or electronic record, issued by an airline or a travel agency, that confirms that an individual is entitled to a seat on a flight on an aircraft. The airline ticket may be one of two types: a paper ticket, which comprises vouchers; the ticket, in either form, is required to obtain a boarding pass during check-in at the airport. With the boarding pass and the attached ticket, the passenger is allowed to board the aircraft. Regardless of the type, all tickets contain the following information: The passenger's name; the issuing airline. A ticket number, including the airline's 3 digit code at the start of the number; the cities the ticket is valid for travel between. Flight that the ticket is valid for. Baggage allowance. Fare. Taxes; the "Fare Basis", an alpha or alpha-numeric code that identifies the fare. Restrictions on changes and refunds.. Dates that the ticket is valid for. "Form of payment", i.e. details of how the ticket was paid for, which will in turn affect how it would be refunded.
The Rate of Exchange used to calculate any international parts of the tax. A "Fare Construction" or "Linear" showing the breakdown of the total fare. Times on airline tickets are for the local time zone where the flight will be at that moment. A revenue passenger on an airline must hold a valid issued ticket. In order for a ticket to be issued, there are two distinct process: ReservationA reservation for an itinerary is made in the airline system, either directly with the airline of by an agent; the itinerary includes all the above details needed for the issuance of an air ticket, except the ticket number. When the reservation the made, a passenger name record will be created, used to manage the reservation and check in, it is possible to have multiple passengers in a single passenger name record. IssuanceHaving a reservation does not entitle the passenger to travel. Only when the airline receives the payment, a ticket is issued, linked to the reservation which allows the passenger to travel. Traditionally and payment are separate steps, which the time between them are defined in the fare rules when the reservation is made.
However, it is more common to require immediate payment on online booking systems. Each passenger must hold his/her own air ticket, as shown by an individual ticket number when the reservations are linked by a single PNR. IATA announced that as of June 2008, IATA-member airlines will no longer issue any paper tickets. A ticket is only good on the airline for which it was purchased. However, an airline can endorse the ticket, so that it may be accepted by other airlines, sometimes on standby basis or with a confirmed seat; the ticket is for a specific flight. It is possible to purchase an'open' ticket, which allows travel on any flight between the destinations listed on the ticket; the cost for doing this is greater than a ticket for a specific flight. Some tickets are refundable. However, the lower cost tickets are not refundable and may carry many additional restrictions; the carrier is represented by a standardized 2-letter code. In the example above, Thai Airways is TG; the departure and destination cities are represented by International Air Transport Association airport codes.
In the example above, Munich is MUC and Bangkok is BKK. The International Air Transport Association is the standard setting organization. Only one person can use a ticket. If multiple people are traveling together, the tickets are linked together by the same record locator or reservation number, which are assigned, if the tickets were purchased at the same time. If not, most airlines can cross-reference the tickets together in their reservation systems; this allows all members in a party to be processed in a group, allowing seat assignments to be together When paper tickets were still used, a practice existed by travellers to get rid of their tickets, when they decided to alter the course of their trips. This practice consisted of selling the ticket to other travellers, after which the seller accompanied the buyer at the time of departure to the airport. Here, the original owner checked in under his name and provided the airline with the buyer's baggage. After this, the buyer boarded the airplane at the moment of departure.
However, since most airlines check identification on boarding, this procedure is functional. The practice of using another person's ticket is illegal in many jurisdictions. Airline consolidator Variable pricing Miscellaneous charges order The dictionary definition of paper ticket at Wiktionary Media related to Air tickets at Wikimedia Commons
World's largest airlines
The world's largest airlines can be defined in several ways. American Airlines Group is the largest by its fleet size, profit, passengers carried and revenue passenger mile. Delta Air Lines is the largest by market capitalization. Lufthansa Group is the largest by number of employees, FedEx Express by freight tonne-kilometers, Turkish Airlines by number of countries served and UPS Airlines by number of destinations served. Note that Emirates is a government-owned company and is thus not included in this list of public companies, its 2014-2015 revenue was DH 88.819 billion, profit DH 4.555 billion, assets DH 111.362 billion with 56,725 employees. The IATA reports numbers for individual air operator's certificates and groups of multiple airlines can report larger numbers. Airline holding groups Individual airlines
Value Alliance is an airline alliance formed in May 2016. It is the world's second alliance to consist only of low-cost carriers. However, it is the first pan-regional LCC alliance, it comprises six Asia-Pacific airlines: Cebu Pacific, Jeju Air, Nok Air, NokScoot and Scoot. Value Alliance is the fourth largest airline alliance in terms of passengers, destinations, combined fleet and members, ahead of U-FLY Alliance and Vanilla Alliance; the Value Alliance was established by eight airlines in the Asia-Pacific region on 16 May 2016. The alliance allows passengers to book flights with all of the eight carriers through each partner website, to create itineraries across the region through a single booking; the combined carriers collectively serve more than 160 destinations in the Asia-Pacific region, with a total fleet of 176 aircraft and an annual passenger total of 47 million in 2015. As of March 2019, the following airlines are members of Value Alliance: Media related to Value Alliance at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Allegheny Airlines was a U. S. airline that operated out of Pittsburgh, United States, from 1952 to 1979. It was a forerunner of US Airways, now merged into American Airlines, its headquarters were at Washington National Airport in Virginia. Allegheny Airlines began as All American Aviation Company providing mail delivery starting on 7 March 1939, it was founded by du Pont family brothers Richard C. du Pont and Alexis Felix du Pont, Jr.. In 1949 the company was renamed All American Airways as it switched from air mail to passenger service. On 1 January 1953 it was again renamed, to Allegheny Airlines. Like other local service airlines of the time, Allegheny was subsidized. In 1960, Allegheny headquarters were in Washington, D. C. Allegheny added the Convair 540 to its fleet in 1961; the aircraft proved unreliable, incurring problems with its British-made Napier Elands that had replaced the Convair's piston engines. The airline bought new Fairchild F-27Js that the company named "Vistaliner"; the F-27J was a U.
S.-built version of the Fokker F27. The airline switched to General Motors/Allison turboprops in the Convair 580 which the carrier named the "Vistacruiser"; the last DC-3 flights were in 1962 and the last piston flights were in 1967. Allegheny Airlines was the first airline with a network of affiliated regional airlines, the Allegheny Commuter System. Contributing to Allegheny’s growth were the acquisitions of Lake Central Airlines in 1968 and Mohawk Airlines in 1972. Mohawk added BAC One-Elevens to the fleet. Allegheny added other jets, notably the McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 which the company named the "Vistajet". Jets included Boeing 727-100s and 727-200s; as deregulation dawned, looking to shed its regional image, changed its name to USAir on October 28, 1979. After Allegheny Airlines rebranded itself as USAir, the company retained its earlier name for its Allegheny Commuter service renamed US Airways Express. Under USAir, which renamed itself US Airways, the Allegheny name continued to be used by the parent company, keeping the trademark under US Airways' control.
Suburban Airlines was headquartered at the Reading Airport in Reading and flew a large fleet of Short 330s and Short 360s, being the launch customer for the Shorts 360. It had three Fokker F27 "Friendship" turboprops, was the last US operator of passenger F27s. After replacing much of its Shorts fleet with DeHavilland DHC-8s, retiring the F27s, it merged with another owned USAir subsidiary, Pennsylvania Airlines, headquartered at Harrisburg International Airport near Harrisburg and the combined airline retained the historic name until its own merger with another wholly owned subsidiary, Piedmont Airlines. After retiring earlier aircraft, Allegheny and after its mergers flew De Havilland Canada Dash 8 turboprop aircraft to 35 airports in the northeastern United States, Canada, from hubs at Boston and Philadelphia, its activities and Dash 8 fleet were incorporated into a regional airline, Piedmont Airlines, in 2004. As of 2016, an Airbus A319 aircraft of American Airlines is painted in Allegheny colors.
This is a list of cities Allegheny Airlines served until October 1979. It does not include most cities served before then. Allegheny flew to dozens more cities at some point, including Erie and the Wyoming Valley. Akron, Ohio -Akron Canton Airport Albany, New York - Albany County Airport Allentown, Pennsylvania - Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton International Airport Baltimore, Maryland - Baltimore/Washington International Airport Binghamton, New York - Broome County Airport Boston, Massachusetts - Logan International Airport Bradford, Pennsylvania - Bradford Regional Airport Bridgeport, Connecticut - Igor I. Sikorsky Memorial Airport Buffalo, New York - Greater Buffalo-Niagara Falls International Airport Burlington, Vermont - Burlington International Airport Chicago, Illinois - O'Hare International Airport Cincinnati, Ohio - Greater Cincinnati International Airport Cleveland, Ohio - Hopkins International Airport Columbus, Ohio - Port Columbus International Airport Dayton, Ohio - James M. Cox International Airport Denver, Colorado - Stapleton International Airport Detroit, Michigan - Metro Airport DuBois, Pennsylvania - DuBois-Jefferson County Airport Elmira, New York - Chemung County Airport Erie, Pennsylvania - Erie International Airport Evansville, Indiana - Evansville Regional Airport Glens Falls, New York - Warren County Airport Harrisburg, Pennsylvania - Harrisburg International Airport Hartford, Connecticut - Bradley International Airport Hagerstown, Maryland - Hagerstown Regional Airport Huntington, West Virginia -Tri-State Airport Indianapolis, Indiana - Weir Cook Airport Islip, New York - Islip Airport Ithaca, New York - Tompkins County Airport Jamestown, New York - Chautauqua County-Jamestown Airport Keene, New Hampshire - Dillant-Hopkins Airport Kingsport, Tennessee - Tri-Cities Regional Airport Lima, Ohio - Lima Allen County Airport Louisville, Kentucky - Standiford Field Lock Haven, Pennsylvania - William T. Piper Memorial Airport Memphis, Tennessee - Memphis International Airport Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota - Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport Nashville, Tennessee - Berry Field Newark, New Jersey - Newark International Airport New Haven, Connecticut - Tweed New Haven Airport New Orleans, Louisiana - Moisant Field New York, New York - John F. Kennedy International Airport New York, New York - La Guardia Airport Norfolk, Virginia -Norfolk International Airport Omaha, Nebraska - Eppley Airfield Parkersburg, West Virginia - Wood County Airport Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - Philadelphia International A