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Codex Gigas

The Codex Gigas is the largest extant medieval illuminated manuscript in the world, at a length of 92 cm. It is known as the Devil's Bible because of a unusual full-page portrait of the devil, the legend surrounding its creation, it was created in the early 13th century in the Benedictine monastery of Podlažice in Bohemia, a region in the modern-day Czech Republic. It contains the complete Vulgate Bible as well as other popular works, all written in Latin. Between the Old and New Testaments are a selection of other popular medieval reference works: Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews and De bello iudaico, Isidore of Seville's encyclopedia Etymologiae, the chronicle of Cosmas of Prague, medical works. Finding its way to the imperial library of Rudolf II in Prague, the entire collection was taken as spoils of war by the Swedish in 1648 during the Thirty Years' War, the manuscript is now preserved at the National Library of Sweden in Stockholm, where it is on display for the general public. Large illuminated bibles were a typical feature of Romanesque monastic book production, but within this group the page-size of the Codex Gigas is exceptional.

The codex's bookbinding is wooden boards covered with ornate metal guards and fittings. At 92 cm long, 50 cm wide and 22 cm thick, it is the largest known medieval manuscript. Weighing 74.8 kg, Codex Gigas is composed of 310 leaves of vellum claimed to be made from the skins of 160 donkeys, or calfskin, covering 142.6 m2 in total. It contained 320 sheets, though some of these were subsequently removed, it is unknown who removed the pages or for what purpose but it seems that they contained the monastic rules of the Benedictines. The manuscript includes illuminations in red, yellow and gold. Capital letters at the start of books of the bible and the chronicle are elaborately illuminated in several colours, sometimes taking up most of the page. There are 20 initials with the letters in blue, with vine decoration in red. With the exception of the portraits of the devil, an author portrait of Josephus, a squirrel perched on top of an initial, the illuminations all display geometrical or plant-based forms, rather than human or animal forms.

There are two images representing Heaven and Earth during the Creation, as blue and green circles with the sun moon and some stars, a planet all of sea with no landmasses. Within books, major capitals are much enlarged, taking up the height of about five to six lines of text, in red ink, placed in the margins. Less important divisions such as the start of verses are enlarged within the text and highlighted with yellowish ink around the letter forms; the codex has a unified look as the nature of the writing is unchanged throughout, showing no signs of age, disease or mood on the part of the scribe. This may have led to the belief that the whole book was written in a short time, but scientists are starting to investigate the theory that it took over 20 years to complete; the length and detail of the codex are of such extraordinary magnitude that legend surrounds its origin the story that it was written by one scribe in one night with help from the devil himself. Folio 290 recto, otherwise empty, includes a picture of the devil, about 50 cm tall.

Directly opposite the devil is a full page depiction of the kingdom of heaven, thus juxtaposing contrasting images of Good and Evil. The devil is shown frontally, he is clothed in a white loincloth with small comma-shaped red dashes. These dashes have been interpreted as the tails of a common symbol of sovereignty, he has no tail, his body and legs are of normal human proportions. His hands and feet end with toes each, terminating in large claws, his huge horns are red as. He has a large, dark green head, his hair forms a skull cap of dense curls, his eyes are small, with red pupils, his red-tipped ears are large. His open mouth reveals his small white teeth, two long red tongues protrude from the corners of his mouth; this doubling of tongues evokes negative associations with serpents, which have forked tongues, a metaphoric reference to dishonest human beings. The expression ` forked tongues' is found in the Bible. Several pages before this double spread are written in yellow characters on a blackened parchment and have a gloomy character, somewhat different from the rest of the codex.

The reason for the variation in coloring is. Vellum, or scraped and dried animal hide, "tans" when exposed to ultraviolet light. Over centuries, the pages that were most turned have developed this tell-tale darker color. According to legend, the Codex was created by Herman the Recluse in the Benedictine monastery of Podlažice near Chrudim in the Czech Republic; the monastery was destroyed some time in the 15th century during the Hussite Revolution. Records in the codex end in the year 1229; the codex was pledged to the Cistercians Sedlec Monastery and bought by the Benedictine monastery in Břevnov. From 1477 to 1593, it was kept in the library of a monastery in Broumov until it was taken to Prague in 1594 to form a part of the collections of the Emperor Rudolf II. At the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648, the entire collection was taken as war booty by the Swedish army. From 1649 to 2007, the manuscript was

The Return of Doctor Mysterio

"The Return of Doctor Mysterio" is an episode of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. First broadcast on BBC One on 25 December 2016, it is the twelfth Christmas special since the show's revival in 2005, it was directed by Ed Bazalgette. The episode received positive reviews from critics; the only episode of 2016, it stars Peter Capaldi as the Twelfth Doctor, is the first to feature Nardole, introduced in the previous – Christmas 2015 – episode "The Husbands of River Song", as his companion. The episode is set in New York City, involves the Doctor and Nardole linking with journalist Lucy Fletcher and a superhero called The Ghost to combat brain-swapping aliens. In New York City on Christmas Eve of 1992, an 8-year-old boy named Grant wakes to find the Twelfth Doctor dangling outside the window of his family's apartment and helps him come into his bedroom. Taking Grant to the rooftop, the Doctor reveals he accidentally set off a trap for a device he was building, he enlists Grant to help complete it.

However Grant mistakenly swallows a wish-granting gemstone needed for the device, believing it to be medicine being granted his wish to be a superhero. Abandoning the device, the Doctor makes Grant promise to not use his new superpowers before he leaves; the Doctor returns to New York in 2016 with Nardole, whom he removed from Hydroflax's body and rebuilt, to investigate Harmony Shoals, a multinational research company. They encounter a news reporter, Lucy Fletcher, conducting a similar investigation; the group discovers that it is being secretly run by a group of living alien brains that transplant themselves into any living creature they need for their plans. They witness the killing of Mr Brock, for his body. Tracked down by Dr Sim, an employee the brains took over, the group is rescued by a masked superhero named the Ghost, who afterwards transports Lucy close to her home. Returning to her apartment before her, the Ghost transforms back into Grant, who works for Lucy as a nanny, he is shocked to find the Doctor and Nardole waiting for him, having tracked him down via the gemstone fused inside his body.

When Lucy returns and interrogates the Time Lord by squeezing a stress toy she calls "Mr. Huffle", the Doctor reveals to her that the alien brains colonise planets by taking control of their prominent leaders, with Earth being their next target. Leaving Lucy to prepare for an interview with Grant's alter ego, the Doctor and Nardole track down the alien's ship in a low orbit and board it via the TARDIS. There, they discover that the ship's reactor is in a critical state and realise from Dr Sim that he intends to drop it on New York. Remembering an observation made by Nardole, the Doctor realises the city would be vaporised except for the Harmony Shoals building. World leaders would take shelter in the company's other buildings within each capital city, believing Earth was under attack allowing the brains to take them over. After Dr Sim lets slip the ship is to be dropped at a designated time, the Doctor forces its descent ahead of schedule. Ghost and Lucy are captured by the brains during the interview.

They plan to transplant themselves into Ghost's body. Ghost flees to deprive the brains of their prize returns as Grant to protect Lucy. Unable to change the ship's course during its descent, the Doctor sends Grant a message requesting his help. Grant manages to stop the alien's ship from crashing into the city, but reveals himself as the Ghost to Lucy in the process. Lucy is won over and Grant takes her in tow as he disposes of the ship; the Doctor alerts UNIT, which shuts down Harmony Shoals, unaware that the alien brain in Dr Sims has escaped within one of their soldiers. Back at Lucy's apartment, Grant informs the Doctor he will no longer use his powers and retire his costumed identity; as the Time Lord leaves, Lucy asks him. The Doctor gives only a vague answer before departing. Nardole reveals that the Doctor is mourning the loss of River Song, but will recover, he leaves with the Doctor to assist him further. At the beginning of the episode, the Doctor is constructing a device to reverse the paradoxes created during his previous visit in "The Angels Take Manhattan".

The Doctor mentions that he gets "an invasion" every Christmas, a reference to the different invasions of Earth taking place during most Doctor Who Christmas specials. The unnamed brain-swapping aliens last appeared in the 2015 Christmas special "The Husbands of River Song", where they were servants of King Hydroflax, their main agent, stated that they represented "the Shoal of the Winter Harmony."The Doctor tells Lucy that he works for Scotland Yard, which he did in "The Woman Who Lived". The Tenth Doctor told the guests at Lady Eddison's manor he was a chief inspector from Scotland Yard in "The Unicorn and the Wasp", while the Eleventh Doctor told President Richard Nixon he was an undercover operative from Scotland Yard in "The Impossible Astronaut". A cinema near Lucy's apartment features a film called The Mind of Evil, the name of a Third Doctor serial. Nardole mentions that the Doctor cut him out of Hydroflax's body, referring to off-screen events following "The Husbands of River Song" where he was decapitated and his head was placed inside the artificially intelligent robotic body of King Hydroflax.

When the Doctor complains that Grant promised him never to use his powers, Nardole brings up the Time Lord policy of never interfering with other peoples or cultures, first mentioned in the Second Doctor serial The War Games. When clearing out the headquart

Victoria Hospital (London, Ontario)

Victoria Hospital, in London, Canada, is a large teaching hospital affiliated with the University of Western Ontario. Along with University Hospital it is part of London Health Sciences Centre, which itself is the Lead Trauma Hospital of the Southwestern Local Health Integration Network. London's first hospital was housed in a log cabin on the military barracks at Victoria Park, constructed in 1838; the aging hospital was replaced in 1875 by the London General Hospital, constructed on a new site in the city's south end. Pressure on the new hospital from the city's growing population led to a much larger hospital being constructed adjacent to London General Hospital, renamed in 1899 for Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee; the hospital building was demolished and a larger building constructed on the same site in 1939, three expansions were added up to 1967. The Victoria Hospital Corporation acquired a federally operated military hospital in 1977, along with 80 acres of land; the new site was expanded and became Victoria Hospital Westminster Campus.

On June 13, 2005, most patient services were transferred to the newly renamed Victoria Hospital while the original hospital was renamed South Street Hospital, other services continued to be transferred to the new site over the next several years. South Street Hospital closed permanently in 2013 and was demolished that year. Victoria Hospital traces its origins to the London General Hospital, constructed to replace an aging log cabin hospital operating in Victoria Park; the site of the London General Hospital, located on Ottoway Avenue, was dedicated in 1874. The hospital opened the next year, with 56 beds on two floors. In 1881, the Western University in London sought to create a Faculty of Medicine but lacked an appropriate facility; the following spring, the university purchased a cottage on St. James Street near the university campus to be renovated for a classroom facility; the medical school entered into an agreement with City Council to use the hospital for medical training, in exchange for an annual fee of $5.00 per student.

The first class of sixteen students began instruction on October 1, 1882. The hospital itself opened a training program for nurses the following year, making London the third city in Canada with such a program. Growth of the city led to hospital overcrowding in the late nineteenth century; the hospital added a small expansion in 1890, however it was clear that the building would not be adequate for the city's long-term needs. As Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee passed in 1897, the English monarch requested that all memorials of the event be dedicated to humanitarian purposes; the Queen's request and popularity presented an opportunity for the City to justify the cost of expanding the hospital. Throughout 1897-8, the City Council, local doctors, public groups debated plans for construction of an expansion to the London General Hospital, or construction of a new hospital, whether to expand on the current site or obtain land for a new hospital. In June 1898, after an election and much debate, City Council approved construction of a new 140-bed facility on the same site, at a cost of $70,000, with a plan to convert the existing hospital to a nurses' residence.

Victoria Hospital opened on November 16, 1899. Rooms in the new hospital's private ward were furnished by local benefactors, while public wards were furnished by a last-minute bulk purchase by the Hospital Trust from local factories. Due to lack of funds, the conversion of the old hospital was postponed indefinitely. Children's Hospital at London Health Sciences Centre, which shares facilities with Victoria Hospital History of LHSC - Growing to Serve--: a history of Victoria Hospital, Ontario

Rudolf the Black Cat

Rudolf the Black Cat is a 2016 Japanese computer-animated family adventure drama film directed by Kunihiko Yuyama and Motonori Sakakibara. It was released in Japan by Toho on August 6, 2016. Rudolf is a domestic little black cat from the little town of Gifu who never left his home, being cared for by the child Rie, his owner; when Rie's mother asks her to visit his grandmother to take her food, Rudolf follows Rie out of the house in the wish to know the world outside the home. But when Rudolf runs afoul of a fishmonger, running away and gets inside a trailer of a truck, he's knocked out cold by a broom the fishmonger threw; when Rudolf wakes up and gets out from the trailer to explore, he meets "Gottalot", a big bobtailed street cat who lets Rudolf sleep under a temple. The next morning and Rudolf traverse the town, as Rudolf learns that Gottalot was given a lot of names by the people he encountered, but when he asks Gottalot if he was a pet cat, he leaves in a huff. Soon after, Rudolf encounters another cat by the name of Buchi with a habit of imitating martial arts moves and yelling "Hyah", who tells Rudolf that Gottalot was known as the Junk Tiger.

He tells Rudolf about a dangerous dog by the name of Devil. As Buchi offers to let Rudolf hang around his house, he explains Gottalot's fight against a Doberman, who threatens to tear his ear off if He returns. Buchi cuts the story short when He sees a beautiful Siamese cat and goes after Her, but says goodbye to Rudolf. Returning to the temple, Gottalot after learning that Buchi told Rudolf about his past, Gottalot explains that next to Devil's house is where His owner used to live until He went to the United States, leaving Him, but taught Him one thing, the ability to read. After Gottalot and Rudolf encounter Devil, Gottalot explained that since He became a stray, Devil looked down on Him. After Meeting up with Buchi and Rudolf infiltrate the school and enter a classroom, where Rudolf and Buchi become intrigued with the books, encouraging Rudolf to learn to read as Gottalot says that Rudolf will need to learn how to write; the days went by as Rudolf learned to read and understand the Japanese characters.

One day, when one of the teachers is watching TV, Rudolf sees His hometown, Gifu, known for the cable cars and castles. Despite knowing that Gifu is over a hundred miles away, Rudolf decides to find a way to get home, by going into a truck heading for Gifu, but what He entered was a freezer truck. Gottalot and Buchi retrieve Rudolf and free Him, but Gottalot berates Rudolf for freezing to death. Autumn came, when a poster about a tour bus to Gifu and Gottalot ask Buchi, who becomes enticed to a Scottish Fold Cat named Misha who tells them that the Bus will come at November 10 on 6:30 AM. In the day, Gottalot was injured by Devil. So, Rudolf tells Buchi to watch over Gottalot as He alerts the schoolteacher and leads Him to Gottalot, the teacher says that Gottalot is still alive as He brings the injured cat to a doctor for medical attention. Buchi explains to Rudolf; the schoolteacher tells the cats that Gottalot will stay with Him as He'll need to rest for 2 weeks. In the Schoolteacher's house, Gottalot apologizes for making Rudolf worry, as Rudolf thanks Him for watching over Him as He says goodbye.

Rudolf faces Devil in a fight and despite Devil having the home advantage, Rudolf beats Devil. But since Devil can't swim, He asks for help. Rudolf and Buchi make Him swear that He won't bully any cat again, to which Devil agrees to. Rudolf returns to Gottalot, who says that the tour bus left, so He won't be going back to Gifu. as the month's pass, Gottalot is recovered but isn't coming outside much. At spring and Misha are dating, Devil calmed down after their fight and explained that before Gottalot's owner moved away and Devil were good friends, but they broke off when Gottalot became a stray. Devil has Rudolf give His food to Gottalot as a token of His apology. Gottalot helps Rudolf learn about the license plates of cars, signifying where They come from, along with Chinese text. One night, Gottalot explains that He'll be going to the United States, shocking everyone, since Gottalot's owner isn't going to return to his house as it is being remodeled; the next day, Rudolf says goodbye to Gottalot and Misha as the Truck he is aboard goes to different prefectures, by going from one truck to the next.

But despite one of the trucks getting a flat tire, H he manages to get home, when he enters the house, to his surprise, he discovers another black kitten who happens to be Rudolf's younger brother, who lived in the house a year after Rudolf was gone. Knowing that the family can't have more than one cat, Rudolf returns to Tokyo. Upon returning to Tokyo, Rudolf says that He decided to stay in Tokyo, he sees Gottalot, who said that He was going, but His former owner returned who made a lot of money in America after selling His business. At night, Buchi and Rudolf along with a few stray cats eat dinner, they learn that Devil can swim. As the other cats enjoy themselves and Crow look at the night sky looking forward to the future. Mao Inoue as Rudolf Ryohei Suzuki as Gottalot Akio Ōtsuka as Master Kuma Arata Furuta as Devil Norito Yashima as Buchi Nana Mizuki as Misha Rio Sasaki as Rie Sandayū Dokumamushi as Truck Driver Yuka Terasaki as Rudolf's younger brother The film was 5th placed at the box office on its opening weekend in Japan, with 147,179 admissions and a gross of ¥187.3 milli

Cinema Exhibitors' Association

The UK Cinema Association known as the Cinema Exhibitors Association, is the national trade association for cinema operators in the United Kingdom. The UKCA represents the interests of well over 90 per cent of UK cinema operators by number and market share; the UKCA advocates on behalf of the UK cinema sector at international and regional level. It lobbies the Government along with other sectors of the U. K. film industry distribution working with others within the industry to promote the value of cinema to the public. In addition it provides advice and support to individual members on interpreting and adhering to legislation and regulation, in dealing with day-to-day operational issues when appropriate. Like many trade associations, it gathers economic data on the industry; the top three films in the UK are, in order, Toy Story 3, Mamma Mia!. In 2009, UK cinema turnover was around £1.2billion from around 900,000 cinema seats, at around 3,700 cinema screens at around 770 cinema sites. Total attendances are around 170 million.

The top three chains have 62% of the number of screens. British cinemas have led the world in providing facilities and services for disabled people, both by making their buildings physically accessible and by installing equipment that enables audio described and sub-titled performances; the UKCA created the "CEA Card" for those disabled people who need the services of a carer if they want to visit the cinema. It is situated in Soho Square on floor four of the BBFC building, it has five regional branches. The UKCA became a limited company on 3 June 2004; the Association's membership covers single screen/owner managed sites, small independent circuits and the largest circuit and multiplex operators including Odeon Cinemas, Vue Cinemas, Showcase Cinemas and Empire Cinemas. Members are able to benefit from discounts with key collecting societies such as Phonographic Performance Limited and Video Performance Limited, participate in marketing initiatives such as the secured Meerkat Movies promotion in partnership with Compare the Market.

Cinema of the United Kingdom British Society of Cinematographers UKCA web site Trade magazine for UK cinemas and film distribution CEA Card web site 3D films in September 2010 DVDs in March 2010 Bumper summer in April 2009 Popcorn in August 2008 Cinema boom in June 2003

Surya missile

The Surya missile is an intercontinental ballistic missile speculated to be in development by India. According to a 1995 report published in The Nonproliferation Review, Surya is the codename for one of the Intercontinental ballistic missiles that India is reported to be developing; the DRDO is believed to have begun the project in 1994. This report has not been confirmed by any other sources until 2010. Officials of the Indian government have not confirmed the existence of the project. According to the report, the Surya is an intercontinental-range, surface-based and liquid propellant ballistic missile; the report further adds that Surya is the most ambitious project in India's Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. The Surya is speculated to have a range between 12,000 to 16,000 kilometers, it is to be a three-stage design, with the first two stages using solid propellants and the third-stage using liquid. The first stage is speculated to be borrowed from PSLV. According to a 2013 report by The New Indian Express, Surya missile is being developed confidentially under the code-name of Agni-VI.

Class: ICBM Lasing: Surface based, underwater based and submarine based is its most important aspect which may range above 10,000 km. Length: 40.00 m. Diameter: 1.1m. Launch Weight: 55,000 kg. Propulsion: First/second stage solid, third liquid. Warhead Capabilities: 3-10 Strategic nuclear weapon warheads of 250-750 kilotons each. Status: unconfirmed. In Service: unconfirmed. Project Valiant Intercontinental ballistic missile Agni Missile System PSLV Richard Speier. "U. S. Space Aid to India: On a "Glide Path" to ICBM Trouble?". Arms Control Association