Codex Mendoza

The Codex Mendoza is an Aztec codex, believed to have been created around the year 1541. It contains a history of both the Aztec rulers and their conquests as well as a description of the daily life of pre-conquest Aztec society; the codex is written in the Nahuatl language utilizing traditional Aztec pictograms with a translation and explanation of the text provided in Spanish. It is named after Don Antonio de Mendoza, the viceroy of New Spain, who may have commissioned it with the intent that it be seen by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain; the codex is known as the Codex Mendocino and La colección Mendoza, has been held at the Bodleian Library at Oxford University since 1659. It was removed from public exhibition on 23 December 2011; the Bodleian Library holds four other Mesoamerican codices: Codex Bodley, Codex Laud, Codex Selden and the Selden Roll. The manuscript must date from after 6 July 1529, since Hernán Cortés is referred to on folio 15r as'marques del Valle', it must have been produced before 1553, when it was in the possession of the French cosmographer André Thevet, who wrote his name on folios 1r, 2r, 70v, 71v.

The final page of the manuscript explains some of the circumstances. The reader must excuse the rough style in the interpretation of the drawings in this history, because the interpreter did not take time or work at all slowly... The interpreter was given this history ten days prior to the departure of the fleet, he interpreted it carelessly because the Indians came to agreement late; the manuscript was therefore designed to be sent to Spain. More precise information regarding the exact date of the manuscript and the reasons it was produced is controversial; the testimony of the conquistador Jerónimo López dating from 1547, may be must have been about six years ago more or less that entering one day into the home of an Indian, called Francisco Gualpuyogualcal, master of the painters, I saw in his possession a book with covers of parchment and asking him what it was, in secret he showed it to me and told me that he had made it by the command of Your Lordship, in which he has to set down all the land since the founding of the city of Mexico and the lords that had governed and ruled until the coming of the Spaniards and the battles and clashes that they had and the taking of this great city and all the provinces that it ruled and had made subject and the assignment of these towns and provinces, made by Motezuma to the principal lords of this city and of the fee that each one of the knights gave him from the tributes of the towns that he had and the plan that he employed in the aforesaid assignment and how he sketched the towns and provinces for it.

Silvio Zavala argued this the book referred to was the Codex Mendoza, his arguments were restated by Federico Gómez de Orozco. If this is the case the Codex was written circa 1541 and was commissioned by Mendoza; as H. B. Nicolson has pointed out, the description is not an exact fit for the Codex, the identification is not certain. According to a account by Samuel Purchas, a owner of the Codex, writing in 1625, the Spanish fleet was attacked by French privateers, the codex, along with the rest of the booty, taken to France, it was in the possession of André Thévet, cosmographer to King Henry II of France. Thévet wrote his name in five places on the codex, twice with the date 1553, it was owned by the Englishman Richard Hakluyt. According again to Samuel Purchase, Hakluyt bought the Codex for 20 French francs; some time after 1616 it was passed to Samuel Purchase to his son, to John Selden. The codex was deposited into the Bodleian Library at Oxford University in 1659, five years after Selden's death, where it remained in obscurity until 1831, when it was rediscovered by Viscount Kingsborough and brought to the attention of scholars.

Written on European paper, it contains 71 pages, divided into three sections: Section I, folios 1r to 17r or 18r, is a history of the Aztec people from 1325 through 1521 — from the founding of Tenochtitlan through the Spanish conquest. It lists the reign of the towns conquered by them, it is uncertain whether folios 17v and 18r belong to Section I or Section II. Section II, folios 17v or 18v to 54v, provides a list of the towns conquered by the Triple Alliance and the tributes paid by each; this section is related to, copied from, the Matrícula de Tributos, but the Codex Mendoza contains five provinces not included in the Matrícula. This represents material now missing from the Matrícula but present when the Codex Mendoza was copied. Section III, folios 56v to 71v, is a pictorial depiction of the daily life of the Aztecs. Folios 73 to 85 of MS. Arch. Selden. A. 1, as foliated, do not form part of the Codex Mendoza. These folios comprise an separate manuscript written in England in the first half of the seventeenth century.

This manuscript contains tables of the comparative value of Roman, Greek and French money. The two manuscripts were bound together in England in the early seventeenth century. Berdan, Frances F.. The Essential Codex Mendoza. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20454-6. Ross, Kurt. Codex Mendoza: Aztec Manuscript. Berdan, F. F.. The Codex Mendoza. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520062344. Kupriienko, Sergii. Codex Mendoza (russian edit

Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2014

The Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2014 is a proposed Act of the Parliament of India which seeks to end the discrimination faced by transgender people in India. The Bill was passed by the upper house Rajya Sabha on 24 April 2015, it was introduced in the lower house Lok Sabha on 26 February 2016. The Bill was introduced in the Rajya Sabha by Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam leader Tiruchi Siva as a private member's bill; some Bharatiya Janata Party leaders tried to convince Siva to withdraw the bill citing anomalies and impractical clauses. Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment Thawar Chand Gehlot said that some clauses of the bill were impractical and too complicated, he promised future policies to benefit transgender people, while requesting the Bill to be withdrawn. Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi, Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs, P. J. Kurien of Indian National Congress made similar requests. However, Siva refused to withdraw the bill, he argued. He pointed out that there were 450,000 transgender people in India, while the actual number may be around 20,00,000.

They faced discrimination in their day-to-day life. The ruling-party members responded to the initial voice vote with a negative; this forced Siva to call for a division of the house. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley discouraged it. Jaitley said that Siva withdraw the bill and wait for the policies promised by Gehlot or the house should support the bill; the bill was unanimously passed on 24 April 2015 in the Rajya Sabha, where the Opposition had the majority but received support from the treasury bench. The move was welcomed by LGBT-rights activist Simran Shaikh; the Bill is considered historic as for being the first private member's bill to be passed by any house in 36 years and by Rajya Sabha in 45 years. The bills are withdrawn after a debate and the government's response; until only 16 private member's bills had been passed since 1947. On 26 February 2016, the bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha for debate by Biju Janata Dal leader Baijayant Panda. Panda argued that the bill would help extend constitutional rights and end the discrimination against transgender people, allowing them to live a life of dignity.

BJP leader Jagdambika Pal supported ending the discrimination against transgender people. The Clauses 21 and 22 of Chapter V aim to reserve 2% of seats in primary and higher education institutions funded by the government, in government jobs; the Clause 24 for Chapter V mandates formation of special employment exchanges for transgender people. The Chapter VII details the formation of national and state-levels commission for transgender people; the Chapter VIII details the formation of special transgender rights courts. The Clause 11 of Chapter II specifies the right of a transgender child to a home and imposes conditions for foster care; the Chapter IX details the offenses and penalties. The maximum penalty for hate speech against transgender people in 1 year imprisonment with fine. Transgender Persons Bill, 2019 LGBT rights in India "Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2014". Act No. 49 of 2014

Count–min sketch

In computing, the count–min sketch is a probabilistic data structure that serves as a frequency table of events in a stream of data. It uses hash functions to map events to frequencies, but unlike a hash table uses only sub-linear space, at the expense of overcounting some events due to collisions; the count–min sketch was invented in 2003 by Graham Cormode and S. Muthu Muthukrishnan and described by them in a 2005 paper. Count–min sketches are the same data structure as the counting Bloom filters introduced in 1998 by Fan et al. However, they are used differently and therefore sized differently: a count-min sketch has a sublinear number of cells, related to the desired approximation quality of the sketch, while a counting Bloom filter is more sized to match the number of elements in the set; the goal of the basic version of the count–min sketch is to consume a stream of events, one at a time, count the frequency of the different types of events in the stream. At any time, the sketch can be queried for the frequency of a particular event type i, will return an estimate of this frequency, within a certain distance of the true frequency, with a certain probability.

The actual sketch data structure is d rows. The parameters w and d are fixed when the sketch is created, determine the time and space needs and the probability of error when the sketch is queried for a frequency or inner product. Associated with each of the d rows is a separate hash function; the parameters w and d can be chosen by setting w = ⌈e/ε⌉ and d = ⌈ln 1/δ⌉, where the error in answering a query is within an additive factor of ε with probability 1 − δ, e is Euler's number. When a new event of type i arrives we update as follows: for each row j of the table, apply the corresponding hash function to obtain a column index k = hj. Increment the value in row j, column k by one. Several types of queries are possible on the stream; the simplest is the point query, which asks for the count of an event type i. The estimated count is given by the least value in the table for i, namely a ^ i = min j c o u n t, where c o u n t is the table. For each i, one has a i ≤ a ^ i, where a i is the true frequency with which i occurred in the stream.

Additionally, this estimate has the guarantee that a ^ i ≤ a i + ε N with probability 1 − δ, where N = ∑ i = 0 n a i is the stream size, i.e. the total number of items seen by the sketch. An inner product query asks for the inner product between the histograms represented by two count–min sketches, c o u n t a and c o u n t b. Small modifications to the data structure can be used to sketch other different stream statistics. One potential problem with count-min sketches is that they are biased estimators of the true frequency of events: they may overestimate, but never underestimate the true count in a point query. At least two suggested improvements to the sketch operations have been proposed to tackle this problem; the count-mean-min sketch subtracts an estimate of the bias when doing a query, but is otherwise the same structure as a count-min sketch. The estimated count is the median of c o u n t − N − c o u n t w − 1 for all rows j. Since this estimate may overestimate and could be worse than the regular count–min estimate, Goyal et al. recommend taking the minimum of both estimates.

Conservative updating changes the update, but not the query algorithms. To count c instances of event type i, one first computes an estimate a ^ i = min j c o u n t updates c o u n t ← max { c o u n