Codex Vaticanus

The Codex Vaticanus is regarded as the oldest extant manuscript of a Greek Bible, one of the four great uncial codices. The Codex is named after its place of conservation in the Vatican Library, where it has been kept since at least the 15th century, it is written on 759 leaves of vellum in uncial letters and has been dated palaeographically to the 4th century. The manuscript became known to Western scholars as a result of correspondence between Erasmus and the prefects of the Vatican Library. Portions of the codex were collated by several scholars, but numerous errors were made during this process; the codex's relationship to the Latin Vulgate was unclear and scholars were unaware of its value. This changed in the 19th century, it was at that point that scholars realised the text differed from the Textus Receptus. Most current scholars consider the Codex Vaticanus to be one of the best Greek texts of the New Testament, with the Codex Sinaiticus as its only competitor; until the discovery by Tischendorf of Sinaiticus, Vaticanus was unrivaled.

It was extensively used by Westcott and Hort in their edition of The New Testament in the Original Greek in 1881. The most sold editions of the Greek New Testament are based on the text of the Codex Vaticanus. Codex Vaticanus is regarded as "the oldest extant copy of the Bible". Codex Vaticanus contained a complete copy of the Septuagint, lacking only 1-4 Maccabees and the Prayer of Manasseh; the original 20 leaves containing Genesis 1:1–46:28a and Psalm 105:27–137:6b have been lost and were replaced by pages transcribed by a hand in the 15th century.2 Kings 2:5–7, 10-13 are lost because of a tear to one of the pages. The order of the Old Testament books in the Codex is; this order differs from that followed in Codex Alexandrinus. The extant New Testament of the Vaticanus contains the Gospels, the General Epistles, the Pauline Epistles, the Epistle to the Hebrews; these missing leaves were supplemented by a 15th-century minuscule hand and are catalogued separately as the minuscule Codex 1957. Some apocryphal books from the New Testament were included at the end, as it is possible that Revelation was not included.

The text of the New Testament lacks several passages: Matthew 12:47. Luke 17:36, 22:43–44. 1 Peter 5:3. Phrases not in Vaticanus but in manuscripts includeMatthew 5:44 – εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς, καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς. Mark 10:7 – καὶ προσκολληθήσεται πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ, as in codices Sinaiticus, Codex Athous Lavrensis, 892, ℓ 48, Sinaitic Palimpsest, Gothic Codex Argenteus. Mark 10:19 – μη αποστερησης omitted but added by a corrector. Luke 9:55–56 – και ειπεν, Ουκ οιδατε ποιου πνευματος εστε υμεις. Omission is supported by the manuscripts: Sinaiticus, L, f1 700 vg syrs copsa, bo, arm geo. Luke 23:34 – "And Jesus said: Father forgive them, they know not what they do." This omission is supported by the manuscripts P 75, Sinaiticusa, D*, W, Θ, 0124, 1241, a, d, copsa, copbo. In Matt. 27:49 the Codex contains added text: ἄλλος δὲ λαβὼν λόγχην ἒνυξεν αὐτοῦ τὴν πλευράν, καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὖδωρ καὶ αἳμα. This reading was derived from John 19:34 and occurs in other manuscripts of the Alexandrian text-type.

The manuscript is in quarto volume, arranged in quires of five sheets or ten leaves each, similar to the Codex Marchalianus or Codex Rossanensis. The number of the quires is found in the margin, it must have been composed of 830 parchment leaves, but it appears that 71 leaves have been lost. The Old Testament consists of 617 sheets and the New Testament of 142 sheets; the parchment is thin. T

Terese Pedersen

Terese Hosking is a Norwegian handball goalkeeper. She played for Byåsen HE, but is now retired, she started her club career in Larvik, has played for Runar, Sandar and Randers HK. She made her debut on the Norwegian national team in 2004, played 82 matches with the team, she is a three-time European champion, in 2004, 2006 and 2008. She received a silver medal at the 2007 World Women's Handball Championship, was ranked first on the championship's list of Top Goalkeepers with respect to % saves. Terese Pedersen profil at European Handball Federation Terese Pedersen profil at Norwegian Handball Federation

Operation Banquet

Operation Banquet was a British Second World War plan to use every available aircraft against a German invasion in 1940 or 1941. After the Fall of France in June 1940, the British Government made urgent anti-invasion preparations as the Royal Air Force engaged the German Luftwaffe in a struggle for air superiority in the Battle of Britain. In May 1940, the Air Ministry had realised that beyond the normal reserves of the RAF, it may be necessary to throw every serviceable aircraft into the battle. On 17 May, an Air Ministry meeting outlined ambitious plans to make use of various aircraft in the event of an invasion. On 13 July 1940, the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Training Command was ordered to plan to make the maximum practical number of aircraft available for operations; the plan was called Operation Banquet and was divided into several operations that could be enacted independently. In Banquet 6 Group, Bomber Command decided to use the aircraft of 6 Group as conventional replacements in the front-line squadrons.

Banquet 22 Group would move certain 22 Group aircraft into conventional Bomber Command squadrons. Somewhat desperate were Banquet Alert which called for the employment of Fleet Air Arm training aircraft under Coastal Command and Banquet Training which called for the absorption of aircraft from RAF Training Command into the operational striking force of Bomber Command. Aircraft allocated under Banquet would, in many cases, lack bombsights, armour protection and self-sealing fuel tanks. While these were to be fitted where possible, RAF instructions made it clear that no aircraft was to be considered unfit for want of such niceties. Early in July, about 1,000 aircraft, from Tiger Moths to Wellington bombers, at training schools, were ready for anti-invasion operations, with hope of another 1,000 aircraft when the scheme was complete; the use of slow aircraft for ground attack operations was not without precedent, Netherlands Fokker C. Xs, German Henschel Hs 123 and British Hawker Hector biplanes had operated on the continent without unsustainable losses.

Ground crews would go with their aircraft and in some cases this would have involved civilian volunteers. The air crew for Banquet Alert and Training would be the experienced instructors as well as those students that had reached "a reasonably satisfactory standard of training". Few training schools were close to invasion areas and moving them seemed unwise in the chaos of an invasion, when closer airfields would have been bombed and were busy servicing their operational squadrons, it was decided to base four flights of 5–6 basic trainer aircraft to Army Cooperation and Bomber command bases, two flights at first and two more if the base commander decided that they could be accommodated. The air bases were spread and no swarms of Banquet aircraft would have descended on the landing beaches, the main effort would be by conventional Bomber Command squadrons. Army Cooperation Command was instructed that, This number may be increased if casualties in the A. C. squadrons have reduced the risks of congestion.

When to implement the Banquet scheme was kept open. Among the Banquet plans was Banquet Light which would see the formation of striking forces composed of De Havilland Tiger Moth biplanes and other light aircraft of Elementary Flying Training Schools. De Havilland put forward plans for converting the Tiger Moth into a bomber by equipping it with eight 20 lb bomb racks beneath the rear cockpit; as an alternative, the bomb-racks could be installed four on each side under the lower planes, which would avoid trimming difficulties. The racks had been designed for the military version of the de Havilland Dragons supplied to Iraq eight years previously. Trials were conducted at Hatfield by Major Hereward de Havilland and at the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment at Boscombe Down and the machines earned a satisfactory report. Tests were carried out with a Tiger Moth carrying a 240 lb bomb. Modification of the small number of Miles Magister trainers were attempted but this proved troublesome and Banquet Light used Tiger Moths.

The Banquet Light strike force would be used for Army co-operation, bombing concentrations of airborne troops or soldiers landing on the beaches. The two-seater Tiger Moth bombers should be flown solo into an attack at low altitude until the enemy was identified, climb to 800 feet and dive to 500 feet to release the bombs. Most of the pilots for Banquet Light would be students; the scheme required that trainee pilots were introduced to bombing at an early stage in their instruction, in case they needed to go into action immediately. Instructors were told to "take every opportunity to carry out practice bombing". With no dummy bombs available early in 1940, training exercises were carried out with the aircraft flown from the front cockpit by instructors and house bricks were thrown over the side from the rear cockpit, it was discovered that the bricks fell slower than a diving Tiger Moth and instructions were given to throw the bricks forcefully away from the aircraft. About 350 aircraft were available but the Moths and their inexperienced pilots would have been vulnerable to enemy aircraft and the plan was widel