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Coelacanth

The coelacanths constitute a now-rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth found near the Comoro Islands off the east coast of Africa and the Indonesian coelacanth. They follow the oldest-known living lineage of Sarcopterygii, which means they are more related to lungfish and tetrapods than to ray-finned fish, they are found along the coastlines of the Indonesia. The West Indian Ocean coelacanth is a critically endangered species. Coelacanths belong to the subclass Actinistia, a group of lobed-finned fish related to lungfish and certain extinct Devonian fish such as osteolepiforms, porolepiforms and Panderichthys. Coelacanths were thought to have become extinct in the Late Cretaceous, around 66 million years ago, but were rediscovered in 1938 off the coast of South Africa; the coelacanth was long considered a "living fossil" because scientists thought it was the sole remaining member of a taxon otherwise known only from fossils, with no close relations alive, that it evolved into its current form 400 million years ago.

However, several recent studies have shown that coelacanth body shapes are much more diverse than thought. The word Coelacanth is an adaptation of the Modern Latin Cœlacanthus, from the Greek κοῖλ-ος, it is a common name for the oldest living line of Sarcopterygii, referring to the hollow caudal fin rays of the first fossil specimen described and named by Louis Agassiz in 1839. The genus name Latimeria commemorates Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer; the coelacanth, related to lungfishes and tetrapods, was believed to have been extinct since the end of the Cretaceous period. More related to tetrapods than to the ray-finned fish, coelacanths were considered transitional species between fish and tetrapods. On 23 December 1938, the first Latimeria specimen was found off the east coast of South Africa, off the Chalumna River. Museum curator Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer discovered the fish among the catch of a local angler, Captain Hendrick Goosen. Latimer contacted a Rhodes University ichthyologist, J. L. B.

Smith, sending him drawings of the fish, he confirmed the fish's importance with a famous cable: "MOST IMPORTANT PRESERVE SKELETON AND GILLS = FISH DESCRIBED."Its discovery 66 million years after it was believed to have become extinct makes the coelacanth the best-known example of a Lazarus taxon, an evolutionary line that seems to have disappeared from the fossil record only to reappear much later. Since 1938, West Indian Ocean coelacanth have been found in the Comoros, Tanzania, Madagascar, in iSimangaliso Wetland Park, Kwazulu-Natal in South Africa; the Comoro Islands specimen was discovered in December 1952. Between 1938 and 1975, 84 specimens were recorded; the second extant species, Indonesian coelacanth, was described from Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia in 1999 by Pouyaud et al. based on a specimen discovered by Mark V. Erdmann in 1998 and deposited at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Erdmann and his wife Arnaz Mehta first encountered a specimen at a local market in September 1997, but took only a few photographs of the first specimen of this species before it was sold.

After confirming that it was a unique discovery, Erdmann returned to Sulawesi in November 1997 to interview fishermen to look for further examples. A second specimen was caught by a fisherman in July 1998 and it was handed to Erdmann; the coelacanth has no real commercial value apart from being coveted by museums and private collectors. As a food fish it is considered worthless, as its tissues exude oils that give the flesh a distinctly unpleasant flavor; the coelacanth's continued survival may be threatened by commercial deep-sea trawling, in which coelacanths are caught as bycatch. Coelacanths are the lobe-finned fishes. Externally, several characteristics distinguish the coelacanth from other lobe-finned fish, they possess a three-lobed caudal fin called a trilobate fin or a diphycercal tail. A secondary tail extending past the primary tail separates the upper and lower halves of the coelacanth. Cosmoid scales act as thick armor to protect the coelacanth's exterior. Several internal traits aid in differentiating coelacanths from other lobe-finned fish.

At the back of the skull, the coelacanth possesses a hinge, the intracranial joint, which allows it to open its mouth wide. Coelacanths retain an oil-filled notochord, a hollow, pressurized tube, replaced by the vertebral column early in embryonic development in most other vertebrates; the coelacanth heart is shaped differently from that of most modern fish, with its chambers arranged in a straight tube. The coelacanth braincase is 98.5% filled with fat. The cheeks of the coelacanth are unique because the opercular bone is small and holds a large soft-tissue opercular flap. A spiracular chamber is present. Coelacanth possess a unique rostral organ within the ethmoid region of the braincase. Unique to extant coelacanths is the presence of a "fatty lung" or a fat-filled single-lobed vestigial lung, homologous to other fishes' swim bladder; the parallel development of a fatty organ for buoyancy control suggest a unique specialization for deep-water habitats. There has been discovered small, hard but flexible plates around the vestigial lung in adult specimen, though not around the fatty organ.

The plates most had a regulatio

Ralph O. Rychener

Ralph Orlando Rychener was an American physician and basketball player. He was born in Archbold, Ohio in March 1897. While attending the University of Michigan, he played three years on the school's basketball team, he was one of the leading scorers on the 1917–18 and 1918–19 teams, the captain of the 1919–20 team. After receiving his medical degree from Michigan, he was a resident at the University of Michigan Hospital for three years. Rychener moved to Memphis where he practiced as an ophthalmologist for more than 30 years, he served as an associate professor at the University of Tennessee College of Medicine. He was elected to the American Ophthalmological Society in 1933. In 1951, he received the University of Michigan's Distinguished Alumni Service Award, he died at age 64 in February 1962 from a cerebral hemorrhage

Trail of the Pink Panther

Trail of the Pink Panther is a 1982 comedy film directed by Blake Edwards and starring Peter Sellers. It was the seventh film in The Pink Panther series, the first film in the series following Sellers' death and the last in which he appeared as Inspector Clouseau. Sellers died; when the famous Pink Panther diamond is stolen again from Lugash, Chief Inspector Clouseau is called on the case despite protests by Chief Inspector Dreyfus. While on the case, Clouseau is pursued by the Mafia. Clouseau first goes to London to interrogate Sir Charles Litton. Traveling to the airport, he accidentally blows up his car trying to fix a pop-out lighter, but mistakenly believes it an assassination attempt, disguises himself in a heavy cast on the flight, which causes complications in the air and on land, he is led to an awkward introduction to the Scotland Yard detectives at Heathrow. Meanwhile, Dreyfus learns from Scotland Yard that Libyan terrorists have marked Clouseau for assassination, but permits him to continue.

At the hotel, Clouseau has a miscommunication with the hotel clerk and gets knocked out a window several times, trying to get his message from Dreyfus. Clouseau's flight disappears over the ocean en route to Lugash, Marie Jouvet, a television reporter covering the story, sets out to interview those who knew him best. Among the people she interviews are Dreyfus. All of these interview scenes provides flashbacks to scenes of earlier Pink Panther films. Jouvet questions Mafia don Bruno Langlois, a mafia boss antagonist who would appear in the next film, tries to file a complaint against Langlois with Chief Inspector Dreyfus; the film ends with Marie hoping that Clouseau might be alive somewhere as she states: Did Inspector Clouseau perish in the sea, as reported? Or for reasons as yet unknown, is he out there someplace, plotting his next move, waiting to reveal himself when the time is right? I am reluctant to believe that misfortune has struck down such a great man. Clouseau is seen glancing over a seaside cliff, when a seagull flies over and defecates on the sleeve of his coat.

The words "Swine seagull!" are heard in the distinctive exaggerated French accent of Clouseau. The next shot shows the animated Pink Panther in trench coat and trilby hat is revealed in place of Clouseau watching the sunset. Joanna Lumley as Marie Jouveat Herbert Lom as Chief Insp. Charles Dreyfus David Niven as Sir Charles Litton Richard Mulligan as Monsieur Clouseau Burt Kwouk as Cato Fong Capucine as Lady Simone Litton Robert Loggia as Bruno Langois André Maranne as François Graham Stark as Hercule Lajoy Ronald Fraser as Dr Longet Daniel Peacock as Clouseau age 18 Lucca Mezzofanti as Clouseau age 8 Colin Blakely as Alec Drummond Denise Crosby as Denise, Bruno's moll Marne Maitland as Deputy Commissioner Lasorde Peter Arne as Col. Bufoni Peter Sellers as Chief Inspector Jacques Clouseau Harvey Korman as Prof. Auguste Balls Leonard Rossiter as Superintendent Quinlan Dudley Sutton as Inspector McLaren Liz Smith as Martha Harold Berens as Hotel Clerk Robert Wagner as George Litton Claudia Cardinale as Princess Dala Colin Gordon as Tucker Claire Davenport as Hotel Maid Sellers died over 18 months before production began, his performance was constructed from deleted scenes from The Pink Panther Strikes Again.

David Niven appears in the film, reprising a role he first played in the original The Pink Panther of 1963. Niven was in the early stages of ALS, his voice subsequently proved too weak to loop his own dialogue during post-production, he was dubbed by impressionist Rich Little during post-production. Returning series regulars include Herbert Lom as Chief Inspector Dreyfus, Graham Stark as Hercule LaJoy, Burt Kwouk as Clouseau's faithful man servant Cato and André Maranne as Sgt. François Chevalier. Trail featured the animated opening and closing credits, animated by Marvel Productions and written and directed by Art Leonardi. Director Blake Edwards dedicated the film to Sellers, "the one and only Inspector Clouseau." Despite the dedication, Sellers' wife Lynne Frederick filed a $3 million lawsuit against the film's producers and MGM, claiming that the film diminished Sellers' reputation, was awarded over $1 million in damages. Despite this, there was a practical reason behind Frederick's suing of Edwards.

Her primary objection was that Sellers had vetoed the use of outtakes from earlier Panthers in his lifetime and that his estate should have had the right to control the use