A beam is a structural element that resists loads applied laterally to the beam's axis. Its mode of deflection is by bending; the loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the beam's support points. The total effect of all the forces acting on the beam is to produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam, that in turn induce internal stresses and deflections of the beam. Beams are characterized by their manner of support, profile and their material. Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but any structures such as automotive automobile frames, aircraft components, machine frames, other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed to carry lateral loads are analyzed in a similar fashion. Beams were squared timbers but are metal, stone, or combinations of wood and metal such as a flitch beam. Beams can carry vertical gravitational forces but are used to carry horizontal loads; the loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members and to ground.
In light frame construction, joists may rest on beams. In carpentry, a beam is called a plate as in a sill plate or wall plate, beam as in a summer beam or dragon beam. In engineering, beams are of several types: Simply supported – a beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have no moment resistance. Fixed – a beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation. Over hanging – a simple beam extending beyond its support on one end. Double overhanging – a simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports on both ends. Continuous – a beam extending over more than two supports. Cantilever – a projecting beam fixed only at one end. Trussed – a beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a truss. In the beam equation I is used to represent the second moment of area, it is known as the moment of inertia, is the sum, about the neutral axis, of dA*r^2, where r is the distance from the neutral axis, dA is a small patch of area. Therefore, it encompasses not just how much area the beam section has overall, but how far each bit of area is from the axis, squared.
The greater I is. Internally, beams subjected to loads that do not induce torsion or axial loading experience compressive and shear stresses as a result of the loads applied to them. Under gravity loads, the original length of the beam is reduced to enclose a smaller radius arc at the top of the beam, resulting in compression, while the same original beam length at the bottom of the beam is stretched to enclose a larger radius arc, so is under tension. Modes of deformation where the top face of the beam is in compression, as under a vertical load, are known as sagging modes and where the top is in tension, for example over a support, is known as hogging; the same original length of the middle of the beam halfway between the top and bottom, is the same as the radial arc of bending, so it is under neither compression nor tension, defines the neutral axis. Above the supports, the beam is exposed to shear stress. There are some reinforced concrete beams in which the concrete is in compression with tensile forces taken by steel tendons.
These beams are known as prestressed concrete beams, are fabricated to produce a compression more than the expected tension under loading conditions. High strength steel tendons are stretched; when the concrete has cured, the tendons are released and the beam is under eccentric axial loads. This eccentric loading creates an internal moment, and, in turn, increases the moment carrying capacity of the beam, they are used on highway bridges. The primary tool for structural analysis of beams is the Euler–Bernoulli beam equation; this equation describes the elastic behaviour of slender beams where the cross sectional dimensions are small compared to the length of the beam. For beams that are not slender a different theory needs to be adopted to account for the deformation due to shear forces and, in dynamic cases, the rotary inertia; the beam formulation adopted here is that of Timoshenko and comparative examples can be found in NAFEMS Benchmark Challenge Number 7. Other mathematical methods for determining the deflection of beams include "method of virtual work" and the "slope deflection method".
Engineers are interested in determining deflections because the beam may be in direct contact with a brittle material such as glass. Beam deflections are minimized for aesthetic reasons. A visibly sagging beam if structurally safe, is unsightly and to be avoided. A stiffer beam creates less deflection. Mathematical methods for determining the beam forces include the "moment distribution method", the force or flexibility method and the direct stiffness method. Most beams in reinforced concrete buildings have rectangular cross sections, but a more efficient cross section for a beam is an I or H section, seen in steel construction; because of the parallel axis theorem and the fact that most of the material is away from the neutral axis, the second moment of area of the beam increases, which in turn increases the stiffness. An I-beam is only the most efficient shape in one direction of be
A dome is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy. There are a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives. A lantern may itself have another dome. Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into prehistory and they have been constructed from mud, stone, brick, metal and plastic over the centuries; the symbolism associated with domes includes mortuary and governmental traditions that have developed over time. Domes have been found from early Mesopotamia, they are found in Persian, Hellenistic and Chinese architecture in the Ancient world, as well as among a number of contemporary indigenous building traditions. Dome structures were popular in Byzantine and medieval Islamic architecture, there are numerous examples from Western Europe in the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance architectural style spread from Italy in the Early modern period. Advancements in mathematics and production techniques since that time resulted in new dome types; the domes of the modern world can be found over religious buildings, legislative chambers, sports stadiums, a variety of functional structures. The English word "dome" derives from the Latin domus from ancient Greek δόμος, which, up through the Renaissance, labeled a revered house, such as a Domus Dei, or "House of God", regardless of the shape of its roof; this is reflected in the uses of the Italian word duomo, the German/Icelandic/Danish word dom, the English word dome as late as 1656, when it meant a "Town-House, Guild-Hall, State-House, Meeting-House in a city." The French word dosme came to acquire the meaning of a cupola vault by 1660. This French definition became the standard usage of the English dome in the eighteenth century as many of the most impressive Houses of God were built with monumental domes, in response to the scientific need for more technical terms.
A dome is a rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of revolution, meaning an arch rotated around its central vertical axis. The terminology used has been a source of controversy, with inconsistency between scholars and within individual texts, but the term "dome" may be considered a "blanket-word to describe an hemispherical or similar spanning element." A half-dome or semi-dome is a semi-circular shape used in apses. Sometimes called "false" domes, corbel domes achieve their shape by extending each horizontal layer of stones inward farther than the lower one until they meet at the top. A "false" dome may refer to a wooden dome. "True" domes are said to be those whose structure is in a state of compression, with constituent elements of wedge-shaped voussoirs, the joints of which align with a central point. The validity of this is unclear, as domes built underground with corbelled stone layers are in compression from the surrounding earth; the Italian use of the term finto, meaning "false", can be traced back to the 17th century in the use of vaulting made of reed mats and gypsum mortar.
As with arches, the "springing" of a dome is the level. The top of a dome is the "crown"; the inner side of a dome is called the "intrados" and the outer side is called the "extrados". The "haunch" is the part of an arch that lies halfway between the base and the top; the word "cupola" is another word for "dome", is used for a small dome upon a roof or turret. "Cupola" has been used to describe the inner side of a dome. Drums called tholobates, are cylindrical or polygonal walls with or without windows that support a dome. A tambour or lantern is the equivalent structure over a dome's oculus. A masonry dome outward, they are thought of in terms of two kinds of forces at right angles from one another. Meridional forces are compressive only, increase towards the base, while hoop forces are in compression at the top and tension at the base, with the transition in a hemispherical dome occurring at an angle of 51.8 degrees from the top. The thrusts generated by a dome are directly proportional to the weight of its materials.
Grounded hemispherical domes generate significant horizontal thrusts at their haunches. Unlike voussoir arches, which require support for each element until the keystone is in place, domes are stable during construction as each level is made a complete and self-supporting ring; the upper portion of a masonry dome is always in compression and is supported laterally, so it does not collapse except as a whole unit and a range of deviations from the ideal in this shallow upper cap are stable. Because voussoir domes have lateral support, they can be made much thinner than corresponding arches of the same span. For example, a hemispherical dome can be 2.5 times thinner than a semicircular arch, a dome with the profile of an equilateral arch can be thinner still. The optimal shape for a masonry dome of equal thickness provides for perfect compression, with none of the tension or bending forces against which masonry is weak. For a particular material, the optimal dome geometry is called the funicular surface, the comparable shape in three dimensions to a catenary curve for a two-dimensional arch.
The pointed profiles of many Gothic domes more approximate this optimal shape than do hemispheres, which were favored by Roman and Byza
The Loire Valley, spanning 280 kilometres, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire. The area of the Loire Valley comprises about 800 square kilometres, it is referred to as the Cradle of the French and the Garden of France due to the abundance of vineyards, fruit orchards, artichoke, asparagus fields, which line the banks of the river. Notable for its historic towns and wines, the valley has been inhabited since the Middle Palaeolithic period. In 2000, UNESCO added the central part of the Loire River valley to its list of World Heritage Sites; the valley includes historic towns such as Amboise, Blois, Montsoreau, Orléans and Tours. The climate is favorable most of the year, the river acting as a line of demarcation in France's weather between the northern climate and the southern; the river has a significant effect on the mesoclimate of the region, adding a few degrees of temperature. The climate can be cool with springtime frost.
Summers are hot. Temperature and average sunshine time in Angers: The Loire Valley wine region is one of the world's most well-known areas of wine production and includes several French wine regions situated along the river from the Muscadet region on the Atlantic coast to the regions of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé just southeast of the city of Orléans in north central France. Loire wines tend to exhibit a characteristic fruitiness with crisp flavors. On December 2, 2000, UNESCO added the central part of the river valley, between Chalonnes-sur-Loire and Sully-sur-Loire, to its list of World Heritage Sites. In choosing this area that includes the French départements of Loiret, Loir-et-Cher, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, the committee said that the Loire Valley is: "an exceptional cultural landscape, of great beauty, comprised of historic cities and villages, great architectural monuments - the châteaux - and lands that have been cultivated and shaped by centuries of interaction between local populations and their physical environment, in particular the Loire itself."
The Loire Valley chansonniers are a related group of songbooks attributed to the composers of the Loire Valley and are the earliest surviving examples of a new genre which offered a combination of words and illuminations. A new Contemporary Art offer is developing all along the Loire River from Montsoreau to Orléans with such places as Château de Montsoreau-Contemporary Art Museum, CCCOD Tours, the Domaine Régional de Chaumont sur Loire and the Frac Centre Orléans, they are a rare association of Renaissance architecture with contemporary art. The architectural heritage in the valley's historic towns is notable its châteaux, such as the Château de Montsoreau, Château d'Amboise, Château d'Azay-le-Rideau, Château de Chambord, Château de Chinon, Château du Rivau, Château d'Ussé, Château de Villandry and Chenonceau; the châteaux, numbering more than three hundred, represent a nation of builders starting with the necessary castle fortifications in the 10th century to the splendour of those built half a millennium later.
When the French kings began constructing their huge châteaux here, the nobility, not wanting or daring to be far from the seat of power, followed suit. Their presence in the lush, fertile valley began attracting the best landscape designers. In addition to its many châteaux, the cultural monuments illustrate to an exceptional degree the ideals of the Renaissance and the Age of the Enlightenment on western European thought and design. Many of the châteaux were designed to be built on the top of hills, one example of this is the Château d'Amboise. Many of the châteaux had detailed and expensive churches on the grounds, or within the actual château itself; the Château de Montsoreau is the only château to have been built in the Loire riverbed, it is the only one to be dedicated to contemporary art. Loire Valley portal Loire Valley world heritage site Loire Valley Chateau du Rivau Chinon Fortress Chateau de Montsoreau-Contemporary Art Museum Western France Tourist Board
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
A soffit is an exterior or interior architectural feature the underside of any construction element. A structure to fill the space between the ceiling and the top of cabinets mounted on the wall is called a soffit, as is the material connecting an exterior wall to the edge of the roof under the eaves. Soffit is from French: soffite, formed as a ceiling. In architecture, soffit is the underside of any construction element. Examples of soffits include: the underside of an arch or architrave the underside of a flight of stairs, under the classical entablature the underside of a projecting cornice, or side of chimney the underside of a ceiling to fill the space above the kitchen cabinets, at the corner of the ceiling and wall the underside of an office ceiling where tiles are suspended, fastened directly or bonded to a grid system attached to the walls or ceiling the exposed undersurface of any exterior overhanging section of a roof eave the wall into which loudspeakers are mounted in a recording studio a drop-down box used to mount a kitchen ventilation hood under a sloped or high ceiling In popular use, soffit most refers to the material forming a ceiling from the top of an exterior house wall to the outer edge of the roof, i.e. bridging the gap between a home's siding and the roofline, otherwise known as the eaves.
When so constructed, the soffit material is screwed or nailed to rafters known as lookout rafters or lookouts for short. Soffit exposure profile on a building's exterior can vary from a few centimetres to 3 feet or more, depending on construction, it can be ventilated, to prevent condensation. A grill that covers the venting opening on the bottom of the soffit is called a soffit vent. A soffit joist is a related piece. Copper in architecture This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Soffit". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style spread to other Italian cities; the style was carried to France, England and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion and the regularity of parts, as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes and aedicula replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
The word "Renaissance" derived from the term "la rinascita", which means rebirth, first appeared in Giorgio Vasari's Vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani The Lives of the Artists, 1550–60. Although the term Renaissance was used first by the French historian Jules Michelet, it was given its more lasting definition from the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose book, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien 1860, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1860, English translation, by SGC Middlemore, in 2 vols. London, 1878) was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance; the folio of measured drawings Édifices de Rome moderne. Erwin Panofsky and Renascences in Western Art, The Renaissance style was recognized by contemporaries in the term "all'antica", or "in the ancient manner". Italy of the 15th century, the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance, it is in Florence that the new architectural style had its beginning, not evolving in the way that Gothic grew out of Romanesque, but consciously brought to being by particular architects who sought to revive the order of a past "Golden Age".
The scholarly approach to the architecture of the ancient coincided with the general revival of learning. A number of factors were influential in bringing this about. Italian architects had always preferred forms that were defined and structural members that expressed their purpose. Many Tuscan Romanesque buildings demonstrate these characteristics, as seen in the Florence Baptistery and Pisa Cathedral. Italy had never adopted the Gothic style of architecture. Apart from the Cathedral of Milan, few Italian churches show the emphasis on vertical, the clustered shafts, ornate tracery and complex ribbed vaulting that characterise Gothic in other parts of Europe; the presence in Rome, of ancient architectural remains showing the ordered Classical style provided an inspiration to artists at a time when philosophy was turning towards the Classical. In the 15th century, Florence and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them, making the movement of artists possible; this enabled Florence to have significant artistic influence in Milan, through Milan, France.
In 1377, the return of the Pope from the Avignon Papacy and the re-establishment of the Papal court in Rome, brought wealth and importance to that city, as well as a renewal in the importance of the Pope in Italy, further strengthened by the Council of Constance in 1417. Successive Popes Julius II, 1503–13, sought to extend the Pope’s temporal power throughout Italy. In the early Renaissance, Venice controlled sea trade over goods from the East; the large towns of Northern Italy were prosperous through trade with the rest of Europe, Genoa providing a seaport for the goods of France and Spain. Trade brought wool from England to Florence, ideally located on the river for the production of fine cloth, the industry on which its wealth was founded. By dominating Pisa, Florence gained a seaport, maintained dominance of Genoa. In this commercial climate, one family in particular turned their attention from trade to the lucrative business of money-lending; the Medici became the chief bankers to the princes of Europe, becoming princes themselves as they did so, by reason of both wealth and influence.
Along the trade routes, thus offered some protection by commercial interest, moved not only goods but artists and philosophers. The return of the Pope Gregory XI from Avignon in September 1377 and the resultant new emphasis on Rome as the center of Christian spirituality, brought about a boom in the building of churches in Rome such as had not taken place for nearly a thousand years; this commenced in the mid 15th century and gained momentum in the 16th century, reaching its peak in the Baroque period. The construction of the Sistine Chapel with its uniquely important decorations and the entire rebuilding of St Peter's, one of Christendom's most significant churches, were part of this process. In wealthy republican Florence, the impetus for church-building was more civic than spiritual; the unfinished state of the enormous cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary did no honour to the city und
Moulding known as coving, is a strip of material with various profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. It may be of plastic or reformed wood. In classical architecture and sculpture, the molding is carved in marble or other stones. A "plain" molding has right-angled upper and lower edges. A "sprung" molding has upper and lower edges that bevel towards its rear, allowing mounting between two non-parallel planes, with an open space behind. Decorative moldings have been made of wood and cement. Moldings have been made of extruded PVC and Expanded Polystyrene as a core with a cement-based protective coating. Synthetic moldings have environmental and safety concerns that were investigated by Doroudiani et al. Common moldings include: Astragal — Semi-circular molding attached to one of a pair of doors to cover the gap where they meet. Baguette — Thin, half-round molding, smaller than an astragal, sometimes carved, enriched with foliages, ribbands, etc; when enriched with ornaments, it was called chapelet.
Bandelet — Any little band or flat molding, which crowns a Doric architrave. It is called a tenia (from Greek ταινία an article of clothing in the form of a ribbon. Baseboard, "base molding" or "skirting board" — Used to conceal the junction of an interior wall and floor, to protect the wall from impacts and to add decorative features. A "speed base" makes use of a base "cap molding" set on top of a plain 1" thick board, however there are hundreds of baseboard profiles. Baton — See Torus Batten or board and batten — Symmetrical molding, placed across a joint where two parallel panels or boards meet Bead molding — Narrow, half-round convex molding, when repeated forms reeding Beading or bead — Molding in the form of a row of half spherical beads, larger than pearling Other forms: Bead and leaf and reel, bead and spindle Beak — Small fillet molding left on the edge of a larmier, which forms a canal, makes a kind of pendant. See also: chin-beak Bed molding — Narrow molding used at the junction of a wall and ceiling.
Bed moldings can be either plain. Bolection — Raised molding projecting proud of a face frame at the intersection of the different levels between the frame and an inset panel on a door or wood panel, it will sometimes have a rabbet on its underside the depth of the lower level so it can lay flat over both. It can leave an inset panel free to contract with temperature and humidity. Cable molding or ropework — Convex molding carved in imitation of a twisted rope or cord, used for decorative moldings of the Romanesque style in England and Spain and adapted for 18th-century silver and furniture design Cabled fluting or cable — Convex circular molding sunk in the concave fluting of a classic column, rising about one-third of the height of the shaft Casing — Finish trim around the sides of a door or window opening covering the gap between finished wall and the jam or frame it is attached to. Cartouche escutcheon — Framed panel in the form of a scroll with an inscribed centre, or surrounded by compound moldings decorated with floral motifs Cavetto — cavare: Concave, quarter-round molding sometimes employed in the place of the cymatium of a cornice, as in the Doric order of the Theatre of Marcellus.
It forms the crowning feature of the Egyptian temples, took the place of the cymatium in many of the Etruscan temples. Chair rail or dado rail — Horizontal molding placed part way up a wall to protect the surface from chair-backs, used as decoration Chamfer — Beveled edge connecting two adjacent surfaces Chin-beak — Concave quarter-round molding, rare in ancient buildings, more common today. Corner guard — Used to protect the edge of the wall at an outside corner, or to cover a joint on an inside corner. Cove molding or coving — Concave-profile molding, used at the junction of an interior wall and ceiling Crown molding — Wide, sprung molding, used at the junction of an interior wall and ceiling. General term for any molding at the top or "crowning" an architectural element. Cyma — Molding of double curvature, combining the convex ovolo and concave cavetto; when the concave part is uppermost, it is called a cyma recta but if the convex portion is at the top, it is called a Cyma reversa — Crowning molding at the entablature is of the cyma form, it is called a cymatium.
Dentils — Small blocks spaced evenly along the bottom edge of the cornice Drip cap — Molding placed over a door or window opening to prevent water from flowing under the siding or across the glass Echinus — Similar to the ovolo molding and found beneath the abacus of the Doric capital or decorated with the egg-and-dart pattern below the Ionic capital Egg-and-dart — egg shapes alternating with V-shapes. Also: Egg and tongue and anchor, egg and star Fillet — Small, flat band separating two surfaces, or between the flutes of a column. Fillet is used on handrail applications when the handrail is "plowed" to accept square shaped balusters; the fillet is used on the bottom side of the handrail between each of the balusters. Fluting — Vertical, half-round grooves cut into the surface of a column in regular intervals, each separated by a flat astragal; this ornament was used for all but the Tuscan order Godroon or Gadroon — Ornamental band with the appearance of beading or reeding frequent in silverwork and molding.
It comes from the Latin word Guttus. It is said to be derived from raised work on linen, applied in Fran