A mill race, millrace or millrun is the current of water that turns a water wheel, or the channel conducting water to or from a water wheel. Compared to the waters of a mill pond, the narrow current is swift. The race leading to the wheel on a wide stream or mill pond is called the head race. A mill race has many specific names, such as leat, flume, goit. These words all have more precise definitions and meanings will differ elsewhere, the original undershot waterwheel, described by Vitruvius was a run of the river wheel placed so a fast flowing stream would press against and turn the bottom of a bucketed wheel. In the first meaning of the term, the millrace was the stream, in the sense of the word, there was no channel, as technology advanced, the stream was dammed forming a weir. This increased the head of water, behind the weir was the millpond, or lodge. The water was channelled to the waterwheel by a sluice or millrace- this was the head race, from the waterwheel, the water was channelled back to the stream by a sluice known as the tail race.
When the tail race from one mill led to another mill where it acted as the race this was known as the mid race. The level of water in the millrace could be controlled by a series of sluice gates
Roman roads in Britannia
Roman roads in Britain are long roads, mainly designed for military use, created by the Roman Army during the nearly four centuries that Britain was a province of the Roman Empire. It is estimated that the Romans constructed and maintained about 2,000 mi of paved roads throughout the province. The primary function of the network was to allow movement of troops and military supplies, but it provided vital infrastructure for commerce, trade. A considerable number of Roman roads remained in use as core trunk roads for centuries after the Romans withdrew from Britain in AD410. Some routes are now part of the UKs national road network in modern times, others have been lost or are of archeological and historical interest only. After the Romans departed, systematic construction of paved highways in the UK did not resume until the early 18th century, the Roman road network remained the only nationally-managed highway system within Britain until the establishment of the Ministry of Transport in the early 20th century.
Prior to the Roman conquest of Britain, pre-Roman Britons mostly used unpaved trackways for travel and these routes, many of which had prehistoric origins, followed elevated ridge lines across hills, e. g. Although most routes were unpaved tracks, some British tribes had begun engineering roads during the first century BC, beginning in 43 AD, the Romans quickly created a national road network. Engineers from the Roman Army - in most cases - surveyed, key locations, both strategic and administrative, were connected by the most direct routes possible. Main roads were gravel or paved, had constructed in stone or wood. The roads impermeable design permitted travel in all seasons and weather, following the withdrawal of the Roman Legions in 410 AD, the road system soon fell into disrepair. Parts of the network were retained by the Anglo-Saxons, eventually becoming integral routes in Anglo-Saxon Britain, however large sections were abandoned and lost. The Fosse Way, from Exeter to Lincoln, was built at this time to connect these bases with each other.
During the Flavian period, the roads to Lincoln and Gloucester were extended to the new bases at York, Chester. By 96 further extensions from York to Corbridge, and from Chester to Carlisle and Caernarfon, were completed as Roman rule was extended over Wales and northern England. Stanegate, the road from Carlisle to Corbridge, was built under the Emperor Trajan along the line of the future Hadrians Wall. However, the Romans maintained a system of forts in the region ca. 80–220 AD to control the population beyond Hadrians Wall and annexed the Lowlands briefly with the construction of the Antonine Wall in 164
A watermill or water mill is a mill that utilizes hydropower. It is a structure that uses a wheel or water turbine to drive a mechanical process such as milling, rolling. Such processes are needed in the production of material goods, including flour, paper, textiles. Thus watermills may be comprise gristmills, paper mills, textile mills, trip hammering mills, rolling mills, wire drawing mills. The former type can be divided, depending on where the water hits the wheel paddles, into undershot, breastshot. Another way to water mills is by an essential trait about their location, tide mills use the movement of the tide. The earliest evidence of a wheel is probably the Perachora wheel. The earliest written reference is in the technical treatises Pneumatica and Parasceuastica of the Greek engineer Philo of Byzantium, the British historian of technology M. J. T. The sakia gear is, already developed, for the first time attested in a 2nd-century BC Hellenistic wall painting in Ptolemaic Egypt. The Greek geographer Strabon reports in his Geography a water-powered grain-mill to have existed near the palace of king Mithradates VI Eupator at Cabira, Asia Minor, before 71 BC.
The Roman engineer Vitruvius has the first technical description of a watermill, dated to 40/10 BC and he seems to indicate the existence of water-powered kneading machines. The Greek epigrammatist Antipater of Thessalonica tells of an overshot wheel mill around 20 BC/10 AD. He praised for its use in grinding grain and the reduction of human labour, Hold back your hand from the mill, you grinding girls, even if the cockcrow heralds the dawn, sleep on. If we learn to feast toil-free on the fruits of the earth, the Roman encyclopedist Pliny mentions in his Naturalis Historia of around 70 AD water-powered trip hammers operating in the greater part of Italy. There is evidence of a mill in 73/4 AD in Antioch. It is likely that a stamp mill was used at Dolaucothi to crush gold-bearing quartz. The stamps were operated as a batch of four working against a large conglomerate block, similar anvil stones have been found at other Roman mines across Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal. The 1st-century AD multiple mill complex of Barbegal in southern France has been described as the greatest known concentration of power in the ancient world
The River Slea is a 36. 4-kilometre-long tributary of the River Witham, in Lincolnshire, England. In 1872 the river was described as a source of pure water. But in the late 1960s, the Anglian Water Authority took control of the river, the Slea rises near West Willoughby, two miles south-west of Ancaster, at an altitude of 70 metres. The river descends 30 metres in the first 3 km of its course through Ancaster before flowing past a Site of Special Scientific Interest into Sleaford. Through Sleaford it flows above ground in two courses, and curves around the foot of The Hub where a new riverside sculpture walk follows it. Leaving Sleaford, it passes Haverholme and runs down through South Kyme where it is known as the Kyme Eau to join the River Witham at Chapel Hill. The River Slea was made navigable from the Witham up to Sleaford in 1794, although these navigations were closed in 1878, there is now an active Sleaford Navigation Trust that aims to reopen to navigations again as far as Sleaford
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the Great Survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states, Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Glocester with his council. After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land, how it was occupied and it was written in Medieval Latin, was highly abbreviated, and included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The assessors reckoning of a mans holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive, the name Domesday Book came into use in the 12th century. As Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario, for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge and its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity. That is why we have called the book the Book of Judgement, because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable.
The manuscript is held at The National Archives at Kew, London, in 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online. The book is a primary source for modern historians and historical economists. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works, Little Domesday and Great Domesday, no surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns, probably due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing, the omission of the other counties and towns is not fully explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be fully conquered. Little Domesday – so named because its format is smaller than its companions – is the more detailed survey. It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in Great Domesday, some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him, as a review of taxes owed, it was highly unpopular.
Each countys list opened with the demesne lands. It should be borne in mind that under the system the king was the only true owner of land in England. He was thus the ultimate overlord and even the greatest magnate could do no more than hold land from him as a tenant under one of the contracts of feudal land tenure. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section and this principle applies more specially to the larger volume, in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places and these include fragments of custumals, records of the military service due, of markets, and so forth
Sleaford is a market town and civil parish in Lincolnshire, England. It is on the edge of the fertile Fenlands, about 11 miles north-east of Grantham,16 miles west of Boston, with a population of 17,671 at the 2011 Census, the town is the largest settlement in the North Kesteven district. Bypassed by the A17 and the A15, it is connected to Lincoln, Peterborough, Sleaford railway station is on the Nottingham to Skegness and Peterborough to Lincoln Lines. The first settlement formed in the Iron Age where a prehistoric track crossed the River Slea and it was a tribal centre and home to a mint for the Corieltauvi in the 1st centuries BC and AD. Evidence of Roman and Anglo-Saxon settlement has been uncovered, and by the late Saxon period the town was an economic and jurisdictional centre with a court and market. In the medieval period, records differentiate between Old and New Sleaford, the emerging in the areas around the present day market place. Sleaford Castle was constructed in the 12th century for the Bishops of Lincoln, granted the right to hold a market in the mid-12th century, New Sleaford developed into a market town and became locally important in the wool trade, while Old Sleaford declined.
From the 16th century, the landowners were the Carre family, who operated tight control over the town, the manor passed from the Carre family to the Hervey family by the marriage of Isabella Carre to John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, in 1688. The Sleaford Navigation brought economic growth until it was superseded by the railways in the mid-1850s, in the 20th century, the sale of farmland around Sleaford by Bristol Estates led to the development of large housing estates. The subsequent availability of affordable housing combined with the educational facilities. As a result, the population underwent the fastest growth of any town in the county in the 1990s. The arrival of the made the town favourable for malting. Industry has declined, and in 2011 the most common occupations are in wholesale and retail trade and social care, public administration and defence and manufacturing. Regeneration of the centre has led to the redevelopment of the old industrial areas. The earliest records of the place-name Sleaford are found in a charter of 852 as Slioford, in the Domesday Book, it is recorded as Eslaforde and in the early 13th century as Sliforde.
In the 13th century Book of Fees the name appears as Lafford, the name is formed from the Old English words sliow and ford, which together mean ford over a muddy or slimy river. Archaeological material from the Bronze Age and earlier has been recovered and excavations have shown there was unsustained late-Neolithic. The earliest known permanent settlement dates from the Iron Age and began where a track running northwards from Bourne crossed the River Slea, during the Roman occupation of Britain, the settlement was extensive and of considerable importance
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments. The body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983. Historic England has a remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment. Historic England inherits English Heritages position as the UK governments statutory adviser and this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of Englands heritage and publishes the annual the Heritage at Risk survey which is one of the UK Governments Official statistics and it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of buildings, monuments.
In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings, advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of Englands listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, conservation areas and protected parks and this is published as an online resource as The National Heritage List for England. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage, providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources. In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e. g. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings, the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government.
It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites, however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. Britain from Above, presents the unique Aerofilms collection of photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer, Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
The Sleaford Navigation was a 12.5 mile canalisation of the River Slea in Lincolnshire, which opened in 1794. It ran from a junction with the River Witham, near Chapel Hill to the town of Sleaford through seven locks, lack of finance meant that it stopped short of its intended terminus, but it gradually grew to be successful financially. The coming of the railways in 1857 led to a decline, and it was officially abandoned by an act of Parliament in 1878. The lower part of it remained navigable until the 1940s, when it was blocked by a sluice, interest in restoring the canal began in 1972, and navigation was restored to the first 8 miles with the re-opening of Lower Kyme lock in 1986. The Sleaford Navigation Trust has been working towards restoring the whole waterway, a short section at Sleaford was opened in 2010, following the installation of a lift bridge. Having agreed to carry out repairs, he was granted the right to levy tolls by letters patent, although initially rebuffed, the committee persisted, and the Commissioners eventually agreed to terms.
At the time, the River Slea was not navigable beyond Kyme, as the channel was inadequate, three attempts were made to obtain an Act of Parliament to authorise improvements, but all were defeated. In 1791, William Jessop and John Hudson were commissioned to prepare a new survey and their report was published on 25 November 1791, and estimated that the improvements would cost £9,979. The plans obtained the support of Sir Joseph Banks, a baronet who was a patron of the natural sciences, the fourth attempt to obtain an act of Parliament was successful, probably due to his influence. It had authority to raise £13,000 in capital for the project, most of the money was raised within Lincolnshire, with half of the shares being bought by people living in Sleaford. Six proprietors were elected to serve on a committee, which expressed its thanks to Joseph Banks at its first meeting, by the end of 1793, £16,000 had been raised to fund construction. The Horncastle Canal was being constructed at the time.
They approached Henry Eastburn, but he did not accept, five locks were required to negotiate the mills, and there were additional locks at Lower Kyme and near Flax Dyke, in the parish of Ewerley. They were built as broad locks,60 by 15 feet, six contracts with a total value of £4,000, for the construction of locks and bridges, were awarded to John Dyson Sr. who worked with Peter Tyler and John Langwith. The company responded that the place to sort out such disagreements was in a law court. Financial difficulties meant that it stopped short of its intended terminus, trade on the navigation was adequate, but the company was hampered by the overrun in the cost of construction. Dividends were paid to shareholders in 1795,1817,1818 and 1824, but profits had improved by 1826, between 1836 and 1856, they ranged from five per cent to eight per cent. Rather than the proprietors collecting the tolls, they were let to toll collectors, in 1816, John Keyworth paid £1,010 for the privilege, while by 1839, Joshua Bower had to pay £1,590
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register