Murray Valley Highway
The Murray Valley Highway is a 663-kilometre state highway located in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. For the vast majority of the highway's length, the route is designated as B400; the Murray Valley Road was built in the late 1920s and early 1930s by the Country Roads Board of Victoria as part of a program of rural roads to facilitate development of the more remote parts of the state and provide connections between communities in addition to the roads and railways radiating out from Melbourne. It is one of a number of roads designated as a State Highway in 1933. At that time, the highway ran from Corryong to the South Australian border; the western end of this route is now part of the Sturt Highway. The popular tourist route follows the south side of the Murray River and acts as the northern-most highway in Victoria; the western end of route B400 is the Murray River bridge at Robinvale, although the Murray Valley Highway crosses that bridge without the B400 designation to connect with the Sturt Highway 2 kilometres further north.
The Murray Valley Highway continued west to connect with the Calder Highway at Hattah instead of crossing the river. The eastern end is in the foothills of the Great Dividing Range at Corryong; the alignment of the eastern end changed in the 1980s. The route extends further east and crosses the border into New South Wales as the Alpine Way. Most of the highway is straight and flat, much of it through irrigated farmland, it becomes hillier and more winding east of Wodonga, with a moderately steep mountain pass near Koetong, between Tallangatta and Corryong. The major towns along the route are Robinvale, Swan Hill, Cohuna, Nathalia, Cobram, Rutherglen, Wodonga and Corryong. Highways in Australia Highways in New South Wales Highways in Victoria
Quambatook is a town in northern Victoria, Australia. The town is located on the Avoca River in the Shire of Gannawarra local government area, 302 kilometres from the state capital, Melbourne. At the 2016 census Quambatook had a population of a decline from 361 at the 2011 census; the primary school closed in mid 2017 after no applications to teach the six remaining students were received. Quambatook was settled following the end of the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s. Resumption of large squatter's land holdings for closer settlement in the 1870s led to Quambatook becoming one of Victoria's leading wheat and sheep producing areas. Quambatook Post Office opened on 1 September 1879. Quambatook has been recognised as the tractor pulling capital of Australia with an annual competition, the Australian Tractor Pulling Championships, held at Easter since 1976. In fact, the town's motto is'Land of wheat and wool, home of the tractor pull'; the town is. Williamson has written a musical named for the town.
Golfers play at the course of the Quambatook Golf Club on Boort Road. Quambatook Media related to Quambatook at Wikimedia Commons
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Leitchville is a town in northern Victoria, Australia. The town is in the Shire of Gannawarra local government area, 262 kilometres from the state capital, Melbourne. At the 2016 census, Leitchville had a population of 558; the district was named after the manager of Gunbower station, Duncan Leitch, following his death in 1887, the Post Office opened on 1 October 1887. The township was gazetted in 1929. Many locals have now been pushing the council for the new name of Margaritaville to entice more tourism for business; the major industry in Leitchville is dairy production. Kow Swamp, the site of a major palaeontological find providing insight into the origins of Indigenous Australians is located nearby; the town in conjunction with neighbouring township Gunbower has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Heathcote District Football League. Leitchville has a well-used Travellers Rest, it is not unusual to see several caravans or motor homes taking an overnight stop. There are public toilets nearby at the swimming pool and the Lions Club paid for the installation of a Dump Site at the local Recreation Reserve, only a stone's throw from the Rest Stop.
The Dump-Ezy was supplied by the CMCA
Electoral district of Murray Plains
The electoral district of Murray Plains is an electoral district of the Victorian Legislative Assembly in Australia. It was created in the redistribution of electoral boundaries in 2013, came into effect at the 2014 state election, it is a new district created due to the abolition of the districts of Swan Rodney. It is centered on the Murray River cities of Swan Hill and Echuca, including the towns of Kerang, Lake Boga, Cohuna and other towns in the Swan Hill, Gannawarra and Campaspe local government areas. Murray Plains was contested in the 2014 election by the sitting National party MP for the abolished district of Swan Hill, Peter Walsh, who retained the seat. District profile from the Victorian Electoral Commission
Eucalyptus camaldulensis known as the river red gum, is a tree, endemic to Australia. It has smooth white or cream-coloured bark, lance-shaped or curved adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven or nine, white flowers and hemispherical fruit with the valves extending beyond the rim. A familiar and iconic tree, it is seen along many watercourses across inland Australia, providing shade in the extreme temperatures of central Australia. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree that grows to a height of 20 metres but sometimes to 45 metres and does not develop a lignotuber; the bark is smooth white or cream-coloured with patches of pink or brown. There is loose, rough slabs of rough bark near the base; the juvenile leaves are lance-shaped, 80 -- 13 -- 25 mm wide. Adult leaves are lance-shaped to curved, the same dull green or geyish green colour on both sides, 50–300 mm long and 7–32 mm wide on a petiole 8–33 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in groups of seven, nine or sometimes eleven, in leaf axils on a peduncle 5–28 mm long, the individual flowers on pedicels 2–10 mm long.
Mature buds are oval to more or less spherical, green to creamy yellow, 6–9 mm long and 4–6 mm wide with a prominently beaked operculum 3–7 mm long. Flowering occurs in summer and the flowers are white; the fruit is a woody, hemispherical capsule 2–5 mm long and 4–10 mm wide on a pedicel 3–12 mm long with the valves raised above the rim. The limbs of river red gums, sometimes whole trees fall without warning so that camping or picnicking near them is dangerous if a tree has dead limbs or the tree is under stress. Eucalyptus camaldulensis was first formally described in 1832 by Friedrich Dehnhardt who published the description in Catalogus Plantarum Horti Camaldulensis. Seven subspecies of E. camaldulensis have been described and accepted by the Australian Plant Census. The most variable character is the shape and size of the operculum, followed by the arrangement of the stamens in the mature buds and the density of veins visible in the leaves; the subspecies are: Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp.
Acuta Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has mature flower buds with a pointed operculum 6–9 mm long and erect stamens and broadly lance-shaped or egg-shaped juvenile leaves. Arida Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has bluish green adult leaves with only a few veins and mature flowers buds with a curved to rounded operculum 3–7 mm long. Subsp. Camaldulensis has a beaked operculum, incurved or irregularly bent stamens and narrow lance-shaped juvenile leaves. Minima Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has mature flower buds that are small with a conical operculum 2–4 mm long and broad juvenile leaves that are covered with a powdery bloom. Obtusa Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has white, powdery bark in some months and mature flower buds with a curved, conical operculum 4–7 mm long. Refulgens Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has glossy green adult leaves with a dense network of veins. Simulata Ian Brooker & Kleinig. has a horn-shaped operculum 9–16 mm long. The specific epithet is a reference to a private estate garden near the Camaldoli monastery in Naples, where Frederick Dehnhardt was the chief gardener.
The type specimen was grown in the gardens from seed collected in 1817 near Condobolin by Allan Cunningham, was grown there for about one hundred years before being removed in the 1920s. Although Dehnhardt was the first to formally describe E. camaldulensis, his book was unknown to the botanical community. In 1847 Diederich von Schlechtendal gave the species the name Eucalyptus rostrata but the name was illegitimate because it had been applied by Cavanilles to a different species. In the 1850s, Ferdinand von Mueller labelled some specimens of river red gum as Eucalyptus longirostris and in 1856 Friedrich Miquel published a description of von Mueller's specimens, formalising the name E. longirostris. In 1934, William Blakely recognised Dehnhardt's priority and the name E. camaldulensis for river red gum was accepted. Northern Territory aboriginal names for this species are: aper, aper or per, aylpele, ngapiri, yitara apara, piipalya, kunjumarra and ngapiri. Dimilan is the name of this tree in the Miriwoong language of the Kimberley.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis has the widest natural distribution of any eucalyptus species. It is found along waterways and there are only a few locations where the species is found away from a watercourse. Subspecies acuta is common along rivers from south of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland to the north west slopes and plains of New South Wales but is absent from coastal areas and the arid inland. Subspecies arida has the widest distribution of the subspecies and is found in all mainland states except Victoria, it grows in arid regions but only. Subspecies camaldulensis is the dominant eucalypt along the Murray-Darling river system and its tributaries, it occurs on the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas and Kangaroo Island in South Australia and in some locations along the Hunter River in New South Wales. I
Attalea cohune known as the cohune palm, is a species of palm tree native to Mexico and parts of Central America. The cohune palm is used in the production of cohune oil and its nut can be used as a variety of vegetable ivory. A chief occurrence as a dominant plant is in the Belizean pine forests ecoregion