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Coin flipping

Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air and checking which side is showing when it lands, in order to choose between two alternatives, sometimes used to resolve a dispute between two parties. It is a form of sortition; the party who calls the side that the coin lands on wins. The historical origin of coin flipping is the interpretation of a chance outcome as the expression of divine will. Coin flipping was known to the Romans as navia aut caput, as some coins had a ship on one side and the head of the emperor on the other. In England, this was referred to as pile. During a coin toss, the coin is thrown into the air such that it rotates edge-over-edge several times. Either beforehand or when the coin is in the air, an interested party calls "heads" or "tails", indicating which side of the coin that party is choosing; the other party is assigned the opposite side. Depending on custom, the coin may be caught; when the coin comes to rest, the toss is complete and the party who called or was assigned the upper side is declared the winner.

It is possible for a coin to land on its side by landing up against an object or by getting stuck in the ground. However on a flat surface it is possible for a coin to land on its edge. A computational model suggests that the chance of a coin landing on its edge and staying there is about 1 in 6000 for an American nickel. Angular momentum prevents most coins from landing on their edges unsupported if flipped; such cases in which a coin does land on its edge are exceptionally rare and in most cases the coin is re-flipped. The coin may be any type. Larger coins tend to be more popular than smaller ones; some high-profile coin tosses, such as the Cricket World Cup and the Super Bowl, use custom-made ceremonial medallions. Three-way coin flips are possible, by a different process – this can be done either to choose two out of three, or to choose one out of three. To choose two out of three, three coins are flipped, if two coins come up the same and one different, the different one loses, leaving two players.

To choose one out of three, either reverse this, or add a regular two-way coin flip between the remaining players as a second step. Note that the three-way flip is 75% to work each time it is tried, does not require that "heads" or "tails" be called. A famous example of such a three-way coin flip is dramatized in Friday Night Lights, three Texas high school football teams use a three-way coin flip. A legacy of this coin flip was to reduce the use of coin flips to break ties in Texas sports, instead using point systems to reduce the frequency of ties. Coin tossing is a simple and unbiased way of settling a dispute or deciding between two or more arbitrary options. In a game theoretic analysis it provides odds to both sides involved, requiring little effort and preventing the dispute from escalating into a struggle, it is used in sports and other games to decide arbitrary factors such as which side of the field a team will play from, or which side will attack or defend initially. Factors such as wind direction, the position of the sun, other conditions may affect the decision.

In team sports it is the captain who makes the call, while the umpire or referee oversees such proceedings. A competitive method may be used instead of a toss in some situations, for example in basketball the jump ball is employed, while the face-off plays a similar role in ice hockey. Coin flipping is used to decide which end of the field the teams will play to and/or which team gets first use of the ball, or similar questions in football matches, American football games, Australian rules football and other sports requiring such decisions. In the U. S. a specially minted coin is flipped in National Football League games. The original XFL, a short-lived American football league, attempted to avoid coin tosses by implementing a face-off style "opening scramble," in which one player from each team tried to recover a loose football; because of the high rate of injury in these events, it has not achieved mainstream popularity in any football league, coin tossing remains the method of choice in American football.

In an association football match, the team winning the coin toss chooses which goal to attack in the first half. For the second half, the teams switch ends, the team that won the coin toss kicks off. Coin tosses are used to decide which team has the pick of going first or second in a penalty shoot-out. Before the early-1970s introduction of the penalty shootout, coin tosses were needed to decide the outcome of tied matches; the most famous instance of this was the semifinal game of the 1968 European Championship in Italy between Italy and t

Emily M. Gray Award

The Emily M. Gray Award from the Biophysical Society in Rockville, Maryland, is given in recognition of "significant contributions to education in biophysics." The award was established in 1997 and first awarded the year thereafter. 1998: Muriel S. Prouty 1999: Kensal E. van Holde 2000: Charles Cantor and Paul Schimmel 2001: Jane Richardson 2002: Norma Allewell 2003: Michael Summers 2004: Richard D. Ludescher 2005: Barry R. Lentz 2006: Ignacio Tinoco, Jr. 2007: John Steve Olson 2008: David S. Eisenberg and Donald M. Crothers 2009: Philip C. Nelson 2010: Greta Pifat-Mrzljak 2011: Bertil Hille 2012: Kenneth Dill and Sarina Bromberg 2013: Louis de Felice 2014: Alberto Diaspro 2015: Meyer Jackson 2016: Douglas Robinson Emily M. Gray Award page

My Daughter the Terrorist

My Daughter the Terrorist is a 2007 documentary film about ‘twenty-four-year-olds Dharsika and Puhalchudar living and fighting side-by-side for seven years as part of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam elite force, the Black Tigers. The women describe their traumatic experiences at the hands of the Sri Lankan army, which led them to join the guerrilla group. Dharsika's father died in the war and was left with her mother struggling to bring up her family in a war-torn society. Growing up in a Catholic family, Dharsika wanted to be a nun, but joined the LTTE after the death of her father. Puhalchudar lost her home with her family and ended up in a displaced persons camp, describing the horrific conditions they faced at a young age. Dharsika's mother hopes to meet her daughter and Puhalchudar during the rebel groups Heroes Day Memorial known as Maaveerar Naal, only to place flowers on the grave of the unknown soldier. My Daughter the Terrorist is a film by Beate Arnestad, produced by Morten Daae that received the award for Best International Feature-length Documentary at the Message to Man International Film Festival in 2017 and was shown at the 11th United Nations Association Film Festival in 2008.

It premiered at international film festivals in the United States, Canada, Ukraine, Bogota and Taiwan. Official Site My Daughter the Terrorist on IMDb

Hugh Grenier

Hugh Grenier was the Lord of Caesarea from 1149/54 until his death. He was his wife, Julianne, his older brother, was prevented by leprosy from inheriting the lordship and it passed to Hugh. The date of Walter I's death and Hugh's accession is unknown. Walter was still alive and ruling in 1149, Hugh's lordship is first attested by a royal charter of 1154. Unlike his father, Hugh had a close relationship with the Kings of Jerusalem, but like his father he was a patron of the Order of the Hospital. Hugh was a regular attendant at the royal court under Baldwin III, Melisende and Amalric I: he signed as a witness to nine acts of each of the two kings and one of Melisende's. Hugh witnessed several aristocratic charters: one of Amalric's from 1155, while Amalric was still just Count of Jaffa. Hugh participated in two royal expeditions: the siege of Blahasent, near Sidon, Amalric's invasion of Egypt. According to William of Tyre, he was "a young man of admirable wisdom and discretion far beyond his years" when Amalric sent him to negotiate with the Egyptians in 1167.

At the court of the Fatimid caliph, al-'Āḍid, Hugh demanded to shake the caliph's ungloved hand to ratify the treaty signed by the two, a demand which, though met, shocked the caliph's courtiers. William of Tyre's description of the caliphal palace in Cairo is based on the description he received from Hugh. In the war against Nur ad-Din, Hugh was captured at the Battle of al-Babein by the forces of Saladin after his men abandoned him; when Nur ad-Din sued for peace, his general, requested that Hugh, whom he called "a great prince of high rank and much influence among your own people", act as an intermediary, but the latter refused—"lest it might seem that he was more interested in obtaining his own liberty than concerned for the public welfare". Only after a treaty was drafted was Hugh freed to "put the final touches to it". Although the primary source is William of Tyre, that Hugh was held in high regard by the Muslims can be regarded as fact. In 1154, Hugh granted a piece of land at Chaco to the Hospitallers.

In 1163 he gave them Zafaria and Albeira in exchange for Altafia, a property donated to them by his grandfather, Eustace I. In 1166 he sold them the casale at Hadedun for 2,000 bezants, he donated to them the coastal hilltop Turrim Salinarum, a donation confirmed by his son. In 1160, Hugh bestowed land and revenues on Santa Maria Latina for the benefit of the souls of his father and grandfather, who were buried there; that same year he donated a house and some lands to the Order of Saint Lazarus, of which his brother Eustace was a monk. In 1166, Hugh sold land at Feissa and confirmed his father and grandfather's gifts to the Order of the Holy Sepulchre in return for 400 bezants. Hugh married Isabelle, daughter of John Goman, she appears with him in five of his charters, she bore him two sons and a daughter: Guy, Walter II and Julianne, all three succeeding to the fief of Caesarea in turn. In 1161, Hugh approved a sale made by his father-in-law. After Hugh's death, his widow married Baldwin of Ibelin.

Hugh died between May 1168, when he witnessed a royal charter at Acre, July 1174, when his eldest son signed a charter as lord of Caesarea

I Am the Night (TV series)

I Am the Night is a six-episode American limited television series created and written by Sam Sheridan, starring Chris Pine and India Eisley. The series premiered on TNT on January 28, 2019, with a sneak peek of the first episode airing on January 27, 2019; the series is inspired by the memoir One Day She'll Darken: The Mysterious Beginnings of Fauna Hodel, written by Fauna Hodel, documenting her unusual beginnings and the connection to her grandfather, George Hodel, a prime suspect in the infamous Black Dahlia murder mystery. Fauna Hodel, a young girl, given up by her birth mother, sets out to uncover the secrets of her past and ends up following a sinister trail that swirls closer to a gynecologist involved in the legendary Black Dahlia slaying. Chris Pine as Jay Singletary, a disgraced LA-based journalist and Korean War veteran who encounters Fauna Hodel as he investigates her grandfather, George Hodel. India Eisley as Fauna Hodel, who has grown up believing she's biracial but she begins investigating the truth about her biological mother and father.

Jefferson Mays as George Hodel, Fauna's grandfather, a prominent and dangerous LA-based physician, a suspect in the Black Dahlia murder. Connie Nielsen as Corinna Hodel, George Hodel's now divorced second wife. Leland Orser as Peter Sullivan, Jay Singletary's editor and mentor. Yul Vazquez as Billis, a LAPD sergeant detective known for his brutal tactics. Jay Paulson as Ohls, an LAPD detective and a Korean War vet who owes his life to Jay. Golden Brooks as Jimmie Lee Greenwade, Fauna's adoptive mother who has kept Fauna's origins secret from her. Theo Marshall as Detective Cuddy. Jamie Anne Allman as Tamar Hodel, George Hodel's daughter and Fauna's birth mother. Monique Green as Nina, Fauna's cousin. Shoniqua Shondai as Tina, Fauna's cousin who warns her about investigating her white family. Justin Cornwell as Terrence Shye, a friend of the Lee family who takes a romantic interest in Fauna. Dylan Smith as Sepp, George Hodel's right-hand man. On July 27, 2017, the US cable network TNT announced Chris Pine would play the role of Jay Singletary in a six-episode television drama, One Day She'll Darken, serve as an executive producer alongside director Patty Jenkins and writer Sam Sheridan.

The drama was inspired by the autobiography of Fauna Hodel titled One Day She'll Darken: The Mysterious Beginnings of Fauna Hodel. In late 2017, it was reported that Carl Franklin would direct two episodes and serve as executive producer. Victoria Mahoney will direct two episodes. Director of photography Matthew Jensen joined the project in November 2017; the series was renamed I Am the Night and while announced to premiere on January 28, 2019, a sneak peek full airing of the pilot would be scheduled to follow 25th Screen Actors Guild Awards on the night before. On October 13, 2017, TNT announced that India Eisley, Jefferson Mays, Yul Vazquez, Justin Cornwell, Dylan Smith, Theo Marshall, Jay Paulson, Golden Brooks had joined the cast. Leland Orser, Connie Nielsen, Shoniqua Shandai, Monique Green were later cast. TNT released the first trailer of the show on July 2, 2018; the premiere was screened at the American Film Institute's AFI Fest on November 9, 2018, at the Egyptian Theatre in Los Angeles, California.

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the series holds an approval rating of 74% based on 58 reviews, with an average rating of 6.38/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Chris Pine inhabits I Am the Night with the roguish gravitas befitting a noir — if this entry into the pulp genre is more straightforward and languidly paced than some viewers would like." On Metacritic, it has a weighted average score of 59 out of 100, based on 26 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Official website I Am the Night on IMDb

Blue County (music group)

Blue County is an American country music duo composed of actor-singers Aaron Benward and Scott Reeves. They released their self-titled debut album in 2004 on Curb Records; this album produced four singles on the Billboard country singles charts, including the No. 11 "Good Little Girls". Two more singles — "Firecrackers and Ferris Wheels" and "I Get To" — were released in 2006, although neither was included on an album. Blue County was founded in 2003 by Aaron Benward and actor-singer Scott Reeves, friends for several years before the duo's foundation. Signed to Curb Records that year, the duo released their debut single "Good Little Girls"; this single peaked at No. 11 on the Billboard country charts in early 2004, was the first of four singles from their self-titled debut album, which Dann Huff produced. In 2004, the duo performed at the Country Music Association Music Festival. Following "Good Little Girls" was the single "That's Cool", which peaked at No. 24 on the country charts. "Nothing but Cowboy Boots" and "That Summer Song" followed in 2005, peaking at No. 38 and No. 53 respectively.

The duo released their fifth single, "Firecrackers and Ferris Wheels", in 2006, although it did not chart. Their final release for Curb was the No. 51-peaking "I Get To", which like "Ferris Wheels" was never included on an album. After recording two songs for the Evan Almighty soundtrack, Blue County fell off of the Curb in 2007. In 2018, Blue County has embarked on; that revival has started all over Europe with tour dates in Spain, Switzerland and Ireland just to name a few. Go to to find out more