Centime is French for cent, and is used in English as the name of the fraction currency in several Francophone countries. In France the usage of centime goes back to the introduction of the monetary system under Napoleon. This system aimed at replacing non-decimal fractions of older coins, a five-centime coin was known as a sou, i. e. a solidus or shilling. In Francophone Canada 1⁄100 of a Canadian dollar is known as a cent in both English and French. However, in practice, the form of cenne has completely replaced the official cent and written use of the official form cent in Francophone Canada is exceptionally uncommon. In the Canadian French vernacular sou, sou noir and cenne noire are all known, used. In the European community cent is the name for one hundredth of a euro. However, in French-speaking countries the word centime is the preferred term, the Superior Council of the French language of Belgium recommended in 2001 the use of centime, since cent is the French word for hundred. An analogous decision was published in the Journal officiel in France, in Morocco, dirhams are divided into 100 centimes and one may find prices in the country quoted in centimes rather than in dirhams.
Sometimes centimes are known as francs or in former Spanish areas, pesetas
A Rappen originally was a variant of the medieval Pfennig common to the Alemannic German regions Alsace and Northern Switzerland. As with other German pennies, its half-piece was a Haller, one-hundredth of a Swiss franc is still officially called a Rappen in German and Swiss German. In French speaking Switzerland, the modern Swiss coins are called centime, in Italian speaking Switzerland, centesimo respectively. After the dissolution of the Rappenbund in 1584, a number of Swiss states continued to mint rappen within their territories, a new Swiss Franc based on the Berne thaler was introduced, in which 10 rappen made 1 batzen, ten of which in turn formed one franc. This unified coinage was struck for five years only, until the end of the Helvetic Republic in 1803, the 5,10 and 20 rappen coins are currently in circulation, while the füfzgi is officially not a 50 rappen coin but a ½ franc coin. Julius Cahn, Der Rappenmünzbund, eine Studie zur Münz- und Geldgeschichte des oberen Rheintales, Band 1, Mittelalterliche Münzprägung in Bergbauregionen.
Zeitschrift für Archäologie des Mittelalters, Beiheft 17, ISBN 3-7749-3086-4 Band 2, Mittelalterliche Münzprägung in Südwestdeutschland. Zeitschrift für Archäologie des Mittelalters, Beiheft 19, ISBN 3-7749-3299-9 Swiss franc Vreneli Coins of the Swiss franc Withdrawal of low-denomination coins Rappen in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe. It is a monarchy with the rank of principality, headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and Austria to the east and it has an area of just over 160 square kilometres and an estimated population of 37,000. Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz and its largest municipality is Schaan, the unemployment rate is one of the lowest in the world at 1. 5%. Liechtenstein has been known in the past as a tax haven, however. An alpine country, Liechtenstein is mainly mountainous, making it a winter sport destination, many cultivated fields and small farms are found both in the south and north. The country has a financial sector centered in Vaduz. Liechtenstein is a member of the European Free Trade Association, and while not being a member of the European Union and it has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland.
The oldest traces of human existence in Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era, neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BC. Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC possibly under influence from the Greek. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii, in 58 BC, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, bringing the region under closer control of the Roman Empire. By 15 BC, who was destined to be the second Roman emperor, Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia. The area was maintained by the Roman military, which maintained a large legionary camp called Brigantium near Lake Constance, a Roman road ran through the territory. In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450. In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni had settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century, Liechtenstein was at the eastern edge of Alemannia.
In the 6th century, the region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis Is victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504. The area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 AD following the death of Charlemagne. The territory of present-day Liechtenstein belonged to East Francia until it was reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire around 1000 AD
The franc is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein, it is legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione dItalia. The Swiss National Bank issues banknotes and the federal mint Swissmint issues coins, the smaller denomination, a hundredth of a franc, is a Rappen in German, centime in French, centesimo in Italian, and rap in Romansh. The ISO code of the used by banks and financial institutions is CHF, although Fr. is used by most businesses and advertisers. Given the different languages used in Switzerland, Latin is used for inscriptions on the coins. In 1798, the Helvetic Republic introduced a currency based on the Berne thaler, the Swiss franc was equal to 6 3⁄4 grams of pure silver or 1 1⁄2 French francs. This franc was issued until the end of the Helvetic Republic in 1803, in order to solve this problem, the new Swiss Federal Constitution of 1848 specified that the federal government would be the only entity allowed to make money in Switzerland. This was followed two years by the first Federal Coinage Act, passed by the Federal Assembly on 7 May 1850, the franc was introduced at par with the French franc.
It replaced the different currencies of the Swiss cantons, some of which had been using a franc which was worth 1 1⁄2 French francs. In 1865, Belgium and Switzerland formed the Latin Monetary Union, the currency was devalued by 30% following the devaluations of the British pound, U. S. dollar and French franc. In 1945, Switzerland joined the Bretton Woods system and pegged the franc to the U. S. dollar at a rate of $1 =4.30521 francs and this was changed to $1 =4.375 francs in 1949. The Swiss franc has historically considered a safe-haven currency with virtually zero inflation. However, this link to gold, which dates from the 1920s, was terminated on 1 May 2000 following a referendum. By March 2005, following a gold selling program, the Swiss National Bank held 1,290 tonnes of gold in reserves which equated to 20% of its assets. In November 2014, the referendum on the Swiss Gold Initiative which proposed a restoration of 20% gold backing for the Swiss franc was voted down, in March 2011 the franc climbed past the US$1.10 mark.
In June 2011 the franc climbed past US$1.20 as investors sought safety amidst the continuation of the Greek sovereign-debt crisis, demand for francs and franc-denominated assets was so strong that nominal short-term Swiss interest rates became negative. In response to the announcement the franc fell against the euro, to 1.22 francs from 1.12 francs, the intervention stunned currency traders since the franc had long been regarded as a safe haven. The franc fell 8. 8% against the euro,9. 5% against the dollar and it was the largest plunge of the franc ever against the euro. The SNB had previously set an exchange rate target in 1978 against the Deutsche mark and maintained it, although at the cost of high inflation
The Bundesplatz is the Government Plaza in Bern, the capital city of Switzerland. It is situated at the Old City of Bern, the city center of Bern. It is part of the Innere Neustadt which was built during the expansion in 1255 to 1260. It is located in front of the Bundeshaus, the Swiss Parliament Building, the western third of the modern Bundeshausplatz was originally part of the ditch around the second city wall. In 1765, a plaza was built in the area between the Ballenhaus and the Holzwerkhof, Ballenhaus was demolished in 1820 to make way for the Casino and was located on the site of the modern east wing of the Parliament at Bundesplatz 15. The Holzwerkhof was demolished to make way for the Bundeshaus West and was located at Bundesgasse 1. The new plaza construction was overseen by Niklaus Hebler, who planted Linden trees on the plaza and fenced in the side with a balustrade which overlooked the lower city. Between 1894 and 1900, the new Bundeshaus was built, until 1909, it was known as Parlamentplatz.
For almost a century, the served as a parking lot. The project was finished on 31 July 2004 and officially unveiled on 1 August 2004 during the Swiss National Day celebration
Swissmint is the official mint of the Swiss Confederation. Located in the Swiss capital city Bern, it is responsible for manufacturing Swiss franc coins, apart from making coins for the government, Swissmint manufactures medals and commemorative coins for private customers. Swissmint is an agency of the Swiss federal government and it is part of the Federal Finance Administration, which in turn belongs to the Federal Department of Finance. Since 1998, the Official Mint of the Confederation operates as an independent business unit under the name Swissmint, as of 2005, Swissmint has 21 employees. The mints building is a site of national significance. It was built in 1903–06 based on designs by Theodor Gohl to replace a building at the Gerberngraben. The sober, industrial-style yellow brick building is fronted by a Neo-Renaissance façade in marble, Swiss National Bank, the independent institution responsible for Swiss banknotes and monetary policy. Official website Federal Finance Administration website on Swissmint
Helvetia is the female national personification of Switzerland, officially Confœderatio Helvetica, the Swiss Confederation. The Goddess Helvetia or the Goddess Helvetica, the allegory is typically pictured in a flowing gown, with a spear and a shield emblazoned with the Swiss flag, and commonly with braided hair, commonly with a wreath as a symbol of confederation. The name is a derivation of the ethnonym Helvetii, the name of the Gaulish tribe inhabiting the Swiss Plateau prior to the Roman conquest, the fashion of depicting the Swiss Confederacy in terms of female allegories arises in the 17th century. This replaces an earlier convention, popular in the 1580s, of representing Switzerland as a bull, in the first half of the 17th century, there isnt a single allegory identified as Helvetia. Rather, a number of allegories are shown representing both virtues and vices of the confederacy, female allegories of individual cantons predate the single Helvetia figure. There are depictions of a Respublica Tigurina Virgo, a Lucerna shown in 1658 with the victor of Villmergen, Christoph Pfyffer, over the next half-century, Merians Abundantia would develop into the figure of Helvetia proper.
An oil painting of 1677/78 from Solothurn, known as Libertas Helvetiae, in 1672, an oil painting by Albrecht Kauw shows a number of figures labelled Helvetia moderna. These represent vices such as Voluptas and Avaritia, contrasting with the virtues of Helvetia antiqua, on 14 September 1672, a monumental baroque play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach was performed in Zug, entitled Eydtgnossisch Contrafeth Auff- und Abnemmender Jungfrawen Helvetiae. The play is full of allegories illustrating the raise of Helvetia, in the 4th act, the Abnemmende Helvetiae or Waning Helvetia is faced with Atheysmus and Politicus while the old virtues leave her. In the final scene, Christ himself appears to punish the wayward damsel, but the Mother of God and Bruder Klaus intercede and the contrite sinner is pardoned. The Swiss Confederation continues to use the name in its Latin form when it is inappropriate or inconvenient to use any or all of its four official languages. ch, in Italian Elvezia is seen as archaic, but the demonym noun/adjective elvetico is used commonly as synonym of svizzero.
In French, Swiss people may be referred to as Helvètes, the German word Helvetien is used as well as synonym of Schweiz and has a higher poetic value. Helvetien is common in Germany, the German-speaking Swiss use simply Helvetia or Helvecia as poetic synonym of their country. Gianni Haver, Dame à lantique avec lance et bouclier, Helvetia et ses Déclinaisons, in M. -O. Gonseth, eclats du patrimoine culturel immatériel, Musée dethnographie de Neuchâtel,2013, pages 274-282. Thomas Maissen, Von wackeren alten Eidgenossen und souveränen Jungfrauen, zu Datierung und Deutung der frühesten Helvetia-Darstellungen, Zeitschrift für schweizerische Archäologie und Kunstgeschichte 56, 265-302
Vreneli is the informal name for a range of legal tender gold coins produced in Switzerland. The formal name is, Tête dHelvetia, Helvetiakopf or Helvetia Head, the coins were issued between 1897 and 1936, in 1947 and in 1949. All coins issued after 1936 are restrikes and these coins had face values of 10,20 and 100 Swiss francs and were minted in a millesimal fineness of 900. The coins are sometimes colloquially called “Swiss Miss, ” from the obvious obverse motif, the 20 franc coins reverse shows the Swiss shield, featuring the Swiss Cross, and a wreath of oak along with the denomination. The coins were minted at the Swiss Mint at Bern and the coins are mint marked with a B. The 20 franc coins are 21 mm in diameter,1.25 mm in thickness, weigh 6.45 grams and, at 90% pure, the 10 franc coin weighs 3, 23g and at 90% purity contains 2.9 grams of pure gold. The coins were issued between 1897 and 1936, in 1947 and in 1949, around 61 million coins were minted, although only 5,000 of the 100 franc pieces were produced and only in the year 1925.
The 20 Franc coin is the most common, and it is popular as a bullion coin, the coins hold a place in numismatic circles. Among the 20 franc pieces, the 1926 coin with its mintage of only 50,000 pieces is the key to that series. However, the 1926 is relatively common and the real keys to the series are said to be the 1903. This is based upon the fact that the major coin grading services have graded less than 10 coins of each date in all grades, while the 1926 has a graded population of over 200. Of course, populations depend upon the numbers of coins actually submitted by collectors which is tied to the popularity of a coin series. For a critique of population reports see Doug Winters essay, February 2002, the 100 franc denomination was only struck in 1925 with a very limited mintage of 5,000. The 10 franc denomination was struck in 1911 through 1916, although the obverse is the same for the 10,20 and 100 franc pieces, the reverse of the 10 and 100 are common depicting a radiant Swiss Cross above a branch.
In 1935,175,000 regular strikes of the 20 franc coins were produced, however, an additional twenty million coins dated L1935B with the L indicating lingot or bullion and the B indicating the Bern mint, were re-struck in 1945,1946 and 1947. An additional 9,200,000 coins contemporaneously struck and dated in 1947 were produced and are distinguished by the mint mark B, there were no regular strikes produced in the years 1945 and 1946. This coinage series was authorized by the law on January 6,1896, the name of the coin could derive from Verena, a personification of the Confederation of Switzerland in the female effigy, probably modeled by Françoise Engli, shown on the obverse of the coin. The name of the design could have roots in the tale of William Tell, the coin is known as a Helvetia from the inscription above the portrait
Libertas is the Roman goddess and embodiment of liberty. The Roman Republic was established simultaneously with the creation of Libertas and is associated with the overthrow of the Tarquin kings and she was worshipped by the Junii, the family of Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger. In 238 BC, before the Second Punic War, Tiberius Gracchus built a temple to Libertas on the Aventine Hill, census tables were stored inside the temples atrium. A subsequent temple was built on Palatine Hill, another of the Seven hills of Rome, by building and consecrating the temple on the former house of then-exiled Cicero, Clodius ensured that the land was legally uninhabitable. Upon his return, Cicero successfully argued that the consecration was invalid and thus managed to reclaim the land and destroy the temple. In 46 BC, the Roman Senate voted to build and dedicate a shrine to Libertas in recognition of Julius Caesar, but no temple was built, instead, a small statue of the goddess stood in the Roman Forum. Libertas, along with other Roman goddesses, has served as the inspiration for many modern-day symbols, according to the National Park Service, the Statues Roman robe is the main feature that invokes Libertas and the symbol of Liberty from which the Statue derives its name.
In addition, money throughout history has born the name or image of Libertas, Libertas was pictured on Galbas Freedom of the People coins during his short reign after the death of Nero. The Greek equivalent of the goddess Libertas is Eleutheria, the personification of liberty, as Liberty, Libertas was depicted on the obverse of most coinage in the U. S. into the twentieth century. The goddess Libertas is depicted on the Great Seal of France and this is the image which influenced French sculptor Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi in the creation of his statue of Liberty Enlightening the World. Libertas was not associated with the pileus, commonly worn by the freed slave, when a slave obtained his freedom he had his head shaved, and wore instead of his hair an undyed pileus. Hence the phrase servos ad pileum vocare is a summons to liberty, the figure of Liberty on some of the coins of Antoninus Pius, struck A. D.145, holds this cap in the right hand. The master in the held the slave, and after he had pronounced the words hunc hominem liberum volo, he turned him round and let him go
Cupronickel is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese. Despite its high content, cupronickel is silver in colour. Cupronickel is highly resistant to corrosion in seawater because its potential is adjusted to be neutral with regard to seawater. Another common use of cupronickel is in silver-coloured modern-circulated coins, a typical mix is 75% copper, 25% nickel, and a trace amount of manganese. In the past, true silver coins were debased with cupronickel, Cupronickel alloys are used for marine applications due to their resistance to seawater corrosion, good fabricability, and their effectiveness in lowering macrofouling levels. Alloys ranging in composition from 90% Cu–10% Ni to 70% Cu–30% Ni are commonly specified in heat exchanger or condenser tubes in a variety of marine applications. Desalination plants, Cupronickel alloys are used in brine heaters, heat rejection and recovery, offshore oil and gas platforms and processing and FPSO vessels, Cupronickel alloys are used in systems and splash zone sheathings.
Power generation, Cupronickel alloys are used in steam turbine condensers, oil coolers, auxiliary cooling systems and high pressure pre-heaters at nuclear, seawater system design, Cupronickel alloys are used in tubular heat exchangers and condensers and high pressure systems. Seawater system components, Cupronickel alloys are used in condenser and heat exchanger tubes, piping, pumps, in Europe, Switzerland pioneered the nickel billon coinage in 1850, with the addition of silver. In 1968, Switzerland adopted the far cheaper 75,25 copper to nickel ratio being used by the Belgians, the United States, and Germany. From 1947 to 2012, all “silver” coinage in the UK was made from cupronickel, prior to these dates, both denominations had been made only in silver in the United States. Cupronickel is the cladding on either side of United States half-dollars since 1971, some circulating coins, such as the United States Jefferson nickel, the Swiss franc, and the South Korean 500 and 100 won are made of solid cupronickel.
Single-core thermocouple cables use a single pair of thermocouple conductors such as iron-constantan. These have the element of constantan or nickel-chromium alloy within a sheath of copper. Cupronickel is used in cryogenic applications, beginning around the turn of the 20th century, bullet jackets were commonly made from this material. It was soon replaced with gilding metal to reduce fouling in the bore. Currently, cupronickel remains the basic material for silver-plated cutlery and it is commonly used for mechanical and electrical equipment, medical equipment, jewelry items, and as material for strings for string instruments. Fender Musical Instruments used CuNiFe magnets in their Wide Range Humbucker pickup for various Telecaster and Starcaster guitars during the 1970s, for high-quality cylinder locks and locking systems, cylinder cores are made from wear-resistant cupronickel
Banknotes of the Swiss franc
Banknotes of the Swiss franc are issued by the Swiss National Bank in denominations of 10,20,50,100,200 and 1,000 Swiss francs. The first banknotes in Switzerland were issued in 1825 by the Caisse de dépôt of the city of Bern, during the 19th century the Cantons had the right of printing notes. Following the law of 8 March 1881 the Swiss National Bank had the right to issue banknotes in Switzerland. First notes were issued in 1907, since then, eight series of Swiss franc notes have been printed, six of which have been released for use by the general public, and a new series is expected in 2016. The second series of Swiss banknotes was issued between 1911 and 1914, the third series of Swiss banknotes was printed in 1918, some of the notes were issued as war notes, while others were kept as reserve. The fourth series of Swiss banknotes was printed in 1938 as a series and was never issued. The fifth series of Swiss banknotes was issued starting in 1957, a seventh series of Swiss banknotes was designed and printed in 1984, in parallel with the sixth series, but was never released.
It formed the series, to be released, for example. At first, almost no information was released on the series for security reasons, after the eighth series was released, it was decided to improve the security features of the current series rather than develop a new reserve series. The details of the series were released, while the actual banknotes were destroyed. The designers were Roger Pfund and Elisabeth Pfund, the eighth series of Swiss franc banknotes, designed by Jörg Zintzmeyer, entered circulation in 1995. In 2005, the Swiss National Bank held a competition to determine the design of the series of banknotes. As a result, the series of Swiss franc banknotes will be based on designs by second place finalist Manuela Pfrunder. The series was scheduled to be issued around 2010 but was delayed to 2015 due to problems in the production. The new 50 franc banknote was issued on April 12,2016, coins of the Swiss franc Vreneli Michel de Rivaz, The Swiss banknote, 1907–1997. ISBN 2-88100-080-0 Albert Meier, Monnaies - Billets de Banque
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’