County Dublin is one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland. Prior to 1994 it was an administrative county covering the whole county outside of Dublin City Council. In 1994, as part of a reorganisation of local government within Dublin the boundaries of Dublin City were redrawn, Dublin County Council was abolished and three new administrative county councils were established: Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin. While it is no longer used as an administrative division for local government but retains a strong identity in popular culture, it is in the province of Leinster, is named after the city of Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. County Dublin was one of the first parts of Ireland to be shired by John, King of England following the Norman invasion of Ireland. According to the 2016 census, the total population of County Dublin was 1,345,402; the county is a NUTS 3 region, is part of the NUTS 2 region of Eastern and Midland. There are four local authorities whose remit collectively encompasses the geographic area of the county and city of Dublin.
These are Dublin City Council, South Dublin County Council, Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown County Council and Fingal County Council. Prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act 1993, the county was a unified whole though it was administered by two local authorities – Dublin County Council and Dublin Corporation. Since the enactment of the Local Government Act 2001 in particular, the geographic area of the county has been divided between three entities at the level of "county" and a further entity at the level of "city", they rank as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 Dublin Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; each local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. Dublin County Council was abolished in 1994 and the area divided among the administrative counties of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin each with its county seat.
To these areas may be added the area of Dublin city which collectively comprise the Dublin Region and come under the remit of the Dublin Regional Authority. The area lost its administrative county status in 1994, with Section 9 Part 1 of the Local Government Act, 1993 stating that "the county shall cease to exist." In discussing the legislation to dissolve Dublin County Council, Avril Doyle TD said, "The Bill before us today abolishes County Dublin, as one born and bred in these parts of Ireland I find it rather strange that we in this House are abolishing County Dublin. I am not sure whether Dubliners realise that, what we are about today, but in effect, the case."The county is part of the Dublin constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the area of the county is divided into eleven constituencies: Dublin Bay North, Dublin Bay South, Dublin Central, Dublin Fingal, Dublin Mid-West, Dublin North-West, Dublin Rathdown, Dublin South-Central, Dublin South-West, Dublin West, Dún Laoghaire.
Together they return 44 deputies to the Dáil. Despite the legal status of the Dublin Region, the term "County Dublin" is still in common usage. Many organisations and sporting teams continue to organise on a "County Dublin" or "Dublin Region" basis; the area known as "County Dublin" is now defined in legislation as the "Dublin Region" under the Local Government Act, 1991 Order, 1993, this is the terminology used by the four Dublin administrative councils in press releases concerning the former county area. The term Greater Dublin Area, which might consist of some or all of the Dublin Region along with counties of Kildare and Wicklow, has no legal standing; the Dublin Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland. The region is one of eight regions of the Republic of Ireland for the purposes of Eurostat statistics, its NUTS code is IE061. It is co-extensive with the old county; the regional capital is Dublin City, the national capital. The latest Ordnance Survey Ireland "Discovery Series" 1:50,000 map of the Dublin Region, Sheet 50, shows the boundaries of the city and three surrounding counties of the region.
Extremities of the Dublin Region, in the north and south of the region, appear in other sheets of the series, 43 and 56 respectively. Local radio stations include 98FM, FM104, 103.2 Dublin City FM, Q102, SPIN 1038, Sunshine 106.8, TXFM, Raidió Na Life and Radio Nova. Local newspapers include Northside People, Southside People and the Liffey Champion. Most of the area can receive the five main UK television channels as well as the main Irish channels, along with Sky TV and Virgin Media Ireland cable television. Road: The major roads are the N2, N3, N4 and N7 national primary roads, the M1, M11 and M50 motorways. Heavy rail: The InterCity and Commuter rail services. Light rail: The Luas tram system serving Dublin City and its southern and western suburbs. Rapid transit: The DART and the proposed Dublin Metro line. Port: Dublin Port and Dún Laoghaire Harbour. Air: Dublin International Airport; the economy of County Dublin was identified as being the powerhouse behind the Celtic Tiger, a period of strong economic growth of the state.
This resulted in the economy of the county expanding by 100% between the early 1990s and 2007. This growth resulted from incoming high-value industries, such as financial services and software manufacturing, as well as low-skilled retail and domestic services, w
Royal National Theatre
The Royal National Theatre in London known as the National Theatre, is one of the United Kingdom's three most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues, alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal Opera House. Internationally, it is known as the National Theatre of Great Britain. From its foundation in 1963 until 1976, the company was based at The Old Vic theatre in Waterloo; the current building is located next to the Thames in the South Bank area of central London. In addition to performances at the National Theatre building, the National Theatre tours productions at theatres across the United Kingdom. Permission to add the "Royal" prefix to the name of the theatre was given in 1988, but the full title is used; the theatre presents a varied programme, including Shakespeare, other international classic drama, new plays by contemporary playwrights. Each auditorium in the theatre can run up to three shows in repertoire, thus further widening the number of plays which can be put on during any one season.
In June 2009, the theatre began National Theatre Live, a programme of simulcasts of live productions to cinemas, first in the United Kingdom and internationally. The programme began with a production of Phèdre, starring Helen Mirren, screened live in 70 cinemas across the UK. NT Live productions have since been broadcast to over 2,500 venues in 60 countries around the world; the NT had an annual turnover of £105 million in 2015–16, of which earned income made up 75%. Support from Arts Council England provided 17% of income, 1% from Learning and Participation activity, the remaining 9% came from a mixture of companies, individuals and foundations. In 1847, a critic using the pseudonym Dramaticus published a pamphlet describing the parlous state of British theatre. Production of serious plays was restricted to the patent theatres, new plays were subjected to censorship by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. At the same time, there was a burgeoning theatre sector featuring a diet of low melodrama and musical burlesque.
There was a demand to commemorate serious theatre, with the "Shakespeare Committee" purchasing the playwright's birthplace for the nation demonstrating a recognition of the importance of'serious drama'. The following year saw more pamphlets on a demand for a National Theatre from London publisher Effingham William Wilson; the situation continued, with a renewed call every decade for a National Theatre. Attention was aroused in 1879 when the Comédie-Française took a residency at the Gaiety Theatre, described in The Times as representing "the highest aristocracy of the theatre"; the principal demands now coalesced around: a structure in the capital that would present "exemplary theatre". The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre was opened in Stratford upon Avon on 23 April 1879, with the New Shakespeare Company; this still left the capital without a national theatre. A London Shakespeare League was founded in 1902 to develop a Shakespeare National Theatre and – with the impending tri-centenary in 1916 of his death – in 1913 purchased land for a theatre in Bloomsbury.
This work was interrupted by World War I. In 1910, George Bernard Shaw wrote a short comedy, The Dark Lady of the Sonnets, in which Shakespeare himself attempts to persuade Elizabeth I of the necessity of building a National Theatre to stage his plays; the play was part of the long-term campaign to build a National Theatre. In 1948, the London County Council presented a site close to the Royal Festival Hall for the purpose, a "National Theatre Act", offering financial support, was passed by Parliament in 1949. Ten years after the foundation stone had been laid in 1951, the Government declared that the nation could not afford a National Theatre. Still, the Government tried to apply unacceptable conditions to save money. Following some initial inspirational steps taken with the opening of the Chichester Festival Theatre in Chichester June 1962, the developments in London proceeded. In July 1962, with agreements reached, a board was set up to supervise construction, a separate board was constituted to run a National Theatre Company and lease the Old Vic theatre.
The "National Theatre Company" opened on 22 October 1963 with Hamlet. The current building was designed by architects Sir Denys Lasdun and Peter Softley and structural engineers Flint & Neill and contains three stages, which opened individually between 1976 and 1977; the construction work was carried out by Sir Robert McAlpine. The Company remained at the Old Vic until 1977; the National Theatre building houses three separate theatres. Additionally, a temporary structure was added in April 2013 and closed in May 2016. Named after the theatre's first artistic director, Laurence Olivier, this is the main auditorium, modelled on the ancient Greek theatre at Epidaurus. A'drum revolve' is operated by a single staff member; the drum has two rim revolves and two platforms, each
A Gaelcholáiste is a secondary school on the island of Ireland located outside Gaeltacht areas, where Irish is the primary language of teaching and communication. Gaelcholáistí are supported and represented on a practical day-to-day basis by Gaeloideachas and An Chomhairle um Oideachas Gaeltachta & Gaelscolaíochta or COGG in the Republic and by Gaeloideachas and Comhairle na Gaelscolaíochta in the North. There are 31 Gaelcholáistí and 17 second-level Irish language units on the island of Ireland, attended by over 11,000 students. More than 3000 further students receive their second level education through Irish in the Gaeltacht; the Republic's Department of Education announced the opening of three new Gaelcholáistí in mid-2012- two in Dublin Coláiste Ghlór na Mara in Balbriggan and Gaelcoláiste an Phiarsaigh in Rathfarnham and one in Carrigaline Gaelcholáiste Charraig Uí Leighin. Gaelcholáiste Dhoire opened in Dungiven in 2015. Maynooth is expected to receive its first Gaelcholáiste in 2019.
A new Gaelcholáiste is planned to open in Cork on the northside of the city in 2019. Many of the Aonaid Ghaeilge hope to develop into full Gaelcholáistí in the medium-term providing there is enough demand. Coláiste Ailigh Coláiste an Phiarsaigh Gaelcoláiste an Phiarsaigh Gaelcholáiste Charraig uí Leighin Scoil Chaitríona Gaelcholáiste Cheatharlach Gaelcholáiste Chéitinn Gaelcholáiste Chiarraí Coláiste Chilliain Gaelcholáiste Chill Dara Coláiste Cois Life Coláiste de hÍde Gaelcholáiste Dhoire Coláiste Eoin Coláiste Feirste Coláiste Ghlór na Mara Coláiste Íosagáin Gaelcholáiste Luimnigh Coláiste Mhuire Coláiste na Coiribe Gaelcholáiste na Mara Coláiste Ráithín Gaelcholáiste Reachrann Coláiste an Eachréidh Planned Maynooth Cork Clonsilla Gaelscoil Gaeloideachas An Chomhairle um Oideachas Gaeltachta & Gaelscolaíochta An Foras Pátrúnachta Comhairle na Gaelscolaíochta Mapped by County
Davy Spillane is an Irish musician, songwriter and a player of uilleann pipes and low whistle. At the age of 12, Spillane started playing the uilleann pipes, his father inspired him with his love of all music genres. For the next three years he met many prominent Irish musicians. At the age of 16, he played in the United Kingdom and Europe. In 1978 he began to write his own music, he starred as a gypsy in Joe Comerford's 1981 film Traveller. He was a founder member of Moving Hearts, along with Christy Moore and Donal Lunny in 1981. Although each member had a strong pedigree of Irish folk music, the band played original compositions, sometimes with a political edge and a folk-rock sound, their final album The Storm was purely instrumental and had several slower pieces written by Spillane. He made the surprise move of joining up with American musicians Béla Fleck, Albert Lee and others to record a "Davy Spillane" debut album of his new compositions and bluegrass and original blues, Atlantic Bridge.
There was a promotional touring band which recorded Out of the Air in 1988 a live version of Atlantic Bridge. Spillane gathered together a new set of musicians, including Rory Gallagher and Kevin Glackin to record Shadow Hunter, an album of various rock and folk styles; this was followed by Pipedreams in 1991. Spillane played as special guest soloist in orchestral work in 1992 called "The Seville Suite", describing events in 1601 in Irish-Spanish history. Bill Whelan worked for Spillane and Andy Irvine on the album EastWind. In 1993, Spillane collaborated with Canadian Artists such as Bryan Adams, Daniel Weaver on his album Weeds as well and Celine Dion's My Heart Will go On. In 1994, Spillane was a special guest soloist in Riverdance. Spillane collaborated with Rory Gallagher on the tracks'The road to Ballyalla','Litton Lane' and'One For Phil' as well as with Enya on her 1988 Watermark tracks'Exile' and'Na Laetha Geal M'óige'. In 1992, Spillane composed music for Peter Kosminsky's film Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and, in 1995, reached a larger audience with the film Rob Roy.
Other compositions and guesting includes Kate Bush's Sensual World, Mike Oldfield's Voyager, Bryan Adams' MTV Unplugged, Van Morrison and Elvis Costello. Other films include Eat The Disappearance of Finbar. Paul Winter's album Journey with the Sun. Spillane was awarded a Grammy and nominated for second one. Spillane served his apprenticeship with pipe-makers Dan Dowd and Johnny Burke and now makes all his own instruments. In 2000, he recorded his only album of traditional tunes with Kevin Glackin, entitled Forgotten Days. Moving Hearts Dark End of the Street The Storm Live Hearts Live in Dublin Atlantic Bridge Out of the Air Shadow Hunter Pipedreams A Place Among The Stones The Sea of Dreams Forgotten Days Deep Blue Sea Between Longing & Belonging EastWind – with Andy Irvine Calman The Dove – with Savourna Stevenson Forgotten Days – with Kevin Glackin The Piper's Rock - A Compilation of Young Pipers, Various Artists - Uilleann Pipes The Heritage Tapes: Songs and Stories from Old Tiger Bay, Various Artists Irish Festival, Various Artists - Uilleann Pipes on The Old Bush/Rakish Paddy My Very Favourite Nursery Rhyme Record, Tim Hart - Uilleann Pipes The Drunken Sailor and other Kids Favorites, Tim Hart - Uilleann Pipes Inarticulate Speech of the Heart, Van Morrison - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Getting to the Border, Alistair Russell - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Now and Then, The Sands Family - Low Whistle on When the Music Starts to Play Classic Irish Ballads, Diarmuid O'Leary & The Bards - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Dancing With Strangers, Chris Rea - Uilleann Pipes, Low Whistle & Guitar Under the Influence, Mary Coughlan - Uilleann Pipes Goreuon, Best of, Jim O'Rourke, Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Watermark, Enya - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle North and South, Gerry Rafferty - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Dublin Millenium Song, Various Artists - Uilleann Pipes We've Come A Long Way, Liam Clancy/Tommy Makem - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle The Sensual World, Kate Bush - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle All I Remember, Mick Hanly - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Ogam, Ogam - Fearless composed by Davy Spillane Winds of Change, Oisin - Geraldine MacGowan & Anne Conroy - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Spike, Elvis Costello - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Elio Samaga Hukapan Kariyana Turu, Elio E Le Storie Tese - Uilleann Pipes Brand New Dance, Emmylou Harris - Uilleann Pipes This Rhythm, T. T. Oksala - Uilleann Pipes Hopes and Bodies, The Senators - Uilleann Pipes The Sweet Keeper, Tanita Tikaram - Low Whistle on It All Came Back Today Sojourner's Song, Buddy Greene - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Vigil in a Wilderness of Mirrors, Fish - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle on Vigil Put'Em Under Pressure, Republic of Ireland Football Squad Two Rooms, Celebrating the Songs of Elton John & Bernie Taupin - Uilleann Pipes on Kate Bush, Rocket Man Mighty Like a Rose, Elvis Costello - Uilleann Pipes Mission Street, Kieran Halpin - Uilleann Pipes & Low Whistle Rude Awakening, Andy Irvine Smoke and Strong Whiskey, Christy Moore - Low Whistle The Ways of the World, Mary Custy & Eoin O'Neill - Uilleann Pipes Lam Toro, Baaba Maal - Uilleann Pipes High On The Happy Side, Wet Wet Wet - Low Whistle on Put The Light On Soul Inspiration, Simo
Wales Millennium Centre
Wales Millennium Centre is an arts centre located in the Cardiff Bay area of Cardiff, Wales. The site covers a total area of 4.7 acres. Phase 1 of the building was opened during the weekend of the 26–28 November 2004 and phase 2 opened on 22 January 2009 with an inaugural concert; the centre has hosted performances of Opera, Dance, Theatre comedy and Musicals. The Wales Millennium Centre comprises one large theatre and two smaller halls with shops and restaurants, it houses the national orchestra and opera, dance and literature companies, a total of eight arts organisations in residence. The main theatre, the Donald Gordon Theatre, has 1,897 seats, the BBC Hoddinott Hall 350 and the Weston Studio Theatre 250. In 2001 Lord Rowe-Beddoe was appointed chairman of Wales Millennium Centre, a company limited by guarantee. Board members include Sir Michael Checkland; the Wales Millennium Centre replaced an earlier project for the site, the Cardiff Bay Opera House, a plan supported by the Cardiff Bay Development Corporation to construct a permanent home for the Welsh National Opera.
The project failed to win financial support from the Millennium Commission, the body which distributed funds from the UK National Lottery. An international design competition attracted 268 international applicants, was won by Iraq-born architect Zaha Hadid, her avant-garde design was so radical that she and a selection of other applicants were asked to submit revised designs for a second round of competition—which she again won with "a sleek and dazzling complex of sharp lines and surfaces that she compared to an'inverted necklace'". In December 1995, the Millennium Commission decided against lottery-money funding for the project, it was suggested that the bid failed because of "the unpopular Conservative government's fear of controversy," favouring the funding of projects perceived as more populist, such as the Millennium Stadium. After the Cardiff Bay Opera House project was rejected, a new project was conceived that included more than opera and was felt to be a better reflection of Welsh culture.
The change of name symbolised this. Funding from the Welsh Assembly and Millennium Commission took years to obtain. Cardiff Council had to buy the land after the previous owners, Grosvenor Waterside threatened to build a retail centre there due to the delays. Further boosts were given by large donations from South African businessman Donald Gordon and a loan from the international bank, HSBC; the GB£20 million donation from Donald Gordon was split evenly between the Royal Opera House and Wales Millennium Centre and was spread over five years. This is believed to be the largest single private donation made to the arts in the UK. In addition to the two main theatres of the Donald Gordon Theatre and Weston Studio Theatre, the 37,000-square-metre phase 1 of the Wales Millennium Centre has six function rooms: the Victor Salvi Room, the David Morgan Room, the Sony Room, the Seligman Room, the Japan Room, the Lloyds Enterprise Suite; the Urdd Gobaith Cymru has a hostel with accommodations for 153 people overnight in en-suite bedrooms, called the Urdd City Sleepover.
It has performance and teaching space in the Urdd Hall/Theatre, with 153 retractable seats. The building includes rehearsal rooms, orchestral facilities for the Welsh National Opera, dance studios for Diversions, called The Dance House, the Blue Room, with seating for up to 100; the foyer has three bars. Ffresh restaurant is situated in the foyer, along with Crema, a coffee shop, an Ice cream parlour and One, a wine bar. Free performances take place during the day in the foyer on the Glanfa Stage; the WMC was designed by Jonathan Adams, of local practice Percy Thomas Architects, with Arup Acoustics providing the acoustic design and Arup as building engineer. His first concept drawings were made in early 1998, by 1999 his design was starting to look more like the building it is today. Construction began on 25 February 2002, the main contractor being Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd and Kelsey Roofing Industries Ltd being the roofing contractor. Carr and Angier were the theatre consultants. Other contractors included Stent, Swansea Institute of Higher Education, now part of University of Wales Trinity Saint David, GH James Cyf, Alfred McAlpine, Coed Cymru, Ann Catrin Evans, Amber Hiscott.
The architect's concept of the building was a building that expressed "Welshness" and was recognisable. The building was designed to reflect the many different parts of Wales with local Welsh materials that dominate its history: slate, metal and glass. All the materials used come from Wales. Slate The exterior of the building is clad in multi-coloured slate collected from Welsh slate quarries. Narrow windows are built into the layers of slate to give the impression of rock; the purple slate came from the Penrhyn Quarry, the blue from Cwt y Bugail Quarry, the green from the Nantlle Valley, the grey from Llechwedd quarry, the black from the Corris Quarry. I always loved going to Southerndown. I thought. A building capable of withstanding the roughest weather for hundreds of years; the older they get, the better they look. I wondered if
Sinn Féin is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The original Sinn Féin organisation was founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith, it took its current form in 1970 after a split within the party and has been associated with the Provisional Irish Republican Army. Mary Lou McDonald has been party president since February 2018. Sinn Féin is one of the two largest parties in the Northern Ireland Assembly holding the same number of seats there as the Democratic Unionist Party. Sinn Féin is the largest nationalist party in that assembly, it held four ministerial posts in the most recent power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive. In the UK House of Commons, Sinn Féin holds seven of Northern Ireland's 18 seats—the second-largest bloc after the DUP. There it follows a policy of abstentionism, refusing to attend vote on bills. In the Oireachtas, Sinn Féin is the largest on the left; the phrase "Sinn Féin" is Irish for "Ourselves" or "We Ourselves", although it is mistranslated as "ourselves alone".
The meaning of the name itself is an assertion of self-determination. Around the time of 1969–1970, owing to the split in the republican movement, there were two groups calling themselves Sinn Féin; the latter became known as Sinn Féin or Provisional Sinn Féin, the former became known as Sinn Féin or Official Sinn Féin. As the "Officials" dropped all mention of Sinn Féin from their name in 1982, instead calling itself the Workers' Party of Ireland, the Provisionals were now known as Sinn Féin. Supporters of Republican Sinn Féin, which came from a 1986 split, still use the term "Provisional Sinn Féin" to refer to the party led by Mary Lou McDonald. Sinn Féin members have been referred to as Shinners, a term intended as a pejorative. Sinn Féin was founded on 28 November 1905, when, at the first annual Convention of the National Council, Arthur Griffith outlined the Sinn Féin policy, "to establish in Ireland's capital a national legislature endowed with the moral authority of the Irish nation".
The party contested the 1908 North Leitrim by-election. Thereafter, both support and membership fell. At the 1910 Ard Fheis the attendance was poor, there was difficulty finding members willing to take seats on the executive. In 1914, Sinn Féin members, including Griffith, joined the anti-Redmond Irish Volunteers, referred to by Redmondites and others as the "Sinn Féin Volunteers". Although Griffith himself did not take part in the Easter Rising of 1916, many Sinn Féin members did, as they were members of both the Volunteers and the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Government and newspapers dubbed the Rising "the Sinn Féin Rising". After the Rising, republicans came together under the banner of Sinn Féin, at the 1917 Ard Fheis the party committed itself for the first time to the establishment of an Irish Republic. In the 1918 general election, Sinn Féin won 73 of Ireland's 105 seats, in January 1919, its MPs assembled in Dublin and proclaimed themselves Dáil Éireann, the parliament of Ireland; the party supported the Irish Republican Army during the War of Independence, members of the Dáil government negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty with the British government in 1921.
In the Dáil debates that followed, the party divided on the Treaty. Anti-Treaty members led by Éamon de Valera walked out, pro- and anti-Treaty members took opposite sides in the ensuing Civil War. Pro-Treaty Dáil deputies and other Treaty supporters formed a new party, Cumann na nGaedheal, on 27 April 1923 at a meeting in Dublin, where delegates agreed on a constitution and political programme. Cumann na nGaedheal went on to govern the new Irish Free State for nine years. Anti-Treaty Sinn Féin members continued to boycott the Dáil. At a special Ard Fheis in March 1926, de Valera proposed that elected members be allowed to take their seats in the Dáil if and when the controversial Oath of Allegiance was removed; when his motion was defeated, de Valera resigned from Sinn Féin. He took most Sinn Féin TDs with him. De Valera's resignation meant the loss of financial support from America; the rump Sinn Féin party could field no more than fifteen candidates, won only six seats in the June 1927 general election, a level of support not seen since before 1916.
Vice-President and de facto leader Mary MacSwiney announced that the party did not have the funds to contest the second election called that year, declaring "no true Irish citizen can vote for any of the other parties". Fianna Fáil came to power at the 1932 general election and went on to long dominate politics in the independent Irish state. An attempt in the 1940s to access funds, put in the care of the High Court led to the Sinn Féin Funds case, which the party lost and in which the judge ruled that it was not the legal successor to the Sinn Féin of 1917. At the United Kingd
EastEnders is a British soap opera created by Julia Smith and Tony Holland, broadcast on BBC One since 1985. Set in Albert Square in the East End of London in the fictional Borough of Walford, the programme follows the stories of local residents and their families as they go about their daily lives. There were two 30-minute episodes per week increasing to three, but since 2001 episodes have been broadcast every weekday apart from Wednesdays. Within eight months of the show's launch, it reached the number-one spot in BARB's TV ratings and has remained among the top-rated TV programmes in Britain. In 2013, the average audience share for an episode was around 30 per cent. Today, EastEnders remains a significant programme in terms of the BBC's success and audience share, in the history of British television drama, tackling many dilemmas that are considered to be controversial and taboo issues in British culture and social life unseen on United Kingdom mainstream television; as of May 2016, EastEnders has won nine BAFTA Awards and the Inside Soap Award for Best Soap for 14 years running, as well as twelve National Television Awards for Most Popular Serial Drama and 11 awards for Best Soap at the British Soap Awards.
It has won 13 TV Quick and TV Choice Awards for Best Soap, six TRIC Awards for Soap of The Year, four Royal Television Society Awards for Best Continuing Drama and has been inducted into the Rose d'Or Hall of Fame. In March 1983, under two years before EastEnders' first episode was broadcast, the show was a vague idea in the mind of a handful of BBC executives, who decided that what BBC1 needed was a popular bi-weekly drama series that would attract the kind of mass audiences that ITV was getting with Coronation Street; the first people to whom David Reid head of series and serials, turned were Julia Smith and Tony Holland, a well established producer/script editor team who had first worked together on Z-Cars. The outline that Reid presented was vague: two episodes a week, 52 weeks a year. After the concept was put to them on 14 March 1983, Smith and Holland went about putting their ideas down on paper. Granada Television gave Smith unrestricted access to the Coronation Street production for a month so that she could get a sense how a continuing drama was produced.
There was anxiety at first that the viewing public would not accept a new soap set in the south of England, though research commissioned by lead figures in the BBC revealed that southerners would accept a northern soap, northerners would accept a southern soap and those from the Midlands, as Julia Smith herself pointed out, did not mind where it was set as long as it was somewhere else. This was the beginning of a close and continuing association between EastEnders and audience research, though commonplace today, was something of a revolution in practice; the show's creators were both Londoners, but when they researched Victorian squares, they found massive changes in areas they thought they knew well. However, delving further into the East End of London, they found what they had been searching for: a real East End spirit—an inward looking quality, a distrust of strangers and authority figures, a sense of territory and community that the creators summed up as "Hurt one of us and you hurt us all".
When developing EastEnders, both Smith and Holland looked at influential models like Coronation Street, but they found that it offered a rather outdated and nostalgic view of working-class life. Only after EastEnders began, featured the characters of Tony Carpenter and Kelvin Carpenter, did Coronation Street start to feature black characters, for example, they came to the conclusion that Coronation Street had grown old with its audience, that EastEnders would have to attract a younger, more extensive audience, ensuring that it had the longevity to retain it for many years thereafter. They looked at Brookside but found there was a lack of central meeting points for the characters, making it difficult for the writers to intertwine different storylines, so EastEnders was set in Albert Square. A previous UK soap set in an East End market was ATV's Market in Honey Lane between 1967 and 1969; however this show, which graduated from one showing a week to two in three separate series was different in style and approach to EastEnders.
The British Film Institute described Market In Honey Lane thus: "It was not an earth-shaking programme, not pioneering in any revolutionary ideas in technique and production, but proposed itself to the casual viewer as a mildly pleasant affair." EastEnders, while featuring an East End street market, would be different in its approach and impact. The target launch date was January 1985. Smith and Holland had eleven months in which to write and shoot the whole thing. However, in February 1984, they did not have a title or a place to film. Both Smith and Holland were unhappy about the January 1985 launch date, favouring November or September 1984 when seasonal audiences would be higher, but the BBC stayed firm, Smith and Holland had to concede that, with the massive task of getting the Elstree Studios operational, January was the most realistic date. However, this was to be changed to February; the project had a number of working titles—Square Dance, Round the Square, Round the Houses, London Pride and East 8.
It was the latter. However, the show was renamed after many casting agents mistakenly thought the show was to be called Estate, the fictional postcode E20 was created, instead of using