Salvador known as São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos is the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. With 2.9 million people, it is the largest city proper in the Northeast Region and the 4th largest city proper in the country, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília. Founded by the Portuguese in 1549 as the first capital of Brazil, Salvador is one of the oldest colonial cities in the Americas. A sharp escarpment divides its Lower Town from its Upper Town by some 85 meters; the Elevador Lacerda, Brazil's first elevator, has connected the two since 1873. The Pelourinho district of the upper town, still home to many examples of Portuguese colonial architecture and historical monuments, was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985; the city's cathedral is the see of the primate of Brazil and its Carnival celebration has been reckoned as the largest party in the world. Salvador was the first slave port in the Americas and the African influence of the slaves' descendants makes it a center of Afro-Brazilian culture.
The city is noted for its cuisine, music and architecture. Porto da Barra Beach in Barra has been named one of the best beaches in the world. Itaipava Arena Fonte Nova was the site of the city's games during the 2014 Brazilian World Cup and 2013 Confederations Cup. Salvador forms the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural and industrial maritime district, continues to be a major Brazilian port, its metropolitan area, housing 3 899 533 people forms the wealthiest one in Brazil's Northeast Region. Salvador lies on a small triangular peninsula that separates the Bay of All Saints, the largest bay in Brazil, from the Atlantic Ocean, it was first reached by Gaspar de Lemos in 1501, just one year after Cabral's purported discovery of Brazil. During his second voyage for Portugal, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sighted the bay on All Saints' Day 1502 and, in honor of the date and his parish church in Florence, he named it the Bay of the Holy Savior of All the Saints; the first European to settle nearby was Diogo Álvares Correia, shipwrecked off the end of the peninsula in 1509.
He lived among marrying Guaibimpara and others. In 1531, Martim Afonso de Sousa led an expedition from Mount St Paul and, in 1534, Francisco Pereira Coutinho, the first captain of Bahia, established the settlement of Pereira in modern Salvador's Ladeira da Barra neighborhood. Mistreatment of the Tupinambá by the settlers caused them to turn hostile and the Portuguese were forced to flee to Porto Seguro c. 1546. An attempted restoration of the colony the next year ended in cannibalism; the present city was established as the fortress of São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos in 1549 by Portuguese settlers under Tomé de Sousa, Brazil's first governor-general. It is one of the oldest cities founded by Europeans in the Americas. From a cliff overlooking the Bay of All Saints, it served as Brazil's first capital and became a major port for its slave trade and sugarcane industry. Salvador was long divided into an upper and a lower city, divided by a sharp escarpment some 85 meters high; the upper city formed the administrative and primary residential districts while the lower city was the commercial center, with a port and market.
In the Roman Catholic Church and the rest of the Portuguese Empire were administered as part of the Diocese of Funchal in Portugal but, in 1551, Salvador became the seat of the first Roman Catholic diocese erected in Brazil. The first parish church was the mud-and-thatch Church of Our Lady of Help erected by the Jesuits, which served as the first cathedral of the diocese until the Jesuits finished construction of the original basilica on the Terreiro de Jesus in 1553, its bishop was made independent of the Archdiocese of Lisbon at the request of King Pedro II in 1676. In 1572, the Governorate of Brazil was divided into the separate governorates of Bahia in the north and Rio de Janeiro in the south; these were reunited as Brazil six years then redivided from 1607 to 1613. By that time, Portugal had become temporarily united with Spain and was ruled from Madrid by its kings. In 1621, King Philip III replaced the Governorate of Brazil with the states of Brazil, still based in Salvador and now controlling the south, the Maranhão, centered on São Luís and controlled what is now northern Brazil.
As Spain was prosecuting a war against the independence of the Dutch, the Dutch East and West India companies tried to conquer Brazil from them. Salvador played a strategically vital role against Dutch Brazil, but was captured and sacked by a West India Company fleet under Jacob Willekens and Piet Hein on 10 May 1624. Johan van Dorth administered the colony before his assassination; the city was recaptured by a Luso-Spanish fleet under Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Mendoza on 1 May 1625. John Maurice's two subsequent attempts to retake the town in April and May of 1638 were unsuccessful. In 1763, the colonial administration elevated to a viceroyalty. Salvador remained the heart of the Recôncavo, Bahia's rich agricultural maritime district, but was outside Brazil's early modernization; the area formed a center of royal Portuguese support against heir apparent Pedro I's declaration of independence from Eu
Curitiba is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Paraná. The city's population was 1,879,355 as of 2015, making it the eighth most populous city in Brazil and the largest in Brazil's South Region; the Curitiba Metropolitan area comprises 26 municipalities with a total population of over 3.2 million, making it the seventh most populous metropolitan area in the country. The city sits on a plateau at 932 metres above sea level, it is located 105 kilometres west of the seaport of Paranaguá and is served by the Afonso Pena International and Bacacheri airports. Curitiba is an important cultural and economic center in Latin America and hosts the Federal University of Paraná, established in 1912. In the 1700s Curitiba's favorable location between cattle-breeding countryside and marketplaces led to a successful cattle trade and the city's first major expansion. Between 1850 and 1950, it grew due to logging and agricultural expansion in Paraná State. In the 1850s, waves of European immigrants arrived in Curitiba Germans, Italians and Ukrainians, contributing to the city's economic and cultural development.
Nowadays, only small numbers of immigrants arrive from Middle Eastern and other South American countries. Curitiba's biggest expansion occurred after the 1960s, with innovative urban planning that allowed the population to grow from some hundreds of thousands to more than a million people. Curitiba's economy is the fourth largest in Brazil. Economic growth occurred in parallel to a substantial inward flow of Brazilians from other parts of the country, as half of the city's population was not born in Curitiba. Curitiba is one of the few Brazilian cities with a high Human Development Index and in 2010 it was awarded the Global Sustainable City Award, given to cities and municipalities that excel in sustainable urban development. According to US magazine Reader's Digest, Curitiba is the best "Brazilian Big City" in which to live. Curitiba's crime rate is considered low by Brazilian standards and the city is considered one of the safest cities in Brazil for youth; the city is regarded as the best in which to invest in Brazil.
Curitiba was one of the host cities of the 1950 FIFA World Cup, again for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Despite its good social indicators, the city has a higher unemployment rate than other cities in the state. One theory is that the name "Curitiba" comes from the Tupi words kurí tyba, "many pine seeds" due to the large number of pinecones of Paraná pines in the region prior to its founding. Another version using words from the Tupi language, is that it originates in the combination of kurit and yba; the Portuguese, who founded a settlement on the site in 1693, named it "Vila da Nossa Senhora da Luz dos Pinhais". The name was changed to "Curitiba" in 1721. Curitiba became a town in 1812, spelling its name as "Curityba." An alternative spelling was "Coritiba." This was used in state documents. A state decree in 1919 settled the dispute by adopting "Curitiba." At the end of the 17th century, Curitiba's agriculture was only for subsistence and its main economic activities were mineral extraction. Waves of European immigrants arrived after 1850 Poles, Italians and Ukrainians.
Cattlemen drove their herds from Rio Grande do Sul to the state of São Paulo, turning Curitiba into an important intermediate trading post. The Paranaguá-Curitiba railroad was opened in 1885. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Curitiba benefited from the wealth of the yerba mate mills; the owners built mansions in the capital. These have been preserved in the districts of Batel and Alto da Glória. In the 1940s and 1950s, Alfred Agache, co-founder of the French Society for Urban Studies, was hired to produce its first city plan, it emphasized a "star" of boulevards, with public amenities downtown, an industrial district and sanitation. It was followed in part. Curitiba has a subtropical highland climate but always humid, with some characteristics of the oceanic climate due to its abundant precipitation all year round and the summer warm but not hot.). What differs the city of temperate climates, are its mild winters due to low latitude, it is located on a plateau and the flat terrain with flooded areas contribute to its mild and damp winter, with an average minimum temperature of 7 °C in the coldest month falling below 0 °C on the coldest nights.
During summertime, the average temperature is around 25 °C at daytime, but it can get above 30 °C on the hottest days. Snowfall was experienced in 1889, 1892, 1912, 1928, 1942, 1955, 1957, 1962, 1975, 1988 and again in 2013; the terrain's flatness hinders water drainage after rain, therefore providing water vapor for the atmosphere. Cold fronts come year round from Antarctica and Argentina, bringing tropical storms in summer and cold winds in the winter, they can move quickly, with no more than one day between the start of the southern winds and the start of rain. Curitiba's weather is influenced by the dry air masses that dominate Brazil's midwest most of the year, bringing hot and dry weather, sometimes in winter. Curitiba is located in the area of a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest. In Curitiba
Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Founded in 1769 by Manuel Sepúlveda, its population of 1,481,019 inhabitants makes it the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fifth largest metropolitan area, with 4,405,760 inhabitants; the city is the southernmost capital city of a Brazilian state. Porto Alegre was founded in 1769 by Manuel Jorge Gomes de Sepúlveda, who used the pseudonym José Marcelino de Figueiredo to hide his identity; the vast majority of the population is of European descent. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaíba River, where five rivers converge to form the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by the largest of ships; this five-river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial center of Brazil. In recent years, Porto Alegre hosted the World Social Forum, an initiative of several non-government organizations; the city became famous for being the first city that implemented participatory budgeting.
The 9th Assembly of the World Council of Churches was held in Porto Alegre in 2006. Since 2000, Porto Alegre hosts one of the world's largest free software events, called FISL; the city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, having been a venue for the 1950 FIFA World Cup. A safe city by Brazilian standards, Porto Alegre is going through a growing wave of violence in this decade, it's now ranked 43rd among the world's 50 most violent cities; the official date of the foundation of the city of Porto Alegre is 26 March 1772 by Manuel Sepúlveda, when Freguesia de São Francisco do Porto dos Casais was created and changed a year to Nossa Senhora da Madre de Deus de Porto Alegre. However, the village started in 1752, when 60 Azorean couples were brought over by the Treaty of Madrid in order to set up Missions at the Northeast Region of Rio Grande do Sul, handed over to the Portuguese Crown in exchange for the Sacramento Colony located on the margin of the Plata River. Land demarcation took a long time and the Azoreans settled permanently at Porto de Viamão, the first name by which Porto Alegre went by.
On 24 July 1773, Porto Alegre became the capital city of the province, when the administration of Manuel Sepúlveda, who used the fictitious name or pseudonym José Marcelino de Figueiredo, to hide their identity started. In 1824, immigrants from all over the world started arriving German, Spanish, Polish and Lebanese; this mosaic of diversity in appearance, ethnic origin and languages is what makes Porto Alegre, nowadays with nearly 1.5 million inhabitants, a cosmopolitan and multicultural city. The city is an example of diversity and plurality; the capital city of Rio Grande do Sul is the capital city of the Pampas region, the name given to the region of fauna and flora typical of the vast plains that dominate the landscape of the South of Brazil, part of Argentina and Uruguay. This is where the Gaúcho comes from, the historical figure of a brave warrior that fought legendary battles and wars in the quest to conquer the borders of the Kingdoms of Portugal and Spain in the 16th century. There were many wars, but it was the nineteenth century that marked its people, after they fought a long war for their independence from the Brazilian Empire.
The Farrapos War started with the confrontation in Porto Alegre, near the Azenha bridge on 20 September 1835. Albeit terminated, this conflict etched in the pages of history the myth of the gaucho, until our days praised in songs and celebrated in annual pageants and honored as names of streets and parks; when the Farrapos War ended, the city continued to develop and underwent strong urban restructuring during the last decades of the 18th century, driven by the accelerated growth of port-related activities and shipyards. Its development continued over time and the city kept abreast with cultural and social events that were taking place within Brazil. Porto Alegre is the birthplace of great writers, artists and episodes that marked the history of Brazil; the city became known worldwide in 1963 through hosting the World University Games. In 1985, the people of Porto Alegre joined the movement for free elections and one of the largest demonstrations took place in the city; the city is on a delta resulting from the junction of five rivers called Guaíba Lake.
Although its origins date from the mid-18th century, when immigrants from the Azores settled in the area, the city was established in 1742. Porto Alegre is one of the wealthiest cities in Latin America and one of the most diverse, it has welcomed immigrants from all over the world, the largest numbers coming from Portugal, Italy and Poland. There are significant Arab and Jewish contingents among its population; the Afro-Brazilian population of the state is concentrated in the city. Before this, Porto Alegre was the port of Viamão on the shore of Guaíba Lake, its previous name was Porto dos Casais, it was settled by Azoreans. Many families of settlers came from the city of Rio Grande in the littoral Lagunar region, to the south, a military fortress at that time. Today Rio Grande is the most important port of the State of Rio Grande do Sul; the city is known as "Porto do Sol" and "Cidade Sorriso". More than 70 neighborhoods are part of the city and two-thirds of the population are concentra
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it
Belo Horizonte is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, the thirteenth-largest in South America and the eighteenth-largest in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, ranked as the third most populous metropolitan area in Brazil and the seventeenth most populous in the Americas. Belo Horizonte is the capital of the state of Brazil's second most populous state, it is the first planned modern city in Brazil. The region was first settled in the early 18th century, but the city as it is known today was planned and constructed in the 1890s, to replace Ouro Preto as the capital of Minas Gerais; the city features a mixture of contemporary and classical buildings, is home to several modern Brazilian architectural icons, most notably the Pampulha Complex. In planning the city, Aarão Reis and Francisco Bicalho sought inspiration in the urban planning of Washington, D. C; the city has employed notable programs in urban revitalization and food security, for which it has been awarded international accolades.
The city is built on several hills and is surrounded by mountains. There are several large parks in the immediate surroundings of Belo Horizonte; the Mangabeiras Park, 6 km southeast of the city centre in the hills of Curral Ridge, has a broad view of the city. It has an area of 2.35 km2. The Jambeiro Woods nature reserve extends over 912 hectares, with vegetation typical of the Atlantic Forest. More than 100 species of birds inhabit the reserve, as well as 10 species of mammals. Belo Horizonte was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city shared the host of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and the football tournament during the 2016 Summer Olympics; the metropolis was once a small village, founded by João Leite da Silva Ortiz, a bandeirante explorer from São Paulo. The explorer settled in the region in 1701, he established a farm called "Curral d'el Rey", archaic Portuguese for the "King's Corral", which in modern Portuguese would be spelled Curral do Rei. The farm's wealth and success encouraged people from surrounding places to move into the region, Curral del Rey became a village surrounded by farms.
Another important factor contributing to the growth of the village was the migrants from the São Francisco River region, who had to pass through Curral d'el Rey to reach southern parts of Brazil. Travelers visited a small wooden chapel, where they prayed for a safe trip. Due to this fact, the chapel was named Capela da Nossa Senhora da Boa Viagem, which means "Chapel of Our Lady of the Good Journey." After the construction of Belo Horizonte, the old baroque chapel was replaced by a neo-gothic church that became the city's cathedral. The previous capital of Minas Gerais, Ouro Preto called "Vila Rica", was a symbol of both the monarchic Brazilian Empire and the period when most of Brazilian income was due to mining; that never pleased the members of the Inconfidência Mineira, republican intellectuals who conspired against the Portuguese dominion of Brazil. In 1889, Brazil became a republic, it was agreed that a new state capital, in tune with a modern and prosperous Minas Gerais, had to be set.
In 1893, due to the climatic and topographic conditions, Curral Del Rey was selected by Minas Gerais governor Afonso Pena among other cities as the location for the new economic and cultural centre of the state, under the new name of "Cidade de Minas," or City of Minas. Aarão Reis, an urbanist from the State of Pará, was set to design the second planned city of Brazil. Cidade de Minas was inaugurated in 1897, with many unfinished constructions as the Brazilian government set a deadline for its completion. Inhabitation of the city was subsidised by the local government, through the concession of free empty lots and funding for building houses. An interesting feature of Reis' downtown street plan for Belo Horizonte was the inclusion of a symmetrical array of perpendicular and diagonal streets named after Brazilian states and Brazilian indigenous tribes. In 1906, the name was changed to Belo Horizonte. At that time the city was experiencing a considerable industrial expansion that increased its commercial and service sectors.
From its beginning, the city's original plan prohibited workers to live inside the urban area, defined by Avenida do Contorno, reserved for the public sector functionaries, bringing about an accelerated occupation outside the city's area well provided with infrastructure since its beginning. The city's original planners did not count on its population growth afterwards, which proved intense in the last 20 years of the 20th century. In the 1940s, a young Oscar Niemeyer designed the Pampulha Neighbourhood to great acclaim, a commission he got thanks to then-mayor, soon-to-be-president Juscelino Kubitschek; these two men are responsible for the wide avenues, large lakes and jutting skylines that characterise the city today. A 1949 American government film favorably reviewed the building of the city. Belo Horizonte is fast becoming a regional centre of commerce; the Latin American Research and development centre of Google, situated in Belo Horizonte, was responsible for the management and operation of the former social networking website Orkut.
It continues to be a tren
Alexandre de Serpa Pinto
Alexandre Alberto da Rocha de Serpa Pinto, Viscount of Serpa Pinto was a Portuguese explorer of southern Africa and a colonial administrator. Serpa Pinto was born at the Castelo de Poldras in a Portuguese village on the river Douro, he joined Colégio Militar at age 10. There he became the first student Battalion Commander in 1864, when he joined the Portuguese army and was sent to Portuguese Mozambique. In 1869 he took part in suppressing tribes in revolt around the lower Zambezi. In 1869, Pinto went to eastern Africa on an exploration of the Zambezi River. Eight years he led an expedition from Benguela, Portuguese Angola, into the basins of the Congo and Zambezi rivers; the town of Menongue was named Serpa Pinto, after him, up to 1975. In 1877, he and Lieutenant Commander Capelo and Lieutenant Ivens, both of the Portuguese navy, were sent to explore the southern African interior. All three seemed to be the right age and temperament for the work, they left Benguela in November. Soon after their departure, they parted company at Bié, Capello and Ivens turning northward whilst Serpa Pinto continued eastward shifting his course to the south.
He crossed the Cuando river in June 1878 and in August reached Lealui, the Barotse capital on the Zambezi. There he received assistance from the missionary François Coillard, enabling him to continue his journey along the Zambezi to the Victoria Falls, he turned south and arrived at Pretoria in northern South Africa on February 12, 1879. Capelo and Ivens emerged on the Cuanza River in northern Angola. Serpa Pinto was the fourth explorer to cross Africa from west to east, the first to lay down a reasonably accurate route between Bié and Lealui. In 1881 the Royal Geographical Society awarded him their Founder's Medal, "for his journey across Africa... during which he explored five hundred miles of new country". In 1881 Serpa Pinto published his 2-volume Como eu atravessei a África, translated by Alfred Elwes and published in English as How I crossed Africa. In the same year French and German translations were published. In 1879 the Portuguese government formally claimed the area south and east of the Ruo River, in 1882 occupied the lower Shire River valley as far as the Ruo.
The Portuguese attempted to negotiate British acceptance if their territorial claims, but the convening of the Berlin Conference ended these discussions. In 1884, Serpa Pinto was appointed as Portuguese consul in Zanzibar, given the mission of exploring and re-mapping the region between Lake Nyasa and the coast from the Zambezi to the Rovuma River and securing the allegiance if the chiefs in that area. In 1885, Serpa Pinto undertook an expedition in 1885 with Lieutenant Augusto Cardoso as his second-in-command. Serpa Pinto fell ill and was carried to the coast, where he recovered. Cardoso his twenty-five-year-old lieutenant, continued the exploration, visiting Lake Nyasa and the Shire Highlands, but failed make any treaties of protection with the Yao chiefs in territories west of the lake Malawi. Britain declined to accept the Portuguese claim that the Shire Highlands should be considered part of Portuguese East Africa, as it was not under their effective occupation. In order to prevent Portuguese occupation, the British government sent Henry Hamilton Johnston as British consul to Mozambique and the Interior, with instructions to report on the extent of Portuguese rule in the Zambezi and Shire valleys and the vicinity, to make conditional treaties with local rulers beyond Portuguese jurisdiction, to prevent them accepting protection from Portugal.
In 1888, the Portuguese government instructed its representatives in Portuguese East Africa to attempt to make treaties of protection with the Yao chiefs southeast of Lake Malawi and in the Shire Highlands and an expedition organised under Antonio Cardoso, a former governor of Quelimane, set off in November 1888 for the lake. Rather a second expedition led by Serpa Pinto, appointed governor of Mozambique, moved up the Shire valley. Between them, these two expedition made over 20 treaties with chiefs in. Serpa Pinto met Johnston in August 1889 east of the Ruo, when Johnston advised him not to cross the river into the Shire Highlands. Although Serpa Pinto had acted with caution, he crossed the Ruo to Chiromo, now in Malawi in September 1889. Following minor clashes with Serpa Pinto's force, Johnston's deputy, John Buchanan, declared a British protectorate over the Shire Highlands, despite contrary instructions, although this was endorsed by the Foreign Office. Shortly after this clash with Britain, Serpa Pinto returned to Portugal where he was promoted to the rank of colonel.
He was governor general of Cape Verde from 20 January 1894 until 17 January 1898. Serpa Pinto died on December 1900 in Lisbon. Honours, death in 1900, remembrance: Recognition and honours for his services were not wanting. In Portugal, he was made comendador of the orders of knighthood: Ordem da Torre e Espada, the Ordem Sao Bento de Aviz, the Ordem de Sao Tiago da Espada, he received honorary membership and awards from various scientific societies, including membership of the French Académie des Sciences' Astronomy division, the "Founders' Medal" of the Royal Geographical Society of London. On 24 January 1899 he was honoured by King Carlos I with the noble title of Viscount. Serpa Pinto
Campo Grande is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Center-West region of the country. The city is nicknamed Cidade Morena because of the reddish-brown colour of the region's soil, it has a population of 796,252, according to a 2011 IBGE estimate, while its metropolitan area is home to 991,420 people. The region where the city is located was in the past a waypoint for travellers who wanted to go from São Paulo or Minas Gerais to northern Mato Grosso by land. In the early 1900s a railway was completed connecting Campo Grande to Corumbá, on the Bolivian border, to Bauru, São Paulo. In the beginning of the 20th century, the Western Brazilian Army Headquarters was established in Campo Grande, making it an important military center. With a population growth from 140,000 people in 1970 to 750,000 people in 2008, Campo Grande is the third largest urban center of the Center-West region, the 23rd largest city in the country. In 1977, the State of Mato Grosso was split into two, Campo Grande became the capital of the new state of Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising the southern portion of the former state.
By that time, Campo Grande had long surpassed the latter's capital city of Cuiabá in population, unusual in Brazil, where most capitals are the states' largest cities. Today, the city has its own culture, a mixture of several ethnic groups, most notably immigrants from the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa, Middle Easterners, Portuguese people, Italians and Paraguayans mixed with Asian and White Brazilians from the Brazilian Southern and Southeast regions, its native Amerindian peoples and Afro-Brazilians. Campo Grande started as a small village founded in 1877 by farmers José Antônio Pereira and Manoel Vieira de Sousa, who came from Minas Gerais just after the end of the Paraguayan War, they founded the village, known at that time as Santo Antônio de Campo Grande, near the Serra de Maracaju cliffs, at the confluence of two streams named Prosa and Segredo, whose courses now coincide with two of the city's most important avenues. In the end of 1877, the founder built the village's first church.
The aligned houses formed the first street, known as Rua Velha, today Rua 26 de Agosto. This street ended where today one finds a square in honor of the immigrants that came to the city; the city started to develop fast because of its privileged climate and location. These factors drew people from other regions of the country the South, the Southeast and the Northeast regions; the settlement was recognized as a municipality by the State Government on August 26, 1899 and renamed Campo Grande. Campo Grande has a tropical savanna climate, with a mild appearance of cold air masses on the southern edge of the tropics, it has semi-humid, hot summers, notably seasonal, with a dry winter season from June through September, but without major irregularities. In the precipitation, its altitude a few hundred meters higher than in the surrounding swamps and its location in the interior of South America, gives a much more extreme climate than several Brazilian cities, although still moderate. In addition, the flood is one of the problems seen in the city, the result of intense rains that occur in a short period.
Annual rainfall averages 1,465 millimetres. January is the warmest and rainiest month, with mean highs of 29 °C and lows of 20 °C. July brings on sunny days but cooler temperatures, with mean highs of 25 °C and lows of 4 °C. Occasional near-freezing temperatures can occur on winter's coldest nights; the vegetation in Campo Grande and Central Brazil is a tropical savanna called "Cerrado" that varies from pure grassland to a nearly closed canopy of medium height trees overlying grass. Since forest is the expected climax vegetation there, several theories have been given to explain the types of grassland present; the most promising of these involve differences in soil properties, but only a few sites have been used for evaluation. The 1960s marked the beginning of the expansion of large-scale agriculture across the Cerrado; the state is one of the largest producers of soy beans in the world. The municipality contains the 178 hectares Matas do Segredo State Park, created in 2000 to protect an area of cerrado forest.
It contains the 135 hectares Prosa State Park, created in 2002. Most of the city's active labor is absorbed by the tertiary sector. In spite of that, the primary and secondary sectors agribusiness, still play an important role in the local economy; the farming of bovine livestock supplies local slaughterhouses, which in turn allows Campo Grande to export meat to other states in Brazil and abroad. In addition to food processing and agribusiness and non-metallic mineral processing are important; the area's most important crops are soy and manioc. Sugar cane is becoming important as well. According to IBGE, Campo Grande has a total of 11,657 1,300 industrial enterprises; the city's GDP was R$20,7 billion in 2013, ranks as the richest city in the state, the third in the Central-West region of the country, the 33rd richest in Brazil. Per capita income was R$24.839 in 2013. Portuguese is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools, but English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.
The city has several universities. The most notable ones are: Universida