Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Gloucester with his council.... After this had the king a large meeting, deep consultation with his council, about this land. Sent he his men over all England into each shire, it was written in Medieval Latin, was abbreviated, included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, which allowed William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest; the assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal. The name "Domesday Book" came into use in the 12th century; as Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario: for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity.
That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement"... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at London. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online; the book is an invaluable primary source for historical economists. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the British Isles. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works; these were "Little Domesday", "Great Domesday" No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing. County Durham is missing; the omission of the other counties and towns is not explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be conquered. "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock.
It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters listing the fees, held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king, namely religious institutions, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime; some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights military followers of the tenant-in-chief which latter thus became their overlord; the fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location.
As a review of taxes owed, it was unpopular. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, it should be borne in mind that under the feudal system the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, under his allodial title. He was thus the ultimate overlord and the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. Holdings of Bishops followed of the abbeys and religious houses of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants, Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores were treated separately; this principle applies more to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of t
Cold Aston is a village and civil parish in Gloucestershire, England 30 km to the east of Gloucester. It lies in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the village was recorded as Eastunæ between 716–43. It was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Estone, the name coming from the Old English ēast + tūn meaning "eastern farmstead or estate". By the mid 13th century, the village was known as Cold Aston, it was called Great Aston, to distinguish it from the nearby hamlet of Little Aston. From the 16th century, the name Aston Blank took hold, the suffix "Blank" deriving from the Old French word blanc, meaning "white" or "bare". In 1972, the parish became known as Cold Aston again; some think that the name "cold" is derived from the Saxon word which refers to a former settlement - in this case referring to a disused Roman camp or rest place for use when travelling the Fosse Way. It is certain, contrary to common modern thinking, that the word "Cold" has no link to a meteorological reference. Cold Aston is part of the Bourton-on-the-Water ward of the district of Cotswold, represented by Councillors Sheila Jeffery and Len Wilkins, by Charles Alfred Richard Gillams, all members of the Conservative Party.
Cold Aston is part of the constituency of Cotswold, represented at parliament by Conservative MP Geoffrey Clifton-Brown. It is part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament. Cold Aston is in the county of Gloucestershire and lies within the Cotswolds, a range of hills designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, it is 30 km to the east of Gloucester. It is 21 km east of its post town Cheltenham and about 4.5 km west of Bourton-on-the-Water. Nearby villages include Turkdean, Clapton and Lower Slaughter; the Church of England parish church is a Norman church dedicated to St Andrew. Its walls incorporate Saxon stonework and the original church on this site may have been built in around AD 904. A leading modern authority refers approvingly to the "very good" west tower of three stages and other Perpendicular elements of the church, commenting, "All is evidently the work of the best Cotswold masons, is the fifteenth-century aggrandizement of a Norman church". Much of the present church was restored in 1875.
The village pub, The Plough, is a 17th-century Grade II listed building. It is the only pub between the three villages of Cold Aston and Notgrove in May 2013 re-opened after an extensive refurbishment, it now offers accommodation. The pub's landlord claims; the village has one primary school, Cold Aston Church of England Primary School, a voluntary controlled school for children from the age of 4–11. In 2007, the school had 62 pupils. Official village site Aston in the Domesday Book
The A420 is a road between Bristol and Oxford in England. Between Swindon and Oxford it is a primary route. Since the opening of the M4 motorway, the road is in two sections; the first section begins on Old Market Street near the centre of Bristol, it passes through Kingswood before leaving the city on the east side. From here it travels eastward over the southern part of the Cotswolds, to the north of Bath, to Chippenham in Wiltshire; the second section starts at a junction with the A419 east of Swindon. It travels under the Great Western Main Line at the twin-arch Acorn Bridge and by-passes Shrivenham and Watchfield on towards Faringdon in the Vale of White Horse. A new section by-passes Faringdon, just south of Folly Hill and crosses the A417; the A420 travels the corallian limestone ridge that forms the north-west boundary of the Vale of White Horse, passing Littleworth and Longworth. A dual-carriageway section by-passes Kingston Bagpuize on its way to Oxford. Most of the road between Swindon and Oxford, apart from the dual carriageway sections and a short section around Faringdon, is limited to 50 mph.
A further dual-carriageway section bypasses Cumnor Hill, to give a view of the "City of Dreaming Spires", Oxford from the west. It passes the Oxford Ring Road, through the suburb of Botley and down the Botley Road, it crosses the River Thames on Osney Bridge and reaches central Oxford after passing under the Cherwell Valley Line next to Oxford station. Within Oxford, it is routed along Oxpens Road Thames Street, parts of St Aldate's the High Street, closed to most motor traffic during the day; the road crosses Magdalen Bridge to St Clements and East Oxford and ascends the notoriously steep Headington Hill to the suburb of Headington before terminating at the Headington Roundabout, where it meets the A40 and the Oxford Ring Road. Large vehicles such as lorries are advised by large signs at Oxford and Swindon not to take this route and use the alternative A34 and M4 route to Swindon; this is not enforced and the road is heavily congested due to slow HGVs taking the shorter A420 route. The road has a poor accident record and this coupled with heavy peak time traffic has caused it to be nicknamed the'A420 Road to Hell' in the local media.
A survey in February 2018 claimed. What is now the A420 was established in the early 18th century as a direct route between Chippenham and Bristol via Tog Hill, avoiding the older and more established route via Bath, it was an important road for Bristol, whose communications with Bath had been disputed and difficult. After the Bath Road was turnpiked in 1707, the Bristol Trust attempted to turnpike the direct road in 1727, but faced opposition from colliers at Kingswood, the road was not sufficiently improved until the 1740s; when first classified in 1922, the A420 ran near Oxford. The road between Bristol and Chippenham was the A430; the two roads were joined and the A430 renumbered A420. The road from Botley through Oxford to Headington was part of the A40; when the northern Oxford bypass was built in the 1930s, the A40 was rerouted along the bypass and the road through Oxford was renumbered A420. As a result of the building of the M4 motorway and subsequent road modernisation, the A420 between Chippenham and Swindon lost its identity.
From Chippenham to Lyneham through Sutton Benger and to the north of RAF Lyneham and its limestone ridge, it became the B4069. From Lyneham to Swindon it became part of the A3102. From Swindon through Stratton St Margaret to the A419 it became the A4312. Sir Bevil Grenville's Monument in Lansdown is near the A420; the A420 near Kingston Bagpuize in Oxfordshire was the site of the fastest speeding offence caught in a routine speed check in the UK. On 27 January 2007 Timothy Brady, a 33-year-old man from Harrow, was clocked driving at 172 miles per hour in a Porsche 911 Turbo that he had taken without permission from his employer, a luxury car hire firm. Brady was disqualified from driving and sentenced to 10 weeks in prison
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Almondsbury is a large village near junction 16 of the M5 motorway, in South Gloucestershire, a civil parish which includes the villages of Hortham, Gaunt's Earthcott, Easter Compton, Compton Greenfield, Hallen. Almondsbury is in the South Gloucestershire unitary authority area; the electoral ward of Almondsbury covers the same area as the civil parish, stretching from Gaunt's Earthcott east of the M5 motorway south west to Hallen on the boundary with Bristol. The village is split by part of the escarpment overlooking the Severn floodplain. At the bottom of the hill is Lower Almondsbury where a pub and hotel, The Bowl Inn, is situated. South Wales, the Forest of Dean, the River Severn and both Severn Bridges are visible from the higher parts of the village; the place-name'Almondsbury' is first attested in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it appears as Almodesberie. The name means'Æthelmod's or Ealhmund's burgh or fortified place'; the pub takes its name from the bowl shape of the land surrounding the estuary.
Parts of this whitewashed-stone inn were the three cottages erected in 1146 to house the monks building the adjacent church of St Mary the Virgin. The present building became a licensed inn in 1550. At the bottom of the hill is the local church, dedicated to Saint Mary the Virgin; the church and tower were built in 1140 AD. The lead-covered spire was added some time before 1619. In 1817, a woman purporting to be Princess Caraboo was found in the town, in what was to become one of the more elaborate deceptions of the period. Another pub, The Swan Inn, is located on the A38, in the upper part of the village opposite an open space known as Almondsbury Tump. In March 2009 a community shop was opened in the village by the not-for-profit Almondsbury Community Services Association, situated opposite the Old School Hall at 14 Church Road; the community shop is staffed by unpaid volunteers. The aim of the project goes beyond a village shop, being a service for the village, to support local suppliers wherever possible, to be another focal point where people in the village can meet.
A proportion of the surplus generated by the shop is returned to community projects and organisations in the village. In 2018, the village community purchased the premises from the church through a Community Share issue; the chairman of the shop committee is John Mclevy. The village has an ambulance station, a motorway police station, a garden centre, a restaurant/pub. A helicopter base is in development next to the Almondsbury Interchange as a new home for NPAS Filton and the Great Western Air Ambulance. Almondsbury is home to non-League football club Almondsbury UWE who play at Almondsbury Sports & Social Complex on Gloucester Road. Almondbury Cricket Club and Almondsbury Tennis club are based at the same site. Gloucestershire FA are based in Almondsbury at Oakland Park. North Bristol RFC play next door. Education is provided by Almondsbury Church of England Primary School; this is a state maintained school. The Ofsted report, dated April 2009, rated the school as good. For secondary education Almondsbury is served by Patchway Community College.
Almondsbury is the birthplace of the lead singer of Franz Ferdinand. The civil parish of Almondsbury is much larger than the village, it includes the villages of Hortham, Gaunt's Earthcott, Easter Compton, Compton Greenfield and Hallen. It includes Cribbs Causeway and the site of the village of Charlton, now the western end of Filton Airfield; when it was created in 1866 the civil parish included Patchway, but not Easter Compton, Compton Greenfield, Cribbs Causeway or Charlton, all of which were transferred from the parish of Henbury in 1935. The parish of Patchway was separated from Almondsbury in 1953. Almondsbury Church Almondsbury Community Services Organisation Almondsbury Parish Council website Almondsbury Shop Website Almondsbury in the Domesday Book
Acton Turville is a parish in the Cotswold Edge ward within South Gloucestershire, England. It lies 17 miles east-northeast of Bristol and 93 miles due west of London, with the M4 running southwards of the parish. Acton Turville consists of a cluster of households across 1,009 acres, with a total population of 370 people. Acton Turville is listed as "Achetone" in the Domesday Book. According to John Marius in 1870, From the imperial gazetteer of England and Wales - Acton Turville is: "a parish in Chipping Sodbury district, Gloucester, it lies 5.5 miles east of Chipping Sodbury, 7.5 miles east of Yate railway station". The Parish Church St, Mary's is dated back to the 12th century and is Grade II* listed. According to the Church of England, in the Diocese of Gloucester "minor alterations were made in the 13th century and again in the 15th century". And, in 1853 with the help of architect T,H Wyatt, enlarged the parish church, so central to the parish, due to a population increase within the parish.
The church's stained glass windows were "due to the generosity of a few local benefactors", which were finely designed by some of the "leading studios of the day". The most notable benefactor in the parish - Reverend R H Mullens, appointed vicar in 1869, made a generous donation to St Mary's Church in his retirement in 1911. One stained glass window was presented in memory of his wife; as the monarchy was restored, the presentation of a Royal Coat of Arms was made compulsory, asserting a royal "supremacy" within the church. St Mary's Church coat of arms reflects George III monarchy, dated 1801-1816. From the 1800s, population evidently began to rise until it reached a total of 175 residents in 1850; this can be explained by the events occurring in Gloucester in the 1800s, where city boundaries were beginning to be breached, a population increase was beginning to take place in surrounding rural areas. Evidently, in 1852 suburbs were reported to be "extending" a considerable distance and villages and parish's such as Acton Turville, were beginning to increase up to six times more than the population a hundred years ago.
Acton Turville's sudden increase in population can be explained by the introduction of industry in the area, where new canals and railways were promoted. Following this, there was a significant decrease in population around the 1900s, where population was 20% lower than it was in 1850 due to expansion in other surrounding areas. However, we see an exponential increase from 1950 to 2000, where population peaks at 370 residents, which to date, is the current population of Acton Turville; the 2001 Census data, show Acton Turville to have a population of 328 British/Irish, small number of other ethnicity groups. The ward of Cotswold Edge however, presents a much more diverse range of results with a total of 78 residents from other ethnic groups such as. According to the 2011 census data, 72% are Christian, 18% have no specified religion and the remaining 8% state no religion at all. In the first census in 1801, Britain saw a great increase in international trade. A global introduction to trading is a fact that reflects on occupational change in such small villages such as Acton Turville.
In the 1831 occupational statistics, where industrialisation is beginning, 0 residents were employed in the manufacturing industry, whereas 44 were employed in the agricultural sector. Women however, were domesticated or under an "unspecified" occupation. In the following census data, 50 years in 1881, more industrialised sectors appeared; the transport and communications sector had a total of 3 residents, where occupations such as "dress", "professionals", "domestic service and offices", "workers in house and decorations" had increased with both male and female employees. In this 50 year difference, those employed in agriculture had decreased by 5, showing a progressive shift in industry. Evidence for this can be reflected in the decline of servants which could explain the rising affluence within Acton Turville. Presently, a total of 6 residents are in the agricultural field, a high number in education, real estate and retail in accordance with the 2001 census data. Public transport in Acton Turville is limited, with the main transport link being the local bus service.
The local bus service is named "Coachstyle", with a total of 12 bus links between locations such as: Bath, Yate, Chippenham and Hallavington. The nearest train stations are Chippenham which are around 7 -- 8 miles away from the parish. According to the 2001 census data, only 6% of households in the parish are without a car/van; this shows evidence for the lack of reliance on public transport, whereas the result of those reliant on personal transport is a high result of 88.6%. Acton in the Domesday Book
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.
Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.
Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.
If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the baths", this was the