Saint-Vigor-le-Grand is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. Saint-Vigor-le-Grand is twinned with: Colden Common, United Kingdom Communes of the Calvados department INSEE
Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England. The county town is the city of Winchester, its two largest cities and Portsmouth, are administered separately as unitary authorities. First settled about 14,000 years ago, Hampshire's history dates to Roman Britain, when its chief town was Winchester; when the Romans left Britain, the area was infiltrated by tribes from Scandinavia and mainland Europe, principally in the river valleys. The county was recorded in the 11th century Domesday Book, divided into 44 hundreds. From the 12th century, the ports grew in importance, fuelled by trade with the continent and cloth manufacture in the county, the fishing industry, a shipbuilding industry was established. By the 16th century, the population of Southampton had outstripped that of Winchester. By the mid-19th century, with the county's population at 219,210 in more than 86,000 dwellings, agriculture was the principal industry and 10 per cent of the county was still forest. Hampshire played a crucial military role in both World Wars.
The Isle of Wight left the county to form its own in 1974. The county's geography is varied, with upland to 286 metres and south-flowing rivers. There are areas of downland and marsh, two national parks: the New Forest, part of the South Downs, which together cover 45 per cent of Hampshire. Hampshire is one of the most affluent counties in the country, with an unemployment rate lower than the national average, its economy derived from major companies, maritime and tourism. Tourist attractions include the national parks and the Southampton Boat Show; the county is known as the home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, the childhood home of Florence Nightingale and the birthplace of engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Hampshire takes its name from the settlement, now the city of Southampton. Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun meaning "village-town", so its surrounding area or scīr became known as Hamtunscīr; the old name was recorded in the Domesday book as Hantescire, from this spelling, the modern abbreviation "Hants" derives.
From 1889 until 1959, the administrative county was named the County of Southampton and has been known as Southamptonshire. Hampshire was the departure point of some of those who left England to settle on the east coast of North America during the 17th century, giving its name in particular to the state of New Hampshire; the towns of Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Portsmouth, Virginia take their names from Portsmouth in Hampshire. The region is believed to have been continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE. At this time, Britain was still attached to the European continent and was predominantly covered with deciduous woodland; the first inhabitants were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. The majority of the population would have been concentrated around the river valleys. Over several thousand years, the climate became progressively warmer, sea levels rose. Notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, with it a neolithic culture.
Some deforestation took place at that time, although during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from these early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 and 2200 BCE. In the late Bronze Age, fortified hilltop settlements known as hillforts began to appear in large numbers in many parts of Britain including Hampshire, these became more and more important in the early and middle Iron Age. By this period, the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, their culture shared much in common with the Celts described by classical writers. Hillforts declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Around this period, the first recorded invasion of Britain took place, as southern Britain was conquered by warrior-elites from Belgic tribes of northeastern Gaul - whether these two events are linked to the decline of hillforts is unknown.
By the Roman conquest, the oppidum at Venta Belgarum, modern-day Winchester, was the de facto regional administrative centre. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England in 55 and again in 54 BCE, but he never reached Hampshire. Notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head, a major port; the Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia quickly. It is believed their political leaders allowed themselves to be incorporated peacefully. Venta became the capital of the administrative polity of the Belgae, which included most of Hampshire and Wiltshire and reached as far as Bath. Whether the people of Hampshire played any role in Boudicca's rebellion of 60-61 CE is not recorded, but evidence of burning is seen in Winchester dated to around this period. For most of the next three centuries, southern Britain enjoyed relative peace; the part of th
Marwell Zoo is a 140-acre zoo situated in Colden Common near Winchester, in the English county of Hampshire. It is run by the registered charity Marwell Wildlife; the zoo is home to over 1,200 animals of 135 species. The charity undertakes a range of educational and conservation activities, with a particular focus on Africa in addition to work from its base; the zoo was founded by John Knowles, opening in 1972. It was one of the earliest zoos in Europe to place an emphasis on animal conservation. Within a few years of its establishment, it became an important breeding centre for several species, some extinct in the wild, others close to extinction; the park is situated in the estate of Marwell Hall, a Grade I listed building built around the year 1320 by Walter Woodlock and rebuilt in 1816 by William Long. In the 1500s, the Hall belonged to the Seymour family, there is a local legend that Henry VIII married Jane Seymour there. Between September 1941 and March 1944, Cunliffe-Owen Aircraft used the area as an airfield to support the manufacture of military aircraft at its nearby factory in Eastleigh.
After the end of World War II, the area was returned to agricultural use until the establishment of the zoo. In 1977, a giraffe called Victor tore a muscle in his leg, collapsed on his stomach, was unable to get up; the press suggested that he had slipped while trying to mate and compared his situation to the splits. All attempts to get him on his feet failed, his plight became a major international news story. Portsmouth Dockyard made a hoist to attempt to raise him onto his feet, he died of a heart attack shortly afterward in the arms of his keeper Ruth. The publicity turned Marwell into a major tourist attraction, interest was revived the following summer, when Victor's mate, gave birth to a female calf named Victoria. In 1999, the zoo lost all of its penguins to avian malaria. There were other cases in the UK but Marwell was the only zoo to lose its entire colony, which had arrived only two and a half years before to stock the new Penguin World exhibit. After consulting with experts, the exhibit was restocked with Humboldt penguins, which whilst endangered in the wild, are present in greater numbers in captivity.
In 2003, after constructing a new enclosure for critically endangered Amur leopards, a female leopard escaped and fell from a tree to her death after being shot with a tranquiliser dart only days before the official opening of the exhibit. Following a replacement after the death of Jade, in 2005 the first cub born to the new Amur leopard pair, escaped into the male's enclosure and was killed by her father. On 18 November 2007, a female Amur leopard cub was born as a result of a European Conservation Breeding Programme. Both the park and charity changed their name to "Marwell Wildlife" in April 2009, to promote awareness of conservation work beyond the park; the charity had been called the Marwell Preservation Trust, the park had been Marwell Zoological Park. The park includes a number of themed areas, including: Roof of the World is themed along the Himalayan mountain range and exhibits snow leopards and owls in natural surroundings World of Lemurs - a glass corridor around the lemur enclosures exhibiting: black and white ruffed lemur.
Lemur Loop is a walkthrough exhibit home to three different species of lemur. It allows guests to get up close to these playful primates. Black-and-white ruffed lemurs, a crowned lemur and ring-tailed lemurs are joined in the exhibit by a green peafowl. Penguin Cove was refurbished in 2012 and is home to thirty Humboldt penguins Aridlands & Desert Carnivores are home to addax, dorcas gazelles and curly tailed lizards. Fur, Feathers & Scales was renamed in 2015 and includes a walk-through aviary for African birds, Cold Blooded Corner, a reptile house housing rare species' such as Gila monster and Madagascan tree boa, a partula snail unit, Egyptian tortoises and sun conure aviaries. 2019 saw the redevelopment of an enclosure for the red panda's. Australian Bush Walk consists of two walk-through areas; the first part is home to Bennett's wallabies, the second is an aviary is home to Wrinkled hornbills. Life in the Trees is modelled on an Indonesian rainforest and featuring a traditional long boat house as the centrepiece.
This exhibit is home to siamangs and Asian small-clawed otters. The Valley Field features Przewalski horses, waterbuck roaming enclosed in 25 acres of land centred on a waterhole. Wild Explorers Opened in July 2015, at a cost of £3.6m, this exhibits focuses on the natural history and conservation of southern white rhino, Grevy's zebra and scimitar-horned oryx. Formal Garden was opened in July 2010, includes a knot garden, parterre garden and a kitchen garden as well as a self-guided'tree trail'. Energy For Life: Tropical House opened in February 2018; this innovative and sustainable exhibit spans two levels with fantastic vantage points. Guests can experience face-to-face encounters with a diversity of wildlife, including a Linne's two-toed sloth, exotic plants in a tropical climate, while learning about the flow of energy through life; the zoo's exhibits include: 449 mammals of 81 species. 309 birds of 42 species.
Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service
Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the county of Hampshire, on the south coast of England. The service's chief fire officer is Neil Odin; the Service was formed on 4 April 1948 as a result of the Fire Services Act 1947. All local authorities were duty-bound to make provision for firefighting under the Fire Brigades Act 1938. Many meetings and discussions were held prior to the service's creation in 1948 by the Hampshire fire service committees, to discuss who would be appointed the role of chief fire officer and how the service would be structured. With ongoing expansion, the service was under increasing pressure to open a service HQ; the FRS was hoping to use and acquire North Hill House in Winchester for usage as the headquarters — a building still desired by the Admiralty at the time and therefore the service was not allowed to buy it. In May 1948; however twenty years in 1968, the service HQ moved to a floor of Ashburton Court, The Castle, Winchester as well as the control room.
In 1997, Hampshire County Council lost control of the FRS, transferring responsibility to the newly formed Hampshire Fire and Rescue Authority. HFRS are now headquartered in Eastleigh. Since late 2015, it has shared its headquarters with Hampshire Constabulary. Water Tender Ladder: P1 Water Tender: P4 First Response Capability: P5 Rescue Pump: P7/P8 Small Fires Vehicle: L1 Water Carrier: W1/W3 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Incident Command Unit: C1 Command Support Unit: C2 /C3 Environmental Protection Unit: E1 Light 4x4 Pump: M1 Light 4x4 Tender: M2 Heavy 4x4 Tender: M3 Wildfire Unit: M4 Response Support Vehicle: R1 Water Rescue Unit: R2 Animal Rescue Unit: R3 Maritime Incident Support Unit Fire & Emergency Support Service unit: S5 Prime Mover + High Volume Pump: T1 Prime Mover + High Volume Hose Layer: T2 Prime Mover + Foam Response Unit: F1+F2 Co-Responder Vehicle: V1CBRN Response: Detection, Identification & Monitoring: H8 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Unit: H9Urban Search & Rescue: Search & Rescue Unit: R4 Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R9 Operational Support Unit: T1 Prime Mover: T2/T3/T4/T5/T6Pods: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Purpose Vehicle Module 5 - Shoring Operations Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service works in partnership with the South Central Ambulance Service to provide emergency medical cover to select areas of Hampshire.
21 areas have been identified as having a greater need for ambulance cover. Annually, the service attends over 13,000 medical emergencies supporting the ambulance service; the aim of a co-responder is to preserve life until the arrival of either a Rapid Response Vehicle or an ambulance. Co-Responder Vehicles are single manned by a specially trained firefighter, who will take the vehicle to his or her workplace/home and will respond from there when alerted to an incident via pager; each vehicle is equipped with: Defibrillator Bag and mask resuscitator Oxygen Airways Suction units Standard first aid equipment Entonox In addition to co-responding, the service has rolled out the Immediate Emergency Care program which has resulted in all front line fire appliances being equipped with more advanced medical equipment. This includes a defibrillator and patient monitoring equipment; as of October 2016, all appliances and front line crews had received equipment. In 2015, Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service carried out a risk review to determine how to reduce costs to match a £16m funding gap that would develop by 2020 due to funding cuts.
Following a public consultation in late 2015, the final proposals confirmed that none of the 51 fire stations in Hampshire would close and there would be no compulsory redundancies. Costs would be saved by reducing the number of operational firefighters at stations, including allowing some engines to respond to minor incidents with a smaller crew; the second major change was to introduce smaller engines at some stations. Until 2015, all Hampshire engines were design; the changes designated three types of fire engine: Enhanced Capability engines, which are similar in size to a traditional fire engine. Fire service in the United Kingdom Fire engine Fire apparatus FiReControl List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty
River Itchen, Hampshire
The River Itchen is a river in Hampshire, England. It flows from mid-Hampshire to join with Southampton Water below the Itchen Bridge in the city of Southampton; the river has a total length of 28 miles, is noted as one of the world's premier chalk streams for fly fishing using dry fly or nymphing techniques. The local chalk aquifer provides excellent storage and filtration and the river has long been used for public water supply. Watercress thrives all along the Itchen valley in its once pristine, crystal clear waters, now affected by some farming practices, it is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest and is noted for its high-quality habitats, supporting a range of protected species including water crowfoot, brown trout, the endangered water vole, brook lamprey and white-clawed crayfish. The river is managed by riparian owners with the use of water regulated by the Environment Agency, whilst the Port of Southampton is the navigation authority for the tidal section below Swaythling.
During Roman Britain, the river may have been associated with the Celtic goddess Ancasta. The origin of the name is thought to be pre-Celtic; the settlement of Itchen Abbas on the river is given as Icene in the Domesday Book of 1086. The source of the Itchen is situated just south of the village of Cheriton; the river flows north, through the villages of Cheriton and Tichborne, before joining up with its tributaries the River Alre and the Candover Brook, just below the town of New Alresford. The river flows west down the upper Itchen Valley passing the villages of Avington, Itchen Stoke, Itchen Abbas, Martyr Worthy and Abbots Worthy. Before entering the historic city of Winchester it crosses Winnall Moors; the river flows in several different channels through the city of Winchester, some of which come close enough to Winchester Cathedral to have caused serious problems to the building's foundations in earlier years. The main channel flows through Winchester City Mill and to the east of the city's Roman walls, along a promenaded reach known as "The Weirs".
The river heads south, through a series of water meadows, passing the Hospital of St Cross, the villages of Twyford and Shawford, between the town of Eastleigh and the village of Bishopstoke and through Itchen Valley Country Park before reaching the northern suburbs of Southampton at Mansbridge. Between Winchester and Mansbridge, sections of the river were once deepened or widened as part of the long disused Itchen Navigation, the former towpath forms part of the Itchen Way. Monks Brook flows into the Itchen at Swaythling, the river passes under Woodmill Bridge and becomes tidal. Four further bridges cross the river before its confluence with the River Test estuary in Southampton Water: Cobden Bridge, a road bridge connecting Bitterne Park and St Denys. Cobden railway bridge carrying the Southampton – Portsmouth railway line. Northam Bridge, a road bridge carrying the A3024 road from Bitterne Manor to Northam, opened in 1799; the Itchen Bridge, a high-level toll road bridge connecting the docks area with Woolston.
This replaced the Woolston Floating Bridge which had crossed the river at this point. Between the latter two bridges, the river passes St Mary's Stadium, the home of Southampton F. C; as the river joins onto Southampton Water it passes the major mixed-development on the eastern side of the river in Woolston, called Centenary Quay. The lower part of the river is an important yachting centre and contains several marinas, sailing centres and boatyards. From seaward they are: Ocean Village Marina, on the western shore just below the Itchen Bridge and close to the city centre Southampton Water Activities Centre underneath the bridge on the western shore Itchen Marine, just above the bridge, principally a towage business but with some berths for yachts and the only fuel berth in the river Merlin Boatyard, opposite Itchen Marine, on the eastern shore Lauren Marine Services, a small marina on the eastern side Ocean Quay and Solent Breeze Yacht Charter on the west side Shamrock Quay, the biggest marina in the river on the west Saxon Wharf is adjacent to Shamrock Quay, containing the biggest boat lift in Britain Kemps Quay Marina on the eastern shore, a drying marina and boatyard Quayside Marina, a single long pontoon next to Kemps Drivers Wharf, another single long pontoon, parallel to the shore, with a crane and boatyardAbove Northam Bridge, the limit of navigation for masted craft, are the Vespasian Road boatyard and numerous small establishments.
In recent years there have been attempts to reduce possible phosphate pollution from commercial watercress businesses such as Vitacress Salads and the Watercress company. There is an ambition for compliance by 2016. In 2018 a campaign was launched over pollution allegations aimed at Alresford-based business Bakkavor. Rivers of the United Kingdom Map source for the source and mouth River Itchen Archaeology Project Home Page Pictures from around the river itchen from source to its mouth
M3 motorway (Great Britain)
The M3 is a motorway that runs from Sunbury-on-Thames, Surrey, to Southampton, Hampshire, a distance of 59 miles. Via its feeder the A316, the route is one of five roads of dual carriageway width or greater into the southern half of London, it provides access to major towns and cities along its route, principally the Aldershot Urban Area, Basingstoke and Southampton. It was constructed as a dual three-lane motorway except for its two-lane section between Junctions 8 and 9; the motorway was opened in phases, ranging from Lightwater/Bagshot to Popham in 1971 to Winchester to Otterbourne Hill in 1995. The latter stages attracted opposition from environmental campaigns across Britain due to its large cutting through wooded Twyford Down. Similar protests were avoided on the near-parallel A3 by construction of the Hindhead Tunnel. Since completion, the motorway has been an artery to the west and mid sections of the South Coast and Isle of Wight including for tourism; the major settlements nearest to the motorway are served by a railway used for commuting but are dispersed.
Traffic on the M3 sees delays and congestion on its busiest sections near commuting hotspots and during holiday periods. From Chertsey to Fleet the road was in 2017 upgraded to a Smart Motorway, turning the hard shoulder into a permanent fourth lane with emergency refuge lay-bys. Approved as the "London to Basingstoke Motorway" with delays over funding for an extension to Southampton the road was built to relieve two single carriageway trunk roads that were congested. In 1967, sections of the A33 road from Popham, Hampshire, to a northeastern point of the Winchester Bypass were widened to dual carriageways; the eastern section, from Sunbury-on-Thames in Surrey to Popham near Basingstoke opened in sections: first the Hampshire section in 1971, the Surrey section in 1974. The cost for this first phase was £46m; the completed road acts as a continuation of the A316 Country Way, an express three-lane road from Apex Corner, Hanworth, in Greater London to Sunbury-on-Thames. The section is one of five routes into the southern half of London which reach Inner London with at least a dual-carriageway of dual-direction road, the others being the A3, the A30/A4, the M20 and A2, however one mile before reaching Inner London is combined with the routes of the A30 and M4 approaches.
A first public inquiry for the "M3 London to Basingstoke Motorway: Popham to Compton extension" centred on the section passing Winchester, was held in 1971, after which the ministry was instructed to reconsider and reconsult on the proposals. A second public inquiry was held in 1976–77; the earlier decision to route the motorway through or alongside the water meadows between St Catherine’s Hill and the compact cathedral city was reopened, during the year-long inquiry the headmaster of Winchester College was forcibly ejected along with others for causing a disturbance. The scope of the M3 extension was reduced to defer the difficult decision about the section around Winchester and it was built in two sections in 1995; when this opened, the temporary junction to the A33 parallel route was removed. The section of the M3 from near Junction 12 to the last, Junction 14 for the M27 replaced part of the A33 road, upgraded to motorway standard and opened in 1991. In 2008 the busiest section of the motorway, at Chandler's Ford, carried a daily average of around 130,000 vehicles.
The southern section starts as a continuation of a single-lane avenue, Bassett Avenue and The Avenue in the City of Southampton as the M27 motorway provides alternative routes from other parts of the city its waterfront and downtown peak-hour accessway, the M271 motorway and Mountbatten Way providing dual to three lane highways starting at the northwest of the city. Its service station was envisaged at Basingstoke upon the motorway's completion but not built – superseded by one just north of Fleet and another north of Winchester. Plans for a Basingstoke Services were again published in November 2017 An additional junction, numbered 4A, opened in April 1992 for Fleet; the M3 starts at Sunbury-on-Thames in Surrey on the edge of South West London as the continuation of the A316 which has three lanes each way from Hanworth in the London Borough of Hounslow, two from Chiswick. The motorway 2 miles after its start turns more west-southwest, crosses the River Thames on the M3 Chertsey Bridge to the north of Chertsey and has its second junction, at the M25 motorway, before continuing through the gorse and heather of the Surrey Heath.
Its third junction is for Camberley, Bracknell and Worplesdon. From Junction 4 it bisects the northern Blackwater Valley conurbation has its latest junction for Fleet and nearby early 21st century expanded/new villages, it crosses the South West Main Line, before skirting Old Basing and Basingstoke to its north. Turning south west again, it passes Popham and, just before reaching Junction 8, where one lane becomes the A303 road, the motorway continues as a dual two lane road through open countryside and Micheldever Wood until it reaches the north of Winchester. Taking over the "Winchester Bypass" the M3 resumes to three lanes each way at Junction 9, continues directly south and takes a small curve around the east of the city running through a deep cutting in Twyford Down and proceeding south west again, crossing the South West Main Line a second time alongside the River Itchen and through the Eastleig
City of Winchester
The City of Winchester is a local government district in Hampshire, with city status. It covers an area of central Hampshire including the ancient settlement of the city of Winchester itself, neighbouring towns and villages. For a full list of these, see the "Settlements and parishes" section below; the current city boundaries were set on 1 April 1974 when the City of Winchester merged with the former Droxford Rural District and part of the former Winchester Rural District council areas. Elections to the council are held in three out of every four years, with one third of the seats on the council being elected at each election. From 1995 to the 2004 election the Liberal Democrats had a majority on the council, but after 2 years when no party held a majority the 2006 election saw the Conservative party gain control; the elections on 6 May 2010 saw the Liberal Democrats re take control of the council, however the council soon switched to NOC a year in 2011. In 2012, the Conservative Party made their only Council gain of the entire English local elections and won a majority in Winchester once again.
Subsequently, two Conservative councillors defected to the Liberal Democrat group, placing the council under No Overall Control. Following local elections on 7 May 2015, the Conservatives re-gained majority control of the council; the council is led by a Conservative administration. The make up of the council as of September 2018 is: Conservatives - 23 Liberal Democrats - 22Hampshire County Council holds elections every four years. In the 2017 elections the Winchester City district area elected seven representatives: A Legatum Prosperity Index published by the Legatum Institute in October 2016 showed the City of Winchester as the third most prosperous council area in the United Kingdom, after the Borough of Waverley and Mole Valley. Settlements in the district include: Abbotts Barton, Abbots Worthy, Avington Badger Farm, Bighton, Bishops Sutton, Bishops Waltham, Bramdean, Brockwood Park Cheriton, Colden Common and Shawford, Crawley, Curdridge Denmead, Durley Easton, Exton Hambledon, Headbourne Worthy, Hinton Ampner, Hursley Itchen Abbas, Itchen Stoke, Itchen Valley Kilmeston, Kings Worthy Littleton and Harestock Martyr Worthy, Micheldever, Morestead New Alresford, Northington Old Alresford, Olivers Battery, Ovington, Owslebury Shedfield, Southwick, South Wonston, Stoke Charity, Sutton Scotney, Swanmore Tichborne, Twyford Upham Warnford, West Meon, Wickham, Winchester, Wonston