Uluburun shipwreck

The Uluburun Shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the late 14th century BC, discovered close to the east shore of Uluburun, about 6 miles miles southeast of Kaş, in south-western Turkey. The shipwreck was discovered in the summer of 1982 by Mehmed Çakir, a local sponge diver from Yalıkavak, a village near Bodrum. Eleven consecutive campaigns of three to four months' duration took place from 1984 to 1994 totaling 22,413 dives, revealing one of the most spectacular Late Bronze Age assemblages to have emerged from the Mediterranean Sea; the shipwreck site was discovered in the summer of 1982 due to Mehmet Çakir's sketching of “the metal biscuits with ears” recognized as oxhide ingots. Turkish sponge divers were consulted by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology's survey team on how to identify ancient wrecks while diving for sponges. Çakir's findings urged Oğuz Alpözen, Director of the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, to send out an inspection team of the Museum and INA archaeologists to locate the wreck site.

The inspection team was able to locate several amounts of copper ingots just 50 metres from the shore of Uluburun. With the evidence provided from the cargo on the ship it can be assumed that the ship set sail from either a Cypriot or Syro-Palestinian port; the Uluburun ship was undoubtedly sailing to the region west of Cyprus, but her ultimate destination can be concluded only from the distribution of objects matching the types carried on board. It has been proposed. Rhodes, at the time an important redistribution centre for the Aegean, has been suggested as a possible destination. According to the excavators of the shipwreck, the probable final destination of the ship was one of the Mycenaean palaces, in mainland Greece. Peter Kuniholm of Cornell University was assigned the task of dendrochronological dating in order to obtain an absolute date for the ship; the results date the wood at 1305 BC, but given that no bark has survived it is impossible to determine an exact date and it can be assumed that the ship sank sometime after that date.

Based on ceramic evidence, it appears that the Uluburun sank toward the end of the Amarna period, but could not have sunk before the time of Nefertiti due to the unique gold scarab engraved with her name found aboard the ship. For now, a conclusion that the ship sank at the end of the 14th century BC is accepted; the origins of the objects aboard the ship range geographically from northern Europe to Africa, as far west as Sicily and Sardinia, as far east as Mesopotamia. They appear to be the products of ten cultures; these proveniences indicate that the Late Bronze Age Aegean was the medium of an international trade based on royal gift-giving in the Near East. According to a reconstruction by various scholars, the Uluburun shipwreck illustrates a thriving commercial sea network of the Late Bronze Age Mediterranean. In this case, a huge mixed cargo of luxury items, royal gifts and raw materials. According to the findings, it has been suggested that Mycenaean officials were aboard accompanying the gifts.

A small, folding boxwood writing-tablet was found with extant ivory hinges. It would have had wax writing surfaces; the distribution of the wreckage and the scattered cargo indicates that the ship was between 15 and 16 metres long. It was constructed by the shell-first method, with mortise-and-tenon joints similar to those of the Graeco-Roman ships of centuries. Though there has been a detailed examination of Uluburun's hull, there is no evidence of framing; the keel appears to be rudimentary more of a keel-plank than a keel in the traditional sense. The ship was built with planks and keel of Lebanese oak tenons. Lebanese cedar is indigenous to the mountains of Lebanon, southern Turkey, central Cyprus; the ship carried 24 stone anchors. The stone is of a type completely unknown in the Aegean, but is built into the temples of Syria-Palestine and on Cyprus. Brushwood and sticks served as dunnage to help protect the ship's planks from the metal ingots and other heavy cargo; this is a list of the cargo.

The Uluburun ship's cargo consisted of raw materials that were trade items, which before the ship's discovery were known from ancient texts or Egyptian tomb paintings. The cargo matches many of the royal gifts listed in the Amarna letters found at Egypt. Copper and tin ingots Raw copper cargo totaling ten tons, consisting of a total of 354 ingots of the oxhide type. Out of the total amount of ingots at least 31 unique two-handled ingots were identified that were most shaped this way to assist the process of loading ingots onto specially designed saddles or harnesses for ease of transport over long distances by pack animals. 121 copper oval ingots. The oxhide ingots were stowed in 4 distinct rows across the ship's hold, which either slipped down the slope after the ship sank or shifted as the hull settled under the weight of the cargo. One ton of tin. Tin ingots were bun shaped. Canaanite jars and Pistacia resin At least 149 Canaanite jars. Jars are categorized as the northern type and were most made somewhere in the northern part of modern-day Israel.

One jar filled with glass beads, many filled with olives, but the majority contained a substance known as Pistacia resin, an ancient type of turpentine. Recent clay fabric analyses of Canaanite jar sherds from the 18th-Dynasty site of Tell el-Amarna have produced a speci

San Giuseppe dei Teatini

San Giuseppe dei Teatini is a church in the Sicilian city of Palermo. It is located near the Quattro Canti, is considered one of the most outstanding examples of the Sicilian Baroque in Palermo; the church was built at the beginning of the 17th century by Giacomo Besio, a Genoese member of the Theatines order. It has a majestic though simple façade. In the centre niche is housed a statue of founder of the Theatines order. Another striking feature is the large dome with a yellow majolica covering; the tambour decorated with double columns, was designed by Giuseppe Mariani. The belfry tower was designed by Paolo Amato; the interior has a Latin cross plan with a nave and two aisles, divided by marble columns of variable height. The inner decoration is an overwhelming parade of Baroque art, with stuccoes by Paolo Corso and Giuseppe Serpotta. Great frescoes can be seen in the nave, in the vault of the transept: these were painted by Filippo Tancredi, Guglielmo Borremans and Giuseppe Velasquez; the frescoes were damaged during World War II, but have been restored.

The most important piece of art is however a wood crucifix by Fra' Umile of Petralia. The crypt houses remains of a former church, dedicated to Madonna of Providence. Description page in Italian