Coal Harbour is the name for a section of Burrard Inlet lying between Vancouver, Canada's downtown peninsula and the Brockton Peninsula of Stanley Park. It has now become the name of the neighbourhood adjacent to its southern shoreline. Coal Harbour is used to designate the new official neighbourhood of the City of Vancouver bounded by Burrard Street and Pender near the Financial District to West Georgia Street near the West End in the south to Stanley Park in the north; the neighbourhood consists of numerous high-rise residential apartment and condo towers with luxury townhome podiums catering to the upper-crust. The northwestern section near Stanley Park features picturesque parkland, private marinas, several rowing and boating clubs, high-end shoppes and restaurants, a community centre designed by architect Gregory Henriquez. To the east is Deadman's Island, the site of the naval station and museum HMCS Discovery, where the harbour itself opens up to the Burrard Inlet. Towards the Financial District in the southeast, the neighbourhood is dominated by high-rise office buildings and numerous apartment towers.
South lies Vancouver's Luxury Zone along Alberni Street. Coal Harbour is home to Vancouver Harbour Water Aerodrome, located a few blocks from Canada Place and the Vancouver Convention Centre. Within the harbour is a floating gas station for marine vessels; the six floating homes in Coal Harbour, along with the twelve across town in False Creek are the only legal floating homes within the city of Vancouver. The discovery of coal in the harbour in 1862 inspired the name. In the days when the area along West Pender Street was an upper-class residential district, Coal Harbour was known as Blueblood Alley because of the many large mansions along it. Notable inhabitants and developments in Coal Harbour's past include: Squamish settlements, notably on Deadman Island, Brockton Point and Lumberman's Arch. In 1862 minor exploration began of the visible coal seams on the flank of the bluff overlooking the harbour, first noted by Captain Vancouver; this bluff was where most of West Hastings Street is today.
The coal was low-grade, but its occurrence in clays similar to porcelain-making clays of the English Midlands led to the staking of what is known as the Brickmaker's Claim by the Three Greenhorns. The Brickmaker's Claim is now the West End. No clay was mined nor porcelain made, but one of the Greenhorns was the developer of the clay mine and brickworks at Clayburn on Sumas Mountain near Abbotsford. A settlement of Kanakas near today's Bayshore Inn and the eastern end of Lost Lagoon was known as the Kanaka Rancherie, or the Cherry Orchard due to its many cherry trees; the area is now called Devonian Harbour Park, memorial cherry trees have been planted there in memory of AIDS victims. The Vancouver Boating Club, now Vancouver Rowing Club, from 1887 the Pacific Lumber Mill Company in the late 19th century The Royal Vancouver Yacht Club Denman Arena was built in 1911 to house the Vancouver Millionaires professional ice hockey club on the Kanakas Ranch site at Georgia and Denman; the Arena would host the only victory by a Vancouver team of the Stanley Cup in 1915.
The Denman Auditorium was built adjacent to the Arena in 1927 for smaller events. The Arena was destroyed by fire in 1936; the Auditorium remained in use until its demolition in 1959. Boeing Canada's Boat Factory beginning in the 1910s; the Vancouver Shipyards through the 1930s the CP Rail Station & Canadian Pacific Steamships passenger terminal/dock The Royal Canadian Air Force began work on a seaplane base and reconnaissance station at Coal Harbour in 1940. As part of the war effort, the RCAF turned over its direction finding and intercept facility to the Royal Canadian Navy. Due to an organizational change in 1942, the RCN ratings stationed at Coal Harbour and the ones from Ucluelet were withdrawn and moved to Gordon Head near Victoria. Harbour Ferries, a tour-boat and water-taxi service, continues to operate from docks in Coal Harbour Howard Hughes, who resided in the top two floors of the Bayshore Inn for 5 months and 28 days in the 1970s. Denman Arena, an indoor ice arena that stood from 1911 to 1936.
Trader Vic's, for many years held to be Vancouver's best night-out, was launched in a tiki-style hut next to the Bayshore. HMCS Discovery, a naval base on Deadman Island. In 1993 Vancouver City Council froze applications for development of the Marathon Realty lands between Canada Place and the Bayshore Hotel; the company was required to reach an agreement with The First Narrows Floating Co-op, representing floating home and live-aboard boat residents in pre existing marinas, for their inclusion in the redevelopment of the waterfront. Negotiations concluded with the guarantee of space for residents in Coal Harbour Marina on extended leases. Official Coal Harbour Website Coal Harbour Community Centre Several historical photos of Coal Harbour City of Vancouver Archives VancouverHistory.ca for historical references Coal Harbour Residents Association Map of Coal Harbour from Google Maps
Sidney Patrick Crosby is a Canadian professional ice hockey player who serves as captain of the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League. Nicknamed "Sid the Kid" and dubbed "The Next One", Crosby was selected first overall by the Penguins in the 2005 NHL Entry Draft, is regarded as one of the greatest hockey players of all time. Crosby debuted in the NHL during the 2005–06 season, recording 102 points and finishing as runner-up for the Calder Memorial Trophy as the NHL Rookie of the Year. By his second season, he led the NHL with 120 points to capture the Art Ross Trophy, becoming the youngest player and the only teenager to win a scoring title in any major North American sports league; that same season, Crosby won the Hart Memorial Trophy as the league's most valuable player and the Lester B. Pearson Award for most outstanding player as judged by his peers, he started the 2007–08 season with the team's captaincy and subsequently led them to the 2008 Stanley Cup Finals, where they were defeated by the Detroit Red Wings in six games.
The Penguins won in seven games. In 2009–10, he received the Mark Messier Leadership Award and scored 51 goals, winning the Maurice Richard Trophy as the NHL's leading goal scorer. In early 2011, Crosby sustained a concussion that left him sidelined for the rest of the season and for most of the 2011–12 campaign. In 2014, Crosby again won the Hart Memorial Trophy as well as his second Art Ross Trophy and his third Ted Lindsay Award. Crosby led Pittsburgh to Stanley Cup championships in 2016 and 2017, becoming the third player to win the Conn Smythe Trophy in consecutive years. In 2017, he captured his second Richard Trophy and was named one of the 100 Greatest NHL Players in history. Internationally, Crosby has represented Canada on numerous occasions, he won gold at the 2005 World Junior Championships, was named to Team Canada for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Playing against the United States in the gold medal game, he scored the game-winning goal in overtime. Crosby captained Team Canada at the 2014 Winter Olympics, winning his second consecutive Olympic gold medal.
A year he led his country to gold in the World Championship in Prague, thus becoming a member of the Triple Gold Club and the only player in the club to have captained all three winning teams. In 2016, Crosby captained Canada to gold in the World Cup of Hockey and was elected MVP by a unanimous vote. Crosby was born in the Grace Maternity Hospital in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on August 7, 1987, to Troy and Trina Crosby. Crosby's jersey number and 2007 contract signing reflect his birthdate. Crosby grew up in nearby Cole Harbour, has a younger sister, Taylor, his father was a goaltender who played for the Verdun Junior Canadiens in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. Troy played in the 1985 Memorial Cup and had been drafted 240th overall by the Montreal Canadiens in 1984, but never played at the NHL level. Growing up, Crosby admired Steve Yzerman and, like his father, was a Canadiens fan. Crosby began playing hockey by himself in his basement at the age of two, shooting pucks in a net that had the family dryer behind it, leading to a longstanding misconception that he was practising with the dryer.
From age 12 to 15, Crosby attended Astral Drive Junior High School. He was a straight-A student and, according to the vice-principal, "an amazing role model, kind to students in the learning centre and to special needs kids". At age 15, Crosby transferred to Shattuck-Saint Mary's in Faribault, Minnesota, to play with the school's hockey program. While playing for the Rimouski Océanic of the QMJHL, Crosby attended and graduated in 2005 from Harrison Trimble High School, in Moncton, New Brunswick. Early in his minor hockey years, Crosby began attracting media attention for his play and gave his first newspaper interview at age seven; when Crosby was 13, Nova Scotia's Minor Hockey Council refused to allow him to play midget, a level of minor hockey designated for 15- to 17-year-olds. His family lost; the following year, he entered the midget level with the triple-A Dartmouth Subways and went on to score a combined 217 regular season and playoff points, leading Dartmouth to a second-place finish at the 2002 Air Canada Cup.
He was named the MVP and Top Scorer awards at the national tournament at the tournament banquet held after the preliminary round and he finished the tournament with 24 points in 7 games. Crosby was called up as a 14-year-old to play two games with the Maritime Junior A Hockey League's Truro Bearcats that season. Crosby had been drafted by the Bearcats in the 2001 MJAHL Draft as a 13-year-old. During his midget season, Crosby appeared on the CBC's Hockey Day in Canada telecast, he has recalled numerous instances in which opposing players intentionally attempted to injure him, as well as constant verbal abuse from parents on and off the ice. Parents taunted and threatened Crosby so harshly, he took to not wearing his jersey between tournament games while he waited to play so that he would not be recognized. Due to this treatment, he elected to play for the American hockey program at Shattuck-Saint Mary's Boarding School, Minnesota for the 2002–03 hockey season. In 57 games with the Sabres, he recorded 72 goals and 162 points, leading the team to a U18 AAA national championship.
Crosby was selected first overall in the 2003 Midget Draft by the Rimouski Océanic of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. In his first exhibition game, he scored eight points, leading his teammates to nickname
Nathan Raymond MacKinnon is a Canadian professional ice hockey centre, alternate captain of the Colorado Avalanche of the National Hockey League. MacKinnon was selected first overall by the Avalanche in the 2013 NHL Entry Draft. MacKinnon was born in Springhill, Nova Scotia and grew up playing in the minor ice hockey system of Cole Harbour, Nova Scotia; as an atom aged player, MacKinnon recorded 200 points in 50 games. When MacKinnon was 12 and 13, he played Bantam AAA for the Cole Harbour Red Wings, recording seasons of 110 and 145 points, respectively. After these two seasons, MacKinnon enrolled at Shattuck-Saint Mary's in Minnesota. MacKinnon chose to leave his hometown and attend the Minnesota boarding school because of the strength of its ice hockey program. In his first season at Shattuck-Saint Mary's playing with the Bantam Tier I program, he scored 101 points in 58 games to finish second in team scoring. For the 2010–11 season, MacKinnon joined the under-16 Midget program at the school.
Despite being the team's second-youngest player, MacKinnon was averaging more than two points a game and was second in team scoring at the midway point of the season. During the season, MacKinnon was named to the team that represented Nova Scotia in the ice hockey tournament at the 2011 Canada Winter Games. At the tournament, MacKinnon scored eight goals and eleven points to finish fourth in tournament scoring as Nova Scotia finished in seventh place. MacKinnon finished his second season at Shattuck-Saint Mary's with 93 points in 40 games played, was second on the team with 45 goals scored. Heading into the 2011 Quebec Major Junior Hockey League Draft, MacKinnon was regarded as the favourite to be selected first overall and was ranked by QMJHL Central Scouting as the best available player. Despite this, MacKinnon spent the day of the draft skating with the Omaha Lancers of the United States Hockey League, as he was considering playing either college ice hockey in the National Collegiate Athletic Association or major junior ice hockey in the QMJHL.
On June 4, 2011, MacKinnon was selected first overall by the Baie-Comeau Drakkar in the 2011 QMJHL Draft. Because MacKinnon did not speak French, there was speculation that he would follow through with his option to play in the USHL until he was eligible for the NCAA, unless his rights were traded to a different QMJHL team. On July 13, 2011, MacKinnon's rights were traded to the Halifax Mooseheads for Carl Gélinas, Francis Turbide, the Mooseheads' first round draft picks in 2012 and 2013 and the Quebec Remparts' first round draft pick in 2013 acquired by Halifax; the Mooseheads had been attempting to acquire MacKinnon since Baie-Comeau was awarded the first overall pick in the 2011 draft. MacKinnon scored his first QMJHL hat-trick on December 3, 2011, scoring five goals in a 6–4 victory over the Quebec Remparts. In a league of 18 - and 19-year-olds, MacKinnon was only 16; the opposing coach for the Remparts was his future coach with the Colorado Avalanche, NHL Hall of Famer Patrick Roy. With five goals in one game, he tied the Mooseheads record for the most goals in a single game held by Jason King.
On May 26, 2013, MacKinnon led the Mooseheads to their first Memorial Cup championship. He was named Most Valuable Player, scoring a tournament-best seven goals and six assists in four games, earned a spot on the Tournament All-Star Team On June 24, 2013, leading up to the 2013 NHL Entry Draft, head coach Patrick Roy of the Colorado Avalanche, who owned the first overall selection, stated publicly that his team would select MacKinnon if the draft were held despite widespread speculation that the team was to select defenceman Seth Jones, who grew up in Denver, Colorado. "It would be tough for us not to take MacKinnon," Roy told ESPN The Magazine. Roy refused to rule out trading the pick. On June 26, 2013, Avalanche Director of Amateur Scouting Richard Pracey said during a conference call that the team had MacKinnon in their sights. "As of today, we're leaning on Nathan MacKinnon," Pracey said. On June 30, 2013, the Avalanche did indeed use their first overall pick in the draft to select MacKinnon.
MacKinnon was signed to his first NHL contract, a three-year entry level deal, with the Avalanche on July 9, 2013. MacKinnon made his NHL debut to begin the 2013–14 season on October 2, 2013, becoming the youngest hockey player to dress in a regular season game for the Colorado Avalanche franchise, registering two assists in a 6–1 victory over the visiting Anaheim Ducks. MacKinnon scored his first NHL goal October 12, 2013, against Michal Neuvirth of the Washington Capitals during the second period at the Verizon Center. During the season MacKinnon's role increased, he claimed his first NHL record in becoming the youngest player to record back-to-back two-goal games from January 4–6, 2014, beating Dale Hawerchuk's of the original Winnipeg Jets from 1981. MacKinnon compiled a 13-game point streak from January 25, to March 6, surpassing Wayne Gretzky to have the longest scoring streak by an 18-year-old in NHL history. MacKinnon finished the regular season appearing in all 82 games and led all rookies with 24 goals and 39 assists for 63 points.
MacKinnon became just the third player in the NHL to record seven points in his first two playoff games with a goal and six assists in the first two contests against the Minnesota Wild in the opening round of the 2014 Stanley Cup playoffs. On June 24, 2014, MacKinnon won the Calder Memorial Trophy for the rookie of the year, becoming the youngest player to win this trophy and third in Avalanche history behind Chris Drury and Gabriel Landeskog, he was subsequently selected to the NHL All-
Municipal government in Canada
In Canada, municipal government is a type of local council authority that provides local services, facilities and infrastructure for communities. Canada has three levels of government. According to Section 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867, "In each Province the Legislature may make Laws in relation to... Municipal Institutions in the Province." There are about 3,700 municipal governments in Canada. Municipal governments are established under provincial/territorial authority. Like many Canadian political institutions, municipal government has its roots in the medieval system of government in England. Famously, the city of Winchester was given its charter in 1185, the granting of freedoms became endorsed in Magna Carta, signed in 1215; the first formal municipality in Canada was the city of Saint John in New Brunswick, which received royal approval in 1785. For municipal government, this began an 50-year hiatus of receiving approval from the government, ending in the 1830s when the issue was placed on the agenda once again.
In 1835, the British parliament passed the Municipal Corporations Act, which specified how municipalities were to function and be elected. The ideas from this law were transferred to Canada by Lord Durham, who submitted a report to then-Governor-General, Lord Sydenham. In late 1840 to early 1841 the governments of what was Canada at the time enacted various acts which established municipal government in all areas of the country. In 1849, the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada approved a Canadian version of the Municipal Corporations Act referred to as the Baldwin Act in honour of its creator, Robert Baldwin, it delegated authority to the municipal governments so they could enact by-laws. It established a hierarchy of types of municipal governments, starting at the top with cities and continued down past towns and townships. Changes to the boundaries of these new governments could be made by petitioning the provincial Municipal Board or by requesting a change through the legislature.
By the early 20th century, Canada was involved in a period of municipal reform. An attempt to distinguish municipal government from the provincial legislature occurred, the municipal governments were compared with a board of directors – this form of government was not for advancing a certain political party's view, it was for sitting down and running it'like a business'; as such, the idea that a larger municipality should have more councillors was the same as having a large board of directors for a larger company. Between the 1920s and the 1960s the municipalities received increased funding from their provincial government parents; this was due to the Great Depression, but further discussion about reform reared its head in the 1970s. In many cities, the system of having a few large wards encompassing many different walks of life was replaced with one ward for every area with different demographics; the arguments over municipal government reform continue, seen in the recent City of Toronto Act 1997 dispute.
Municipal governments are subdivisions of their province. While the municipality has autonomy on most decisions, all by-laws passed by that municipal government are subject to change by the provincial government at any time. An example of a typical municipal government structure can be found in New Brunswick, which played host to the first municipal government in Canada in 1785 at Saint John. In some provinces, several municipalities in a particular area are part of an upper tier of municipal government, which provides more regionally oriented services. Depending on the province, this second tier may be called a county, regional municipality, regional district or regional county municipality. In Nova Scotia, three municipalities are designated as "regional municipalities". A regional municipality is a single municipal government covering an entire historical county including all incorporated towns and cities within the county. Within the three regional municipalities, designations such as "city" and "town" exist only as informal signifiers for chartered towns and cities that used to exist prior to the establishment of the regional municipality.
In Canada the types of municipal government vary between provinces, although they all perform the same functions. The general hierarchy was established in 1849 with the passing of the Municipal Corporations Act; the largest municipalities are called cities, their governments city councils. Smaller governments are called towns, parishes, rural municipalities, townships or hamlets; some may be directly designated as municipalities rather than as a particular type of municipality, but this term is still considered inclusive of all local governments regardless of their status. The term "borough" was used in Metropolitan Toronto, Ontario, to denote suburban municipalities; the Borough of East York was the last municipality to hold this status, relinquishing it upon becoming part of the City of Toronto on January 1, 1998. In Quebec, there is no legal distinction between cities and towns – although an informal and subjective distinction may be observed by English speakers all "cities" and "towns" in Quebec have the same status of ville.
In Quebec, the term borough is used as the English translation of arrondissement, referring to an administrative division of a municipality. Only eight municipalities in Quebec are divided into boroughs; some areas in Canada are unincorporated, meaning that they do not have a municipal government at al
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area, located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, as are other types of areas such as forest. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for administrative purposes. In Canada, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a "predominantly rural region" as having more than 50% of the population living in rural communities where a "rural community" has a population density less than 150 people per square kilometre. In Canada, the census division has been used to represent "regions" and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent "communities". Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their population living in a rural community.
Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their population living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft and Beeman. Rural metro-adjacent regions are predominantly rural census divisions which are adjacent to metropolitan centres while rural non-metro-adjacent regions are those predominantly rural census divisions which are not adjacent to metropolitan centres. Rural northern regions are predominantly rural census divisions that are found either or above the following lines of parallel in each province: Newfoundland and Labrador, 50th; as well, rural northern regions encompass all of Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts; this definition has changed over time. It has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or fewer inhabitants; the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre.
84% of the United States' inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, but cities occupy only 10 percent of the country. Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent; the U. S. Census Bureau, the USDA's Economic Research Service, the Office of Management and Budget have come together to help define rural areas. United States Census Bureau: The Census Bureau definitions, which are based on population density, defines rural areas as all territory outside Census Bureau-defined urbanized areas and urban clusters. An urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000, they may not contain individual cities with 50,000 or more. Thus, rural areas comprise open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500 residents. USDA The USDA's Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds; the 2002 farm bill defined rural and rural area as any area other than a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants, the urbanized areas contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town.
The rural-urban continuum codes, urban influence code, rural county typology codes developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service allow researchers to break out the standard metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas into smaller residential groups. For example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. OMB: Under the Core Based Statistical Areas used by the OMB, a metropolitan county, or Metropolitan Statistical Area, consists of central counties with one or more urbanized areas and outlying counties that are economically tied to the core counties as measured by worker commuting data. Non-metro counties are outside the boundaries of metro areas and are further subdivided into Micropolitan Statistical Areas centered on urban clusters of 10,000–50,000 residents, all remaining non-core counties. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts.
National Center for Education Statistics revised its definition of rural schools in 2006 after working with the Census Bureau to create a new locale classification system to capitalize on improved geocoding technology. Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States. According to the handbook, Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers, "Residents of metropolitan counties are thought to have easy access to the concentrated health services of the county's central areas. However, some metropolitan counties are so large that t
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Halifax Regional Centre for Education
The Halifax Regional Centre for Education is the public school district responsible for 136 elementary, junior high, high schools located in the Halifax Regional Municipality in Halifax County, Nova Scotia. The current Regional Executive Director is Elwin LeRoux; the district's office is on Dartmouth. The district's stated vision is "to provide a high quality education to every student every day". On January 24, 2018 the provincial government announced would be dissolved and education administered by an appointed provincial council and the board was dissolved on March 31, 2018; the board was created in 1996 with the amalgamation of three school boards that had jurisdiction over the former components of the Halifax Regional Municipality, created at the same time. Board elections have taken place in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. On December 19, 2006 the Minister of Education, Karen Casey, dismissed all 13 members of the board due to interpersonal conflicts and having failed to comply with their Code of Ethics.
The minister stated, "This board has failed to meet the performance standards set out under Section 64 of the Education Act. Sec. 64 states that a school board, in carrying out its responsibilities under this act, shall meet education program services and performance standards established by the minister." Seven of the former Halifax Regional School Board members are considering legal action against the government for disbanding the elected group. Howard Windsor, a former deputy minister, was appointed to act as the board until the municipal elections took place in October 2008. Mr. Windsor decided to discontinue their yearly stipends of $8,200, stating: "I respect the work done by the previous board members, but I see no reason to continue to pay them when they have neither the responsibility nor the authority to act on the public’s behalf." Windsor was replaced by a nine-member elected Board during scheduled elections in 2008. On January 23, 2018 education consultant Avis Glaze presented a report on the province's school system to government that included the recommendation that the seven elected regional school boards become regional education offices overseen by appointed provincial advisory council.
On January 24, 2018, the provincial government announced it accepted the recommendation and the Halifax Regional School Board and six other school boards would be dissolved though no date for dissolution was announced. The elected school board was dissolved on March 31, 2018. Don Trider David Reid Carole Olsen Judy White Interim Elwin LeRoux Elwin LeRoux Auburn Drive High School Charles P. Allen High School Citadel High School Cole Harbour District High School Dartmouth High School Duncan MacMillan High School Eastern Shore District High School Halifax West High School Island View High School J. L. Ilsley High School Lockview High School Millwood High School Musquodoboit Rural High School Prince Andrew High School Sackville High School Sir John A. Macdonald High School Astral Drive Junior High School A. J. Smeltzer Junior High School Rocky Lake Junior High School Bicentennial School Brookside Junior High Caledonia Junior High Clayton Park Junior High Cunard Junior High Eastern Passage Education Centre Elizabeth Sutherland School Ellenvale Junior High Eric Graves Junior High Fairview Junior High Five Bridges Junior High Gaetz Brook Junior High Georges P. Vanier Junior High Gorsebrook Junior High School Graham Creighton Junior High School Halifax Central Junior High Harold T. Barrett Junior High Herring Cove Junior High Highland Park Junior High John Martin Junior High Leslie Thomas Junior High Madeline Symonds Middle School Ecole Oxford School|Oxford School Oyster Pond Academy Park West School Prince Arthur Junior High Ross Road School Sackville Heights Junior High Sir Robert Borden Junior High School St. Agnes Junior High Rockingstone Heights Ridgecliff Middle School Education in Canada List of Nova Scotia schools Official website