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Colette

Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette, known mononymously as Colette, was a French author and woman of letters. She was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, was known as a mime and journalist. Colette is best remembered for her 1944 novella Gigi, the basis for the 1958 film and the 1973 stage production of the same name. Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette was born on 28 January 1873 to war hero and tax collector Jules-Joseph Colette and his wife Adèle Eugénie Sidonie, née Landoy, in the village of Saint-Sauveur-en-Puisaye in the department of Yonne, Burgundy. Colette attended a public school from the ages of 6 to 17; the family was well off, but poor financial management reduced the family's income. In 1893, Colette married Henry Gauthier-Villars, a well-known author and publisher who used the pen name "Willy", her first four novels – the four Claudine stories: Claudine à l'école, Claudine à Paris, Claudine en ménage, Claudine s'en va – appeared under his name.. The novels chart the coming of age and young adulthood of their titular heroine, from an unconventional fifteen-year-old in a Burgundian village to a doyenne of the literary salons of turn-of-the-century Paris.

The story they tell is semi-autobiographical. Colette said that she would never have become a writer if it had not been for Willy. Fourteen years older than his wife and one of the most notorious libertines in Paris, he introduced his wife into avant-garde intellectual and artistic circles and encouraged her lesbian alliances, it was he who chose the titillating subject matter of the Claudine novels: "the secondary myth of Sappho... the girls' school or convent ruled by a seductive female teacher", "locked her in her room until she produced enough pages to suit him."Colette and Willy separated in 1906, although their divorce was not final until 1910. Colette had no access to the sizable earnings of the Claudine books – the copyright belonged to Willy – and until 1912 she initiated a stage career in music halls across France, sometimes playing Claudine in sketches from her own novels, earning enough to survive and hungry and unwell; this period of her life is recalled in La Vagabonde, which deals with women's independence in a male society, a theme to which she would return in future works.

During these years she embarked on a series of relationships with other women, notably with Mathilde de Morny, the Marquise de Belbeuf, with whom she sometimes shared the stage. On 3 January 1907, an onstage kiss between Missy and Colette in a pantomime entitled "Rêve d'Égypte" caused a near-riot, as a result they were no longer able to live together although their relationship continued for another five years. In 1912, Colette married the editor of Le Matin. A daughter, Colette de Jouvenel, nicknamed Bel-Gazou, was born to them in 1913. During World War I Colette devoted herself to journalism; the marriage allowed her to devote her time to writing. Around this point in time she became an avid amateur photographer. In 1920 Colette published Chéri, portraying love between a much younger man. Chéri is the lover of a wealthy courtesan. Colette's marriage to Jouvenel ended in divorce in 1924, due to his infidelities and to her affair with her 16-year-old stepson, Bertrand de Jouvenel. In 1925 she met Maurice Goudeket.

Colette was by an established writer. The decades of the 1920s and 1930s were her most innovative period. Set in Burgundy or Paris during the Belle Époque, her work focused on married life and sexuality, it was quasi-autobiographical: Chéri and Le Blé en Herbe both deal with love between an aging woman and a young man, a situation reflecting her relationship with Bertrand de Jouvenel and with her third husband Goudeket, 16 years her junior. La Naissance du Jour is her explicit criticism of the conventional lives of women, expressed in a meditation on age and the renunciation of love by the character of her mother, Sido. By this time Colette was acclaimed as France's greatest woman writer. "It... has no plot, yet tells of three lives all that should be known", wrote Janet Flanner of Sido. "Once again, at greater length than usual, she has been hailed for her genius and perfect prose by those literary journals which years ago... lifted nothing at all in her direction except the finger of scorn."

Colette was 67 years old when the Germans defeated and occupied France, she remained in Paris, in her apartment in the Palais Royal. Her husband Maurice Goudeket, Jewish, was arrested by the Gestapo in December 1941, although he was released after a few months through the intervention of the French wife of the German ambassador, Colette lived through the rest of the war years with the anxiety of a possible second arrest. During the Occupation she produced two volumes of Journal à Rebours and De ma Fenêtre, she wrote articles for several pro-Nazi newspapers and her novel Julie de Carneilhan contains many anti-Semitic slurs. In 1944 Colette published what became her m

Gyeongjeon Line

The Gyeongjeon Line is a railway line serving South Gyeongsang and South Jeolla Provinces in South Korea. It covers a total of 300.6 km, from Samnangjin Station in Miryang, South Gyeongsang, to Gwangju·Songjeong Station in Gwangju, South Jeolla. An east-west railway along Korea's southern shore was long seen as a strategic route, but it took a number of attempts to complete the line; the first section of the line was opened as a branch from the newly built Gyeongbu Line at Samnangjin to Masan in May 1905, named the Masan Line. On December 1, 1923, the Jinju Line opened from Masan to Jinju. A branch from Changwon on the Masan Line to Jinhae, the Jinhae Line, opened on November 11, 1926. Meanwhile, construction started in the opposite direction from Songjeong-ri on the Honam Line, the other end of the future Gyeongjeon Line, with the first 14.9 km to Gwangju opened in July 1922. The 155.5 km Gwangju Line was completed to Yeosu on December 25, 1930. Six years on December 16, 1936, the Suncheon–Yeosu section became part of the newly established Jeolla Line, leaving the 134.6 km long Songjeong-ri–Suncheon section as the Gwangju Line.

Following the 1961 coup, the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction started South Korea's first five-year plan, which included a construction program to complete the railway network, to foster economic growth. As part of the program, work began on a line to plug the gap between Jinju and Suncheon on April 28, 1962; the difficult 80.5 km long section included 38 bridges with a total length of 1,697 m and 27 tunnels with a total length of 7.67 km, as well as 13 new stations. The Jinju–Suncheon line opened on February 7, 1968, when the whole 325.2 km railway line from Samnangjin to Songjeong-ri was renamed the Gyeongjeon Line. By the mid-2000s, alignment modifications shortened the line length to 300.6 km. The line is being upgraded to an electrified and double-tracked line for 180 km/h in stages, to facilitate regional development. On September 1, 2010, the South Korean government announced a strategic plan to reduce travel times from Seoul to 95% of the country to under 2 hours by 2020; as part of the plan, the entire Gyeongjeon Line is to be further upgraded for 230 km/h.

The upgraded section will be 101.4 km long. The 41 km section until Masan includes a re-alignment with tunnels closer to Changwon, the Masan–Jinju section includes significant re-alignments along the way. By April 2009, construction progress reached; the project is implemented as a public-private partnership: the government contribution is 1,680.473 billion won, private capital contributes 338.309 billion won. The Samnangjin-Masan section opened on December 15, 2010; the entire project is foreseen for completion in 2011. A new 44.8 km long branch from Hallimjeong Station is to improve freight transport connections to Busan's expanded port. The line proper to Busan New Port Station is 38.8 km long, followed by 6.0 km of port access tracks. By April 2009, progress was 80.7% out of a total budget of 902.384 billion won. The line was opened and the first freight train travelled the line on December 13, 2010. A planned new direct connection from Busan will meet up with the realigned Gyeongjeon Line at Jillye.

The 32.6 km long double track cutoff is expected to be finished by 2017 with a budget of 1,396.15 billion won. The project is to be implemented with private finance, the preferred bidder for the franchise was selected in July 2010; this line is foreseen for an upgrade to 230 km/h under the government's 2010 plan for 2020. Work started in 2003 on a 56.1 km long section between Gwangyang. By March 2010, progress was 19% out of a budget of 1,005.984 billion won. This section includes significant re-alignments with longer bridges; the upgrade works commenced at the junction with the Jeolla Line east of Suncheon. Electrification is to reach Suncheon by 2014. Additionally, there are plans for a freight branch from Gwangyang to Gwangyang Port. Between Hyocheon and Songjeong-ri, to relieve congestion at road crossings in the city, the Gyeongjeon Line got a new alignment bypassing Gwangju to the south; the section of the old alignment between Songjeong-ri and Gwangju was upgraded as a 11.9 km spur line, again called the Gwangju Line, while the 10.8 km section between Hyocheon and Gwangju, including Namgwangju Station, was torn up.

The realignments opened on August 10, 2000. From Boseong, a new cutoff branch is to connect with the Honam Line at Imseong-ri, just before Mokpo. Construction of the 79.5 km long branch commenced in 2002, work was suspended in the middle of the 2000s for lack of funds. As of 2010, the project is on hold after having progressed to 5.5% of the 1,297.924 billion won budget. This branch would include the 5,960 m long Jangdong Tunnel northeast of Jangheung; the rest of the Suncheon-Gwangju section is foreseen for upgrading in a new alignment under the government's 2010 plan for 2020. In South Gyeongsang: Samnangjin Station, junction with the Gyeongbu Line Changwon Station, terminus of the Jinhae Line Masan Station, Masan Jinju Station, Jinju Hadong Station, Hadong CountyIn South Jeolla: Gwangyang Station, terminus of the planned Gwangyang Port branch Suncheon Station, junction with the Jeolla Line Beolgyo Station, Boseong County Boseong Station, Boseong County, terminus of a planned line to Mokpo Gwangju·Songjeong Station, junction with the Honam Line and terminus of the Gwangju Line branch to Gwangju Station The line is served by passenger and freight trains.

As of October 2010, from Bujeon Station in Busan, cross-c

Alexander Henry Green

Alexander Henry Green FRS was an English geologist. Green was born at Maidstone on 10 October 1832, was the eldest son of Thomas Sheldon Green, head-master of the Ashby Grammar School at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, who had married Miss Derington of Hinckley in Leicestershire. After passing through his father's school he went to Gonville and Caius College, where he was admitted pensioner on 25 June 1851, graduated as sixth wrangler in 1855. Elected a fellow of his college in the same year, he proceeded M. A. in 1858, resided until 1861. He obtained an appointment on the Geological Survey of Great Britain in 1861. Here he worked at first on the Jurassic and cretaceous rocks of the midland counties, passing on from them to the carboniferous deposits of Derbyshire and the northern counties. In 1874 he left the survey to become professor of geology in the Yorkshire College at Leeds, wrote a well-received manual of Physical Geology in 1876, he undertook, in 1885, the duties of the chair of mathematics, was for a time lecturer on geology at the school of military engineering, Chatham.

In 1888 he was appointed to the professorship of geology at Oxford in succession to Sir Joseph Prestwich, received from that university the honorary degree of M. A. Green became a Fellow of the Geological Society in 1862, received the Murchison Medal in 1892. In the latter year he was elected honorary fellow of Caius College. In 1886, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, in 1890 was president of the section of geology at the Leeds meeting of the British Association, his strength in this science lay in field work and in certain departments of physical geology where his mathematical knowledge was helpful. As a teacher and writer he was remarkably clear. In addition to the duties of his chair he undertook much consulting work. In the summer of 1896, he had a paralytic stroke, died on 19 August at his residence, Boars Hill, near Oxford, he was twice married: in 1866 to Miss Mary Marsden, from the neighbourhood of Sheffield, who died in 1882. One son and two daughters were the issue of the first marriage, a son and a daughter of the second, all of whom survived their father.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Thomas George. "Green, Alexander Henry". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co

SR Lord Nelson class

The SR class LN or Lord Nelson class is a type of 4-cylinder 4-6-0 steam locomotive designed for the Southern Railway by Richard Maunsell in 1926. They were intended for Continental boat trains between London and Dover harbour, but were later used for express passenger work to the South-West of England. Sixteen of them were constructed, they were all named after famous admirals. The class continued to operate with British Railways until withdrawn during 1961 and 1962. Only one example of the class – the first engine, Lord Nelson itself – has been saved from scrapping; this has been preserved railways throughout Britain. Although the improved ”King Arthur” class 4-6-0 locomotives were capable of the heaviest express passenger work between London and South-West England, there was a growth in demand for Continental traffic travelling via Dover and Folkestone. By the mid-1920s the Southern Railway Traffic Department wished to begin operating 500-long-ton express trains on these routes during peak periods.

These would require a more powerful locomotive, able to pull heavier loads at sustained speeds of 55 mph, so as not to impede the congested electrified lines around London. However, any enlargement of the existing 2-cylinder design was not possible due to weight restrictions imposed by the railway’s Civil Engineer. After examining the practice of other British railways, Richard Maunsell, the Chief Mechanical Engineer, secured agreement for a 4-cylinder design, with an improved boiler and Belpaire firebox; the drive would be divided between the front coupled axle for the inside cylinders and the middle coupled axle for the outside cylinders giving better weight distribution and reduced hammer blow. The new design was an inevitable compromise between the need for additional power and to keep the weight down to an acceptable limit. There were two unusual features of the design: the first of, the setting of the crank axles at 135°, rather than the standard 90° of other locomotive types; this design necessitated four sets of valve gear, gave rise to eight beats per revolution, rather than the usual four, designed to give a more draw on the fire and less chance of wheelslip when starting.

The second difference was that fire grate was in two sections, the rear portion was horizontal and the front sloped away sharply. The prototype E850 named Lord Nelson was ordered from Eastleigh railway works in June 1925 but production proceeded at Maunsell’s insistence, to ensure that the weight was kept to a minimum at every stage, so the locomotive did not appear until August 1926, it was tested on a variety of duties over the next year, with sufficiently encouraging results for an initial order for ten more locomotives for delivery between May 1928 and April 1929 to be placed. These were scheduled to be allocated to Battersea depot and fitted with 4,000 gallon 6-wheeled tenders suitable for the Continental ports. However, during construction, it was decided to equip half of the class with 5,000 gallon 8-wheeled tenders necessary for the longer West of England routes and to allocate them to Nine Elms depot. A further batch of ten locomotives was ordered in 1928, before the previous batch had been delivered, but when it became apparent that the Stock Market Crash of 1929 would be to reduce the demand for Continental travel, this second order was reduced to five.

The locomotives were all named after famous Royal Navy admirals, with the doyen of the class being named Lord Nelson. As a result, the rest of the locomotives belonged to the Lord Nelson class; the performance of the new locomotives was mixed, depending upon the experience of the crew and the circumstances under which they were operating. At times it was no better than their smaller predecessors. Maunsell therefore undertook a number of experiments to try to improve the performance of the new locomotives. No. E859 was fitted with smaller 6 ft 3 in driving wheels to see if this would improve performance over the graded London-Dover line, but the difference was marginal. No. E860 was fitted with a heavier boiler but once again with little improvement; the whole class however benefitted from the fitting of smoke deflectors during the late 1920s. Maunsell was aware of the reputation for poor steaming enjoyed by the class and attempted to address it by the fitting of twin Kylchap blastpipes to No. 860 in 1934.

However, the problem was solved by Oliver Bulleid, Maunsell's replacement as Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Southern in 1938. He fitted larger diameter chimneys and Lemaître multiple jet blastpipes, which transformed their performance. Thereafter the class was respected. For location details and current status of the preserved locomotive, see: List of Lord Nelson class locomotivesFor a period after its introduction to the Southern Railway network, the Lord Nelson class held the title of "most powerful locomotive in Britain" – a claim based on its tractive effort; the advanced design of the locomotive led to the GWR introducing the GWR 6000 Class in order to regain the title lost by their GWR Castle class locomotives when the Lord Nelsons were constructed. The planned 500-ton trains never materialised, but the class was used on 460 ton trains such as the Golden Arrow. After the Second World War they were frequently used on laden Boat Trains between London Waterloo station and Southampton docks.

The Lord Nelsons were notoriously difficult for inexperienced crews to fire properly, due to their long firebox, specific crews who had proven experience in firing the locomotives were therefore allocated to them. This was due to the few locomotives

University of Southern California athletics scandal

In the University of Southern California athletics scandal, the University of Southern California was investigated and punished for NCAA rules violations in the Trojan football, men's basketball and women's tennis programs. The sanctions were announced on June 10, 2010, affected the USC football program from 2010 to 2012. Sanctions for the football team included postseason bans, scholarship losses, vacating old games, disassociating with Reggie Bush. Separately, Bush returned his Heisman Trophy. USC head coach Pete Carroll left USC shortly before sanctions were announced. Probes by both USC and the NCAA found that football star Reggie Bush, the 2005 Heisman Trophy winner, basketball star O. J. Mayo had forfeited their amateur status by accepting gifts from agents. In addition, the women's tennis team was cited in the report for unauthorized phone calls made by a former player; as a result of the ongoing investigation, which progressed well into the 2010–11 seasons for both USC and Reggie Bush's New Orleans Saints, Bush voluntarily gave up his 2005 Heisman Trophy, which the Heisman Trust decided to leave vacant.

As a result of sanctions issued by both USC and the NCAA, the Trojan athletic program received some of the harshest penalties meted out to a Division 1 program. The football team was forced to vacate the final two wins of its 2004 national championship season, as well as all of its wins in 2005, it was banned from bowl games in both 2010 and 2011 and was docked 30 scholarships over three years. The basketball team gave up all of its wins from the 2007-08 season and sat out postseason play in 2010; the NCAA accepted USC's earlier elimination of its women's tennis wins between November 2006 and May 2009 and did not sanction the team further. Shortly after the NCAA handed out its penalties, the Football Writers Association of America announced it would no longer recognize the Trojans as its 2004 national champion. In June 2011, the Bowl Championship Series stripped the Trojans of the 2004 BCS title, though the Associated Press still recognizes the Trojans as its national champions for 2004. Bush is the first person in the Heisman Trophy's history to give his trophy back to the Heisman Trust, the 2005 season is the only one in the award's history for which there is no winner.

These sanctions have been criticized by some NCAA football writers, including ESPN's Ted Miller, who wrote, "It's become an accepted fact among informed college football observers that the NCAA sanctions against USC were a travesty of justice, the NCAA's refusal to revisit that travesty are a massive act of cowardice on the part of the organization."Miller suggested that the sanctions had more to do with objections to the football culture at USC than its alleged noncompliance with NCAA rules: During a flight delay last year, I was cornered at an airport by an administrator from a major program outside the Pac-12. He made fun of me as a "USC fanboy" because of my rants against the NCAA ruling against the Trojans, but we started talking. Turned out he agreed with just about all my points, he told me, after off-the-record, that "everybody" thought USC got screwed. He said that he thought the NCAA was trying to scare everyone with the ruling, but subsequent major violations cases put it in a pickle.

He told me that USC was punished for its "USC-ness," that while many teams had closed down access — to media, to fans, etc. — USC under Pete Carroll was open, and, resented. There was a widespread belief. Further, more than a few schools thought that the presence of big-time celebrities, such as Snoop Dogg and Will Ferrell, at practices and at games constituted an unfair recruiting advantage for the Trojans, it wasn't against the rules. This, as he assessed his own smell test, was a subtext of the so-called atmosphere of noncompliance that the NCAA referred to — an atmosphere that oddly yielded few instances of noncompliance around the football program after a four-year NCAA investigation. In February 2014, in a talk on the campus of USC, former coach and recent Super Bowl winner Pete Carroll said about the sanctions, "I thought was dealt with poorly and irrationally and done with way too much emotion instead of facts. I sat in the meetings. I listened to the people talk. I listened to the venom that they had for our program...

They tried to make it out. They made a terrible error." Further criticism of the sanctions came during NCAA's investigations into other programs such as the University of Miami and University of Oregon for recruiting violations, all of which led to more lenient punishments than USC's for arguably greater offenses. This has led many people to think that the NCAA's sanctions of USC were intended to make an example out of the school to other programs that the NCAA hasn't followed through on with other college programs. Most notable of these scandals was that against Miami, because of the involvement of Paul Dee. Dee was the Committee on Infractions chairman for USC's NCAA investigation, it was Dee who announced the USC penalties and closed with the reminder that "high-profile athletes demand high-profile compliance." Accusations came out that, while Dee was athletic director there, Miami had been the center of major improper benefits that of university booster Nevin Shapiro from 2002 until 2010.

Writers noted the hypocrisy of Miami's more lenient punishment compared to USC's, despite Miami committing more serious infractions th

Island Highway

The Island Highway is a series of highways that follows much of the eastern coastline of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. While the Island Highway has no designated starting point, it is understood to begin at the BC Ferries dock in Port Hardy as Highway 19; the highway continues southbound as Highway 19 until it reaches the northern end of Campbell River, at the intersection of Highway 19 and Highway 19A. At this point, Highway 19A becomes the Island Highway, runs south through Courtenay, Union Bay, Fanny Bay, Qualicum Beach until it reaches Parksville. At the southern tip of Parksville, the Island Highway rejoins Highway 19 and continues south to Nanaimo, where it meets Highway 1, the Trans-Canada Highway; the highway continues through Ladysmith and several other communities before winding through the higher elevation Malahat district. Although the Trans-Canada Highway remains the Island Highway south to Victoria, the name is applied to it there. Instead and confusingly, "Island Highway" is the name still given to Highway 1A from Goldstream Avenue through Langford and Colwood to Six Mile Road in View Royal, after which the road is named "Old Island Highway" for a few blocks, where the address numbering scheme changes from the 1600s to the 400s, resulting in adjacent businesses have different addresses.

The road continues as "Island Highway" through to Admirals Road. Additionally, mapping tools such as Google Maps show both Highway 1 and Highway 1A as being "Island Highway" through this section