Colfax Avenue

Colfax Avenue is the main street that runs east–west through the Denver metropolitan area in Colorado. As U. S. Highway 40, it was one of two principal highways serving Denver before the Interstate Highway System was constructed. In the local street system, it lies 15 blocks north of the zero meridian, would thus otherwise be known as 15th Avenue; the street was named for the 19th-century politician Schuyler Colfax. From west to east, it starts at Heritage Road in Golden as U. S. Highway 40 and the Business Route of I-70, continues east through Lakewood and enters Denver at Sheridan Boulevard. U. S. Highway 287 is routed along Colfax Avenue as well, which continues east through Denver and Aurora. In the eastern outskirts of Aurora, Colfax Avenue meets I-70 and the two U. S. highways follow the I-70 route eastward. Colfax Avenue cuts through Original Auraria, the city's historic core, skirts the southern edge of downtown Denver; because of the dense, mixed-use character of the development along Colfax Avenue, the Regional Transportation District bus route 15 - East Colfax has the highest ridership in the RTD system.

In 2006, the first Colorado Colfax Marathon was held, traversing the length of Colfax Avenue through the three cities. It's become legend that Playboy magazine once called Colfax "the longest, wickedest street in America," but attempts to source the actual quote have failed. However, such activities are isolated to short stretches of the 26-mile length of the street. Periodically, Colfax undergoes redevelopment by the municipalities along its course that bring in new housing and restaurants; some say that these new developments detract from the character of Colfax, while others worry that they cause gentrification and bring increased traffic to the area. To understand where East Colfax is today, one must look back more than 100 years to the beginnings of Denver and its main thoroughfare. Colfax Avenue became the major route into town from the east, was the address to have for the wealthy and elite class. East Colfax was lined with trees and wide promenades, a beautiful boulevard on the outskirts of town where the Denverites who had made their fortunes could build grandiose mansions.

The slow and steady downfall began after the Panic of 1893. The once lavish and expensive homes along East Colfax and in Capitol Hill were no longer easy to maintain and pay for. Many owners of the single-family mansions were forced to rent out rooms in their homes to temporary workers and those with lesser income. In addition, the housing market no longer supported huge mansions on a large lot; as the economy of Denver slumped after the Silver Crash, construction in Capitol Hill concentrated on apartments. Three buildings still in existence and that are examples of the architecture of this time are The Colonnade, Alta Court, the Hamilton; this cultural and demographic shift, from single-family mansions toward boarding houses and rental property for the transient middle class, marked the first significant watershed moment in the history of East Colfax. East Colfax and Capitol Hill remained a solid middle-class neighborhood until the next demographic change occurred. After World War II, the mentality of many urban dwellers shifted.

Mortgage lenders preferred new construction and there was a massive "white flight" to the suburbs. Families and the established middle class left Capitol Hill in a mass diaspora, selling off the family home to a developer interested in putting up a high-rise in its place or leaving the home abandoned; the demographics of people left behind were an underclass of renters. The zoning along East Colfax has been badly planned for 50 years. In the 1950s East Colfax was rezoned B4, the planners encouraged separation of uses and dependence on the automobile. Property owners along East Colfax found it much more rewarding to tear down an existing historic building and put up a new building in its place, rather than renovating. Planners and building officials encouraged this, for this was a time when old was considered ugly and new buildings meant progress. In addition the zoning code from the 1950s, a 2:1 floor-area ratio was adopted for East Colfax; these ratios determine the square footage of the building in relation to the lot size.

Builders in the 1950s who tore down historic buildings along East Colfax for the purpose of developing a brand-new property were required to abide by the car-friendly codes and provide for automobile use. As the feasibility study, East Colfax Avenue: An Opportunity and a Model for Development Action, claims about the streetscape of East Colfax, " encourage development of smaller parcels that lack frontage definition, have unevenly deep setback patterns and leave a large quantity of undeveloped space." This FAR single-handedly contributed to the architectural demise of East Colfax. Phil Goodstein, a Denver historian, analyzes the effect of the FAR in his book, The Ghosts of Denver: Capitol Hill. "Now the businesses were set back from the sidewalk with a parking lot between the store and the street. Every block, it seemed, became a parking lot while customers found it necessary to drive from one store to the next. Pedestrians had to dodge cars in the middle of the block

Henryetta, Oklahoma

Henryetta is a city in Okmulgee County, United States. The population was 5,927 at the 2010 census, down 9.6 percent from 6,096 at the 2000 census. Hugh Henry established a ranch on Creek Nation land in 1885, he soon found a deposit of coal. Discovery of more coal deposits attracted several railroads to develop these mines. A settlement named; the name changed to Henryetta when a post office opened on August 28, 1900. At statehood in 1907, Henryetta had 1,051 residents; the economy was based on agriculture, natural gas and oil. In 1909, the area had fourteen coal mines. By 1910, the population had grown to 1,671; the town added several brick factories and a bottling plant during the 1920s. In this era, Henryetta was a sundown town where African Americans were not allowed to enter after dark. Henryetta's manufacturing base continued to expand. Pittsburgh Plate Glass built a plate glass window plant in Henryetta in 1929–30, employing nine hundred people and claiming to be the largest west of the Mississippi River.

The factory closed in 1974, but was purchased and refitted for making glass containers, continues in operation by Anchor Glass Container. Eagle-Picher Company employed more than seven hundred people at its plant that extracted the rare metal germanium; the plant has since became a Superfund cleanup site. Besides Anchor Glass, current employers include the international oilfield-services company Shawcor. Henryetta is located at 35°26′33″N 95°59′6″W. Henryetta is at the crossroads of Interstate 40, being a major east-west interstate highway through the south-central portion of the United States, U. S. Route 75, being a major north–south highway extending from Noyes, Minnesota on the Canada–United States border south to Dallas, Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.1 square miles, of which, 6.0 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,096 people, 2,460 households, 1,589 families residing in the city.

The population density was 1,009.8 people per square mile. There were 2,844 housing units at an average density of 471.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.69% White, 0.57% African American, 12.30% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, 6.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.20% of the population. There were 2,460 households out of which 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $20,115, the median income for a family was $24,760. Males had a median income of $28,661 versus $14,268 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,908. About 19.9% of families and 22.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.8% of those under age 18 and 17.8% of those age 65 or over. Henryetta has a council-manager form of government with an elected mayor. Henryetta is notable as the high school hometown of NFL Hall of Fame quarterback Troy Aikman. Other famous former and current residents include actress Alice Ghostley, Broadway actor Jeremy Hays, as well as rodeo favorites Jim Shoulders and Terry Don West, it is the birthplace of Oklahoma Supreme Court Chief Justice Steven W. Taylor. Henryetta has two large annual rodeos, being the Jim Shoulders Spring Roundup Rodeo in June and the Living Legends Rodeo over Labor Day Weekend; the Henryetta Historical Museum is housed in what was the town’s first schoolhouse, what was the town’s first courthouse.

The Henryetta Golf Course and Country Club was established in the 1920's. It is open year-round and does not require advance tee-time reservations. Both the Hugh Henry House on N. 3rd St. and Nichols Park located 1.9 miles south of the junction of Lake Rd. and Main St. are included on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. Henryetta was referenced as character Stevie Rae's hometown in P. C. Cast's book series, House of Night. Henryetta is mentioned in the King of the Hill episode "Harlottown" as Arlen's new city manager's prior town. Henryetta's school teams were known for their unusual nickname, the "Mud Hens", until a student petition led to a name change in 1989. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Henryetta

Oslofjord Tunnel

The Oslofjord Tunnel is a subsea road tunnel which traverses the Oslofjord, connecting Hurum and Frogn in Norway. Carrying three lanes, the 7,306-meter long tunnel reaches a depth of 134 meters below mean sea level; the tunnel has a maximum gradient of seven percent. It acts as the main link connecting Buskerud with Follo and Østfold, supplementing the Moss–Horten Ferry which runs further south; the tunnel is since 2018 a part of European route E134, until 2018 it was part of National Road 23. The crossing was served by the Drøbak–Storsand Ferry, which commenced in 1939. Plans for a fixed link were launched in 1963 based on two bridges which would connect to Håøya. Plans resurfaced in the early 1980s with the advent of subsea tunneling technology and the Oslo Airport location controversy, which proposed airports in Hurum, Ås and Hobøl. Though Gardermoen was build as the airport, the tunnel had raised sufficient support to be built irrespectively. Parliament gave approval on 13 December 1996 and construction started on 14 April 1997.

The tunnel was official opened on 29 June 2000 and was financed in part by a toll, collected by Bompengeselskapet Oslofjordtunnelen at a toll plaza in Frogn. In 2014, the manual toll station was replaced by an automatic station. Since 30 August 2016, it is free to pass through the tunnel; the tunnel was flooded in 2003 and 2008 and experienced a landslide in 2003. All of these incidents resulted in the tunnel being closed for weeks. There have been two major truck fires, one in 2006 and one in 2011. After the latter incident, the tunnel has been closed for heavy traffic exceeding 7.5 tonnes. In an effort to eliminate the problem, the Public Roads Administration has proposed building a second tube; the Oslofjord Tunnel is a 7,306-meter long subsea tunnel which constitutes part of European route E134 and is hence part of the Trans-European road network. The tunnel traverses below Drøbaksundet of the Oslofjord, reaching a maximum depth of 134 meters below mean sea level; the tunnel has three lanes, with one used as a climbing lane in the uphill direction to overcome the seven percent gradient.

It has a speed limit of 70 kilometers per hour, enforced by traffic enforcement cameras. The tunnel has a width of 11.5 meters and was at the time of construction build after criteria for a traffic of up to 7,500 vehicles per day. The tunnel is equipped with 25 evacuation rooms; these can be sealed off from the main tunnel and can each provide pressurized space for thirty to fifty people while a fire is being fought. There is a natural flow of 1,800 litres of sea- and ground water into the tunnel every minute. To handle this a pump system is installed capable of draining 4,000 litres per minute. There is a natural reservoir under the tunnel able to retain 5,000 cubic meters of water, which can act as a buffer, it can be used as a water source for the fire department. The tunnel is built with continual concrete elements to ensure better protection against water leaks; the structure has received artistic decorations in the form of gobo lighting. The tunnel is indefinitely closed for vehicles exceeding 12 meters in length.

From the onset it was designed to be expanded to two tubes, hence a second tube was designed to be built on the south side. European Road 134 is 432 kilometers long and runs from Haugesund through Drammen to the E6 at Vassum in Frogn; the section from Bjørnstad in Røyken to Vassum was built at the same time as the tunnel and is referred to as the Oslofjord Link. The crossing serves as a quicker link connecting Buskerud to Follo and Østfold. Alternative crossing involve driving north via Oslo or south via the Moss–Horten Ferry; the route saves 30 minutes compared to driving via Oslo. The tunnel is operated by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration; as part of a national road, its operation and maintenance is financed by the national government. Toll collection is carried out by Bompengeselskapet Oslofjordtunnelen AS, a limited company owned in equal shares by Akershus County Municipality and Buskerud County Municipality, they have subcontracted the operations of the toll plaza to Vegfinans. Undiscounted toll prices are NOK 130 for trucks.

Payment is automated through Autopass. The tunnel experienced a traffic an average 4,432 vehicles per day in 2003; the average annual peak was reached at 7,138 in 2010, before falling to 6,827 in 2012. The road is owned and maintained by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration as a nationally financed project; the connection between Follo and Hurumlandet was served by the Drøbak–Storsand Ferry, a service operated by Bilferjen Drøbak–Hurum. Planning of the ferry service commenced in 1939 and its first ferry, Leif 1, serve the crossing until 1954, it was replaced with Drøbaksund, itself replaced with the larger Drøbaksund II in 1968. The company took over the Svelvik–Verket Ferry, which connects Hurumlandet to Vestfold, in 1971. Drøbaksund I was put into service in 1978 and Drøbaksund III in 1985. From 1993 it was supplemented with Hurumferja, hence the service having two ferries; the ferry had a daily traffic of 320 vehicles in 1980. A fixed crossing of Hurumlandet and the Oslofjord was first proposed by Anton Grønsand in 1958.

It was followed up in a regional transport plan published with a horizon of forty years. Road planning was in the following decade reorganized so that most planning fell within the jurisdiction of a single county; as a crossing of the Oslofjord invariable would have to cross a county