College football is gridiron football consisting of American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football that resembled more the game of soccer than "football" as it is played today, it was played with a round
Andri Sigþórsson is an Icelandic former international footballer. Andri, who played as a striker, played as a youth for KR, before joining the youth setup of Bayern Munich, he played for Bayern's reserve team in the Regionalliga, but returned to Iceland in 1996, rejoining KR. In 2000, he was joint top scorer in the Icelandic Premier Division, returned to Germany in 1997, for a loan spell with FSV Zwickau. After three more years with KR, moved to Austria, joining SV Salzburg to Norway, where he played for Molde FK, his career was cut short in 2004. He made seven appearances for Iceland; these goals came in back-to-back matches against the Czech Republic. Andri is famous for being a star player in Championship Manager 3, being set with the maximum potential of 200, his brother Kolbeinn is a professional footballer and Andri has acted as his agent. After retiring from football he has helped run his father's string of bakeries in Molde. Andri Sigþórsson at National-Football-Teams.com
Bollin Eric, was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. In a career which lasted from July 2001 until October 2003, he ran eighteen times and won four races, he recorded his most important success when winning the Classic St. Leger Stakes as a three-year-old in 2002, he won the Lonsdale Stakes in the following year and was placed in important races including the Dante Stakes, King Edward VII Stakes, Great Voltigeur Stakes, Yorkshire Cup and Hardwicke Stakes. Bollin Eric, a bay horse standing 16.2 hands high with a white blaze and four white socks, was bred by his owner, Sir Neil Westbrook and his wife Lady Westbrook. He was by far the highest-rated horse sired by The Derby winner Shaamit and was out of the mare Bollin Zola who won two races for the Westbrooks in the late 1980s; the Westbrooks bred their horse jointly, with the colts running under the ownership of Sir Neil, while the fillies raced in Lady Westbrook's colours. All their horses carried the "Bollin" prefix taken from the River Bollin near their home in Cheshire.
At stud, Bollin Zola produced at least nine other "Bollin" racehorses, the best of, the Duke of York Stakes winner Bollin Joanne. Bollin Eric was sent into training with Tim Easterby at his Habton Grange Stable in North Yorkshire, he was ridden in twelve of his eighteen races by Kevin Darley. Bollin Eric began his racing career by finishing third in a six furlong maiden race at Doncaster in July and finished second in a seven furlong race at Haydock Park Racecourse a month later. At the end of August, Bollin Eric started favourite for a maiden race and Beverley and recorded his first victory by taking the lead in the straight and drawing clear to win by four lengths. At the Doncaster St Leger meeting in September, Bollin Eric carried a weight of 129 pounds in a Nursery Handicap and won the one mile event by three quarters of a length. Although Bollin Eric had not raced in top class competition he was "highly thought of" by Tim Easterby. On his first start as a three-year-old, Bollin Eric was moved up in class for the Listed Feilden Stakes at Newmarket and finished third of the ten runners.
Despite his defeat he was promoted in class again to contest the Group Two Dante Stakes at York Racecourse, an important trial race for the Epsom Derby. He finished second to the future Dubai World Cup winner Moon Ballad. Bollin Eric bypassed the Derby and made his next appearance in the King Edward VII Stakes in which he finished second to Balakheri, he was dropped back in class and started 8/15 for a Listed race at Haydock Park, but struggled to obtain a clear run and was hampered in the closing stages before finishing third to Jelani. He finished third to Bandari in the Great Voltigeur Stakes in which the first five runners finished within a length and a half of each other. Despite failing to win in his five previous starts, Bollin Eric's consistent performances in high-quality races, saw him being regarded as a serious contender for the St Leger at Doncaster and he started joint third favourite at odds of 7/1. Ridden by Kevin Darley, Bollin Eric was restrained towards the back of the field before being switched to the outside to challenge in the straight.
He took the lead two furlongs from the finish and "kept on well" to win by one and a quarter lengths and two lengths from Highest and Bandari in what the BBC described as a "superb finish". The win provided a first Classic winner for his owner and jockey. Darley recalled that he had requested the ride on Bollin Eric and described the race by saying that "once I switched him out and let him use himself it was all over"; the win was warmly received by the Doncaster crowd who celebrated the first Yorkshire-trained winner of the race since Peleid in 1973. At the end of the season, Bollin Eric was rated the best three-year-old in the world in the Extended distance division by the International Classification Committee. At four, Bollin Eric finished fourth to Warrsan in the John Porter Stakes at Newbury and second when favourite for the Yorkshire Cup, he was beaten a neck in the Hardwicke Stakes at Royal Ascot and finished fourth to Millenary in the Princess of Wales's Stakes at Newmarket. After this race, Bollin Eric was purchased by Saeed Suhail.
In July, Bollin Eric contested Britain's most prestigious all-aged race, the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes at Ascot in which he finished fourth of the twelve runners to Alamshar. After five successive defeats, Bollin Eric was stepped up in distance for the two mile Lonsdale Stakes at York in which he was matched against specialist stayers including Persian Punch and Jardine's Lookout, he recorded his first win for eleven months as he took the lead a furlong from the finish and won by two lengths from Cover Up. After the race a delighted Easterby revealed that he had been "dying to run" the colt over the distance. Darley paid tribute to the horse's consistency and said that he had been in a "different class" from the opposition. In September, Bollin Eric raced outside the United Kingdom for the first time as he was sent to the Curragh for the Irish St Leger, he started favourite at odds of 15/8 and finished fourth to Vinnie Roe, recording his third consecutive win in the race. On his final start, Bollin Eric started a 33/1 outsider for the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe and finished eighth to Dalakhani.
It was the only time in his career. Bollin Eric began his breeding career at the British National Stud and was based at the Wood Farm Stud in Shropshire. In 2012 he was moved to stand at the Colmer Stud in Dorset and was marketed as a National Hunt stallion, he died in January 2020 at the age of 21