Trinity College Kirk
Trinity College Kirk was a royal collegiate church in Edinburgh, Scotland. The kirk and its adjacent almshouse, Trinity Hospital, were founded in 1460 by Mary of Gueldres in memory of her husband, King James II. Queen Mary was interred in the church, until her coffin was moved to Holyrood Abbey in 1848, it was located on the south side of Calton Hill. The church and hospital of Soutra Aisle dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was held as a prebend of the chancellor of St Andrews. In 1459/60 the chancellorship was vacant allowing the dowager queen to supplicate Pope Pius II for the annexation of Soutra to her Trinity College foundation – the sanctioning bull was published on 23 October 1460. Queen Mary issued a charter on 25 March 1462 detailing the constitution for Trinity College in which the provost was to hold Soutra church as a prebend but had to maintain three bedesmen in the Soutra hospital. Early records of the construction of the church are lost, but on 8 April 1531 the Provost Master John Dingwall contracted with a mason Robert Dennis that Dennis would work to complete the building for his lifetime.
Dingwall wished to complete the church conforming to the choir. After his death in 1533, the masons pursued. Only the choir and transepts were finished. A nearby house, demolished in 1642, was called'Dingwall Castle.' After the Scottish Reformation the kirk became the North East Quarter Church of Edinburgh. During the 1590s, the kirk was used by Edinburgh University for graduation ceremonies. From 1813 to 1833, the minister of Trinity College was the Rev. Walter Tait. In 1833 it was reported that he "had given countenance to certain extraordinary interruptions of public worship in his church on the Monday after the communion by a person pretending to speak in the spirit"; that person was said to be'the apostle' Thomas Carlyle. Tait was deposed in that year and went on to become the pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Church in Edinburgh, until his death in 1841; the gothic kirk, its associated hospital, were demolished in 1848 under the careful supervision of the Edinburgh architect David Bryce, despite a formal protest from the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, to allow for the construction of Waverley Station.
David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson managed to take some photographs of the kirk before its demise. It was dismantled and each piece of masonry was numbered with the intention of reconstructing the kirk on another site. Edinburgh Town Council received £16,000 from the North British Railway Company for the purpose of reconstructing the building, or building a substitute, but the funds were never used. However, one transept and the choir were reconstructed in the 1870s, on Chalmers Close, just off the Royal Mile, under the name Trinity Apse housed the Brass Rubbing Centre, under the auspices of the City of Edinburgh Council; the rebuilt Apse, together with carved stone fragments and the boundary wall, is registered as a Category A listed building by Historic Scotland and can now be hired as a venue for small events. Edward Bonkle: 1462 – 1495 x 1496 James Oliphant: 1499 – 1525 John Brady: 1502 – 1525 John Dingwell: 1525 – 1532 x 1533 William Cunningham: 1533 – 1539 Thomas Erskine: 1539 Robert Erskine: 1539 – 1540 George Clapperton: 1540 – 1566 Laurence Clapperty: 1566 – 1571 x 1572 Robert Pont: 1572 – 1586Source: Watt & Murray Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae Note: One of the founding members of the College of Justice, John Dingwell, was Provost of Trinity College.
Cowan, Ian B. & Easson, David E. Medieval Religious Houses Scotland, London. ISBN 0-582-12069-1 Marwick, History of the Church of Holy Trinity and Hospital, Burgh Records Society, Edinburgh. Watt, D. E. R.and Murray, A. L. Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae Medii Aevi Ad Annum 1638', The Scottish Record Society, Edinburgh. ISBN 0-902054-19-8 Photographs of a communion plate, 2 communion cups and 2 communion flagons associated with Trinity College Kirk, Edinburgh.
Restalrig is a small residential suburb of Edinburgh, Scotland. It is located east of the city centre, west of Craigentinny, to the east of Lochend, both of which it overlaps. Restalrig Road is the main route through the area, running from London Road, at Jock's Lodge, to Leith Links, it is in the ward of Lochend. The place name Restalrig means ridge of the miry land, it is first mentioned as Lestalric in 1165. The church was completed in 1210 by Sir Thomas de Lestalric; the area, over the following centuries, is variously named as Restalric or Rastalrig. The Norman noble family the de Lestalrics were the ancient landowners in the area. Sir John de Lestalric died in 1382, leaving his estate to his daughter Katharine and her husband, Sir Robert Logan, who became the laird; the castle of the Logan family stood on the site of Lochend House. The castle was destroyed by fire in the late 16th century; the present house on the site incorporates fragments of the pre-existing tower house. Visually it is now dominated by an 1820 villa built on the foundations of the older buildings.
It is now owned by the City of Edinburgh Council, is a category B listed building. Lochend Loch below it was for many centuries the main water supply for Leith; the park which occupies the site of the now much reduced loch contains a 16th-century doocot at its northern end, sometimes speculated to have served as a kiln for burning infected clothing and belongings during the plague of 1645. It was used as a boat house, is now category B listed. According to Raphael Holinshed, Richard III of England camped at Restalrig in August 1482 after capturing Berwick upon Tweed. James IV of Scotland was a frequent visitor, giving offerings for masses before the altars of Our Lady and Saint Triduana and for keeping Our Lady's Light in September 1496, while his gunners assembled the royal artillery nearby for his mission to England with the pretender Perkin Warbeck. During the Siege of Leith in Spring 1560, the headquarters of the English army was located at Restalrig Deanery near the kirk. In April 1572 at the height of the Marian civil war, Thomas Randolph and Sir William Drury stayed in the Deanery.
Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange decorated the house with the royal tapestry from Edinburgh Castle. The English ambassadors plotted with Archibald Douglas to kidnap George, Lord Seton from the shore of Leith, but the plan did not take effect. Around 1604, the Logans sold Calton and Restalrig, otherwise known as Wester and Easter Restalrig, to Lord Balmerino and the Craigentinny part of the estate to Edinburgh merchant James Nisbet; the most impressive remaining villa in the area is Marionville House west of the village centre. This has had numerous owners including Robert Dudgeon founder of the Royal Insurance Company, his son Patrick Dudgeon FRSE was raised here. By 1857, Restalrig had become what the ordnance gazetteer of Scotland called "a decayed village"; the area was farmland and dairies. Around 1925, public housing was built to the east. Restalrig House whose entrance was at Restalrig Drive/Restalrig Road South was demolished in 1963. St Margaret's Well stood here until 1859 when it was moved to Holyrood Park by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland to avoid destruction by railway workshop construction.
Piershill Square at the head of Smokey Brae was built by the City Architect, Ebenezer James MacRae in 1937. It replaced Piershill Barracks, the former home of the Royal Scots Greys, the cavalry regiment most famous for their charge at Waterloo, the subject of the well-known, much reproduced, head-on view painted by Elizabeth Thompson, "Scotland Forever!". The parish church at Waterloo contains several monuments to various soldiers "of Restalrig". Within Restalrig are two multi-storey flats, Nisbet Court and Hawkhill Court. Both are owned by City of Edinburgh Council. In 1784, the first British manned hot air balloon landed in Restalrig after taking off from nearby Abbeyhill. There has been a church at Restalrig as far back as 1178 and its parish incorporated South Leith. In 1296, Adam of St. Edmunds, the pastor of'Restalric', swore fealty to English king Edward I, it is not known whether the church was built because of St. Triduana, but the church, a rectangular building, housed her relics, her cult prospered under the patronage of James III of Scotland.
He built a hexagonal chapel royal there, adjacent to the kirk, endowed it a chaplaincy in 1477. It became known as the King's Chapel. Payment for the roof was made in 1486-7. At the same time, he made the kirk a collegiate establishment called the Deanery of Restalrig, initiated a programme of extension. Built on two levels, the surviving lower level of the hexagon was an undercroft for the chapel above. Sometimes referred to as a "well-house", this is a misnomer, the flooding being accidental; the lower aisle was used as a burial chamber for the Logan family. James IV added James V a choir of boys; the kirk was ordered to be removed in December 1560 at the time of the Scottish Reformation. Some parts of choir walls survived, until re-building of the church by William Burn in 1836; the church is a category A listed building. St. Triduana's Aisle is further protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Ss Ninian and Triduana’s Church, Edinburgh is a Roman Catholic church in Restalrig dedicated to St. Triduana.
The church on Marionville Road was designed in 1929 by Giles Gilbert Scott. Robert Hodshon Cay and hi
The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the Middle Ages until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had purchasing power throughout the period; the gold ducat of Venice gained wide international acceptance, like the medieval Byzantine hyperpyron and the Florentine florin, or the modern British Pound sterling and the United States dollar. The word ducat is from Medieval Latin ducalis = "relating to a duke", meant "duke's coin" or a "duchy's coin"; the first issue of scyphate billon coins modelled on Byzantine trachea was made by King Roger II of Sicily as part of the Assizes of Ariano. It was to be a valid issue for the whole kingdom; the first issue bears the figure of Christ and the Latin inscription Sit tibi, datus, quem tu regis iste ducatus on the obverse. On the reverse, Roger II is depicted in the style of a Byzantine emperor and his eldest son, Duke Roger III of Apulia, is depicted in battle dress; the coin took its common name from the Duchy of Apulia, which the younger Roger had been given by his father.
Doge Enrico Dandolo of Venice introduced a silver ducat, related to the ducats of Roger II. Gold ducats of Venice, became so important that the name ducat was associated with them and the silver coins came to be called grossi. In the 13th century, the Venetians imported goods from the East and sold them at a profit north of the Alps, they paid for these goods with Byzantine gold coins but when the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos backed a rebellion called the Sicilian Vespers in 1282, he debased the hyperpyron. This was just one more in a series of debasements of the hyperpyron and the Great Council of Venice responded with its own coin of pure gold in 1284. Florence and Genoa had introduced gold coins in 1252 and the florin of Florence had become the standard European gold coin. Venice modeled the size and weight of their ducat on the florin, with a slight increase in weight due to differences in the two cities′ weight systems; the Venetian ducat contained 3.545 grams of 99.47% fine gold, the highest purity medieval metallurgy could produce.
Gold ducat types derive from silver ducat types, which were Byzantine. The obverse shows the Doge of Venice kneeling before the patron saint of Venice. Saint Mark holds the gospel, his usual attribute, presents a gonfalone to the doge; the legend on the left identifies the saint as S M VENET, i.e. Saint Mark of Venice, the legend on the right identifies the doge, with his title DVX in the field. On the reverse, Christ stands among a field of stars in an oval frame; the reverse legend is the same as on Roger II’s ducats. Succeeding doges of Venice continued striking ducats, changing only their name on the obverse. During the 15th century, the value of the ducat in terms of silver money was stable at 124 Venetian soldi, i.e. schillings. The term ducat became identified with this amount of silver money as well as the gold coin. Conflict between England and Spain in 1567, increased the price of gold and upset this equivalence. At this point, the coin was called the ducato de zecca, i.e. ducat of the mint, shortened to zecchino and corrupted to sequin.
Leonardo Loredan extended the coinage with a half ducat and subsequent doges added a quarter, various multiples up to 105 ducats. All of these coins continued to use the designs and weight standards of the original 1284 ducat. After dates became a common feature of western coinage, Venice struck ducats without them until Napoleon ended the Venetian Republic in 1797; when the Roman Senate introduced gold coinage either the florin or the ducat could have provided an advantageous model to imitate, but the Florentines who controlled the Senate’s finances ensured that their city’s coin was not copied. Instead, the Roman coin showed a senator kneeling before St. Peter on the obverse and Christ amid stars in oval frame on the reverse in direct imitation of the Venetian ducat; the Popes subsequently changed these designs, but continued to strike ducats of the same weight and size into the 16th century. Most imitations of the Venetian ducat were made in the Levant, where Venice spent more money than it received.
The Knights of Saint John struck ducats with grand master Dieudonné de Gozon, 1346-1353, kneeling before Saint John on the obverse and an angel seated on the Sepulcher of Christ on the reverse. Subsequent grand masters, found it expedient to copy the Venetian types more first at Rhodes and on Malta. Genoese traders went farther, they struck ducats at Chios that could be distinguished from the Venetian originals only by their workmanship. These debased ducats were problematic for Venice; the rarity of ducats that Genoese traders struck at Mytilene and Pera suggests that Venetians melted those they encountered. In Western Europe, Venice was an active trader but they sold more than they bought so their coins were less used than the florin. After Henckels assassinated Amadeus Aba in 1311, Charles I of Hungary began a gold coinage exploiting ores of Aba's ancient gold mines, his son, Louis I of Hungary changed the designs by replacing the standing figure of Saint John from the florin with a standing figure of Saint Ladislaus and changing the lily of Florence to his coat of arms, but he maintained the purity of the gold.
In the 15th century, a distinction was made between pure gold florins and debased imitations of the florin by calling the pure coins ducats and the debased coins gulden or goldgulden. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V recognized this distinction in 1524 when he made ducats of the Ve
First Minister of Scotland
The First Minister of Scotland is the leader of the Scottish Government. The First Minister chairs the Scottish Cabinet and is responsible for the formulation and presentation of Scottish Government policy. Additional functions of the First Minister include promoting and representing Scotland in an official capacity, at home and abroad, responsibility for constitutional affairs, as they relate to devolution and the Scottish Government; the First Minister is a Member of the Scottish Parliament and nominated by the Scottish Parliament before being appointed by the monarch. Members of the Cabinet and junior ministers of the Scottish Government as well as the Scottish law officers, are appointed by the First Minister; as head of the Scottish Government, the First Minister is directly accountable to the Scottish Parliament for their actions and the actions of the wider government. Nicola Sturgeon of the Scottish National Party is the current First Minister of Scotland. Following a referendum in 1997, in which the Scottish electorate gave their consent, a Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government were reconvened by the Labour government of Tony Blair, having been suspended following the Acts of Union in 1707.
The process was known as devolution and was initiated to give Scotland some measure of home rule or self-governance in its domestic affairs, such as health and justice. Devolution resulted in administrative and legislative changes to the way Scotland was governed, resulted in the establishment of a post of First Minister to be head of the devolved Scottish Government; the term "First Minister" is analogous to the use of Premier to denote the heads of government in sub-national entities of Commonwealth nations, such as the provinces and territories of Canada, provinces of South Africa, states of Malaysia and the states of Australia. Prior to devolution the comparable functions of the First Minister were exercised by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who headed the Scottish Office, a department of the wider United Kingdom Government and existed from 1885 to 1999; the Secretary of State was a member of the British Cabinet and appointed by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to have responsibility for the domestic affairs of Scotland.
Since 1999, the Secretary of State has a much reduced role as a result of the transfer of responsibilities to the Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government. The First Minister is nominated by the Scottish Parliament from among its members at the beginning of each term, by means of an exhaustive ballot, they are formally appointed by the monarch. In theory, any member of the Scottish Parliament can be nominated for First Minister. However, the government must maintain the confidence of the Scottish Parliament to in order to gain supply. For this reason, the First Minister is always the leader of the largest party, or the leader of the senior partner in any majority coalition. There is no term of office for a First Minister. In practice, they hold office as long. Whenever the office of First Minister falls vacant, the Sovereign is responsible for appointing the new incumbent. Given the additional member system used to elect its members, it is difficult for a single party to gain an overall majority of seats in the Scottish Parliament.
The SNP gained an overall majority of seats in the 2011 election, thus had enough numbers to vote in its leader, Alex Salmond, as First Minister for a second term. After the election of the Scottish Parliament, a First Minister must be nominated within a period of 28 days. Under the terms of the Scotland Act, if the Parliament fails to nominate a First Minister, within this time frame, it will be dissolved and a fresh election held. If an incumbent First Minister is defeated in a general election, they do not vacate office; the First Minister only leaves office. After accepting office, the First Minister takes the Official Oath, as set out in the Promissory Oaths Act 1868; the oath is tendered by the Lord President of the Court of Session at a sitting of the Court in Parliament House in Edinburgh. The oath is: I, do swear that I will well and serve Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth in the office of First Minister, So help me God; the period in office of a First Minister is not linked to the term of Members of the Scottish Parliament.
The Scotland Act set out a four-year maximum term for each session of Parliament. The Act specifies than an election to the Scottish Parliament will be held on the first Thursday in May, every four years, starting from 1999. Parliament can be dissolved and an extraordinary general election held, before the expiration of the four-year term, but only if two-thirds of elected MSPs vote for such action in a resolution of the Scottish Parliament. If a simple majority of MSPs voted a no-confidence motion in the First Minister/Government, that would trigger a 28-day period for the nomination of a replacement; the First Minister, once appointed continues in office as the head of the devolved Scottish Government until either they resign, is dismissed or dies in office. Resignation can be triggered off by the passage of
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The current monarch and head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who ascended the throne in 1952; the monarch and their immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister; the monarch is commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces. Though the ultimate executive authority over the government is still formally by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in Parliament and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent; the British monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England, which consolidated into the kingdoms of England and Scotland by the 10th century.
England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, after which Wales too came under control of Anglo-Normans. The process was completed in the 13th century when the Principality of Wales became a client state of the English kingdom. Meanwhile, Magna Carta began a process of reducing the English monarch's political powers. From 1603, the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, which followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married them, from succession to the English throne. In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, in 1801, the Kingdom of Ireland joined to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the British monarch was the nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the world's surface at its greatest extent in 1921. In the early 1920s the Balfour Declaration recognised the evolution of the Dominions of the Empire into separate, self-governing countries within a Commonwealth of Nations.
After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent bringing the Empire to an end. George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states; the United Kingdom and fifteen other independent sovereign states that share the same person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. Although the monarch is shared, each country is sovereign and independent of the others, the monarch has a different and official national title and style for each realm. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the monarch is the head of state; the Queen's image is used to signify British sovereignty and government authority—her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, her portrait in government buildings. The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, salutes. "God Save the Queen" is the British national anthem. Oaths of allegiance are made to her lawful successors.
The monarch takes little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers are delegated from the monarch, either by statute or by convention, to ministers or officers of the Crown, or other public bodies, exclusive of the monarch personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by the monarch, such as the Queen's Speech and the State Opening of Parliament, depend upon decisions made elsewhere: Legislative power is exercised by the Queen-in-Parliament, by and with the advice and consent of Parliament, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, which comprises ministers the prime minister and the Cabinet, technically a committee of the Privy Council, they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services. Judicial power is vested in the various judiciaries of the United Kingdom, who by constitution and statute have judicial independence of the Government.
The Church of England, of which the monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise; the sovereign's role as a constitutional monarch is limited to non-partisan functions, such as granting honours. This role has been recognised since the 19th century; the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government. Whenever necessary, the monarch is responsible for appointing a new prime minister. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the sovereign must appoint an individual who commands the support of the House of Commons the leader of the party or coalition that has a majority in that House; the prime minister takes office by attending the monarch in private audience, after "kissing hands" that appointment is effective without any other f
Adam Otterburn of Auldhame and Reidhall was a Scottish lawyer and diplomat. He was king's advocate to secretary to Mary of Guise and Regent Arran. Adam Otterburn was an important servant of the Scottish monarchy in diplomacy, he drew up charges of treason against the Douglases and their associates on 13 July 1529. Adam was one of the Scottish commissioners who met English diplomats at Berwick-upon-Tweed on 8 November 1529; this meeting discussed the possible restoration of the Earl of Angus, which Henry VIII might use as leverage to decide James's choice of bride. A five-year truce was concluded and the Douglases were to go into English exile. In May 1532 he was of the first 15 Senators of Justice. While in England he was knighted by James V as Sir Adam Otterburn of Redhall on 16 February 1534. Redhall, his other estate, is within Edinburgh near Longstone. Adam signed a border peace treaty in London on 11 May 1534. After the English reformation, in 1536, Henry VIII requested a meeting with James V, Otterburn was sent to London to discuss Henry's motives.
He was in London during the conviction of Ann Boleyn. In April 1537 Otterburn and other courtiers joked with the English messenger Henry Ray about English Friars now refugees in Scotland. In June 1538 he wrote a French speech welcoming Mary of Guise to Edinburgh. In August 1538 he was imprisoned in Dumbarton Castle and next year deprived of office and fined £1000 for communicating with the forfeited Earl of Angus. After the death of James V, Otterburn received a gift of crossbows and armour. Adam was Provost of Edinburgh in 1543 but deposed after Lord Hertford's invasion in 1544 during the war of the Rough Wooing. Ralph Sadler reported that Otterburn belonged to Cardinal Beaton's pro-French faction, although Adam insisted on the contrary, attributing his troubles during the reign of James V to his pro-English stance; the Governor, Regent Arran, ordered his arrest on 28 April 1544 but Robert Reid, Bishop of Orkney intereceded for him. Years in 1561, Sadler reminded the English Privy Council of Adam's words to him on the marriage proposed between Mary and Edward.
And though the governor and some of the nobility have consented to it, yet I know that few or none of them do like of it. I pray you give me leave to ask you a question: if your lad was a lass, our lass were a lad, would you be so earnest in this matter?... And lykewise I assure you that our nation will never agree to have an Englishman king of Scotland, and though the whole nobility of the realm would consent, yet our common people, the stones in the street would rise and rebel against it. When the English army intent on the destruction of Edinburgh landed at Granton and took Leith, as Provost of Edinburgh, Adam was sent out with two Heralds to parley with Hertford on the morning of 5 May 1544. Hertford had been instructed not to negotiate, so Adam replied in defiance and refused to yield up the town. Hertford had not yet landed his guns so offered to wait till 7:00pm. During an interlude in the war with England, Adam was concerned to recover money owing to him, his holding of lands at Auldhame, like those of his neighbours Oliver Sinclair, the favourite of James V, John, 5th Lord Borthwick, required duties to be paid to Cardinal Beaton.
Adam wrote to the Cardinal hoping for money owed to him by Sinclair, he noted that Borthwick and other landowners south of the River Forth sold their wool in England. Adam was now distrusted by Regent Arran and imprisoned with a threat of further lawsuits. Friends like Elizabeth Gordon, wife of John Stewart, 4th Earl of Atholl wrote to Mary of Guise on his behalf, they were allied. In October 1546, Adam set out with David Panter and a servant of d'Oysel, the French ambassador in Scotland to meet with Henry VIII at Oatlands, they brought the Scottish ratification of the Treaty of Camp. Before they left Adam complained. While they were waiting to see Henry the other diplomats were delighted to see them arguing. In March 1547, three of his servants were allowed to return to Scotland. Otterburn was still negotiating for peace in London before the Battle of Pinkie. On Sunday 7 August 1547 he met Edward VI of England. There he was dismissed as a diplomat by the council, he was given £75 as a gift for his departure.
Otterburn saw, "afoir my eis verray gret preparatioun of weir, actualie the gret hors, the harnes, the hagbutaris, all gorgious reparrale set forwart towart our realme." On Monday he had further discussions with the Protector Somerset. He urged Regent Arran to note his warnings of the English invasion, begged him to allow George Douglas of Pittendreich to negotiate with Somerest, writing. Arran had set up a system of coastal watchers and warning beacons. However, his army was defeated by an English invasion at the battle of Pinkie in September 1547. Earlier in his career, in May 1525 the English ambassador Dr Thomas Magnus recommended him to Cardinal Wolsey for an annual pension of £20. In his letters in 1546 and 1547 Otterburn mentions that he was'aged and sickly', but Otterburn died after an assault in Edinburgh by a servant of Regent Arran on 3 July 1548,'sore hurt on the head and his servant slain at his heels.' Patrick Mure, laird of Annestoun near Lanark, his son were charged with treason for his murder, their last recorded summons for
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi