The College of William & Mary is a public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, after Harvard University. William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, John Tyler as well as other key figures pivotal to the development of the nation, including the first President of the Continental Congress Peyton Randolph of Virginia, the first United States Attorney General Edmund Randolph of Virginia, the fourth U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington received his surveyor's license at the college, he would become the college's first American chancellor in 1788.
William & Mary is notable for its many firsts in American higher education. The F. H. C. Society, founded in 1750, was the first collegiate fraternity in the United States, W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776, the first Greek-letter fraternity. W&M was the first school of higher education in the United States to install an honor code of conduct for students, dating back to 1736; the establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the earliest higher level universities in the United States. In addition to its undergraduate program, W&M is home to several graduate programs and four professional schools; the Marshall–Wythe School of Law is the oldest law school in the United States. In his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities, Richard Moll included William & Mary as one of the original eight "Public Ivies". A school of higher education for both Native American young men and the sons of the colonists was one of the earliest goals of the leaders of the Colony of Virginia.
The college was founded on February 8, 1693, under a royal charter to "make and establish a certain Place of Universal Study, a perpetual College of Divinity, Philosophy and other good arts and sciences...to be supported and maintained, in all time coming." Named in honor of the reigning monarchs King William III and Queen Mary II, the college is the second oldest college in the United States. The original plans for the college date back to 1618 but were thwarted by the Indian Massacre of 1622, a change in government, events related to the English Civil War, Bacon's Rebellion. In 1695, before the town of Williamsburg existed, construction began on the College Building, now known as the Sir Christopher Wren Building, in what was called Middle Plantation, it is the oldest college building in America. The college is one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution; the Charter named James Blair as the college's first president. William & Mary was founded as an Anglican institution.
In 1693, the college was given a seat in the House of Burgesses and it was determined the college would be supported by tobacco taxes and export duties on furs and animal skins. The college acquired a 330 acres parcel 8 miles from Jamestown. In 1694, the new school opened in temporary buildings. Williamsburg was granted a royal charter as a city in 1722 by The Crown and served as the capital of Colonial Virginia from 1699 to 1780. During this time, the college served as a law center and lawmakers used its buildings, it educated future U. S. Presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, John Tyler; the college has been called "the Alma Mater of a Nation" because of its close ties to America's founding fathers. A 17-year-old George Washington received his surveyor's license through the college and would return as its first American chancellor. William & Mary is famous for its firsts: the first U. S. institution with a royal charter, the first Greek-letter society, the first collegiate society in the country, the first student honor code and the first law school in America.
During the period of the American Revolution, freedom of religion was established in Virginia notably with the 1786 passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. Future U. S. President James Madison was a key figure in the transition to religious freedom in Virginia, Right Reverend James Madison, his cousin and Thomas Jefferson, on the Board of Visitors, helped the College of William & Mary to make the transition as well. In 1779 the college became the first American university with the establishment of the graduate schools in law and medicine; as its president, Reverend Madison worked with the new leaders of Virginia, most notably Jefferson, on a reorganization and changes for the college which included the abolition of the Divinity School and the Indian School and the establishment of the first elective system of study and honor system. The College of William and Mary is home to the nation's first collegiate secret society, the F. H. C. Society, popularly known as the Flat Hat Club, founded November 11, 1750.
On December 5, 1776, students
Syuri Kondo is a Japanese professional wrestler, shoot boxer and mixed martial artist, better known as Syuri. Trained by Tajiri, she started her professional wrestling career in the Hustle promotion, where she worked under the ring name KG, she also worked for Hustle's two follow-up promotions. After WNC folded in June 2014, she remained affiliated with its sister promotion Reina Joshi Puroresu until March 2016, becoming a one-time Reina World Women's Champion and a one-time Reina World Tag Team Champion. Through Reina's relationship with Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre, Syuri has worked in Mexico, where she is a former CMLL World Women's Champion and CMLL-Reina International Champion. Coming from a karate background, Kondo made her shoot boxing debut in 2009 and afterwards affiliated herself with the Krush promotion as a kickboxer. Over the next six years she amassed a record of 13 wins and one loss, while becoming the inaugural Krush Women's Champion in March 2014. In April 2016, Kondo transitioned to mixed martial arts by joining Pancrase.
Holding an undefeated record with six wins, she is the current Strawweight Queen of Pancrase, becoming the inaugural champion in May 2017. In September 2017, she made her Ultimate Fighting Championship debut. Kondo was born to a Filipino mother in Ebina, Kanagawa, she started practising karate in primary school, winning numerous titles, excelled in track and field sports in junior high school and tennis in high school. After graduation, she worked as a model for fashion magazines and as a movie extra, before passing an audition held by professional wrestling promotion Hustle. On October 26, 2008, Kondo made her professional wrestling debut for Hustle in a match, where she, working under the ring name KG, teamed with HG and RG to defeat Big C, Onigumo and Piranha Monster. KG joined Tajiri's Hustle Union Army stable, forming a tag team with stablemate Banzai Chie, started an intergender rivalry with Rey Ohara. Kondo remained with the promotion until it ceased its operations in late 2009. In December 2009, former Hustle performers Akira Shoji and Tajiri held a press conference announcing the formation of a new promotion, Smash.
In addition to the two, former storyline rivals Kondo and Hajime Ohara were present at the press conference and were named as part of the new promotion's roster. While in Hustle Kondo had wrestled exclusively against male wrestlers as a novelty due to the lack of other female wrestlers in the promotion, in Smash she was poised to become a more serious joshi wrestler. Kondo, now working under the ring name Syuri, made her Smash debut on March 26, 2010, at the promotion's first event, losing to Meiko Satomura. On April 23 at Smash.2, she teamed with Hajime Ohara in another loss to the team of Lin Byron and Kushida, dropping the pinfall to Byron. On May 29 at Smash.3, Syuri suffered her third straight loss in the promotion, when she, Akira Shoji and Yusuke Kodama were defeated by Kim Nan Pun, Lin Byron and Mentallo in a six-person tag team match. After the match, Syuri had a heated confrontation, leading to a backstage brawl, with Kana, sitting in the audience, having earlier announced her arrival to Smash.
This led to the main event of Smash.4 on June 25, where Syuri defeated Kana in a fourteen-minute-long match, ending her losing streak and picking up the biggest win of her career. However, Kana came back at Smash.5 on July 24, defeating Syuri via submission in a rematch in just three minutes. For the next several events, Syuri wrestled against female workers from other independent promotions, who were looking for regular spots on the Smash roster. On September 24 at Smash.8, Syuri was defeated in a hardcore match by freelancer Kaoru, after which Kana entered the ring, pushed Kaoru away and helped Syuri backstage. On November 22 at Smash.10, Syuri and Kana teamed together to defeat Ice Ribbon's Emi Sakura and JWP's Kaori Yoneyama in a tag team match. As a result, Syuri was granted a shot at Yoneyama's JWP Openweight Championship on December 24 in the main event of Happening Eve, but was unsuccessful in her attempt to win her first title. On January 29, 2011, at Smash.12, Syuri faced the debuting former WWE wrestler Serena in a losing effort.
Syuri's streak of big matches and her growing popularity among fans led to fellow Smash Seikigun member Lin Byron growing jealous of her, turning heel and leaving the group to start a rivalry with her. This was followed by Byron picking up back-to-back tag team victories over Syuri at Smash.13 and Live in Osaka, leading to a singles match on February 25 at Smash.14, where Syuri was victorious. At Smash.15, Syuri teamed with Tajiri and Sabu to defeat Byron, Gabriel Antonick and Michael Kovac in a six-person intergender hardcore match. On March 21, 2011, Syuri made her debut for Ice Ribbon in a losing effort against Hikaru Shida; the match led to a partnership between the two and, after defeating Chii Tomiya and Makoto on April 16, Syuri and Shida went on to unsuccessfully challenge Emi Sakura and Ray for the International Ribbon Tag Team Championship on May 5. The partnership carried over to Smash, where Syuri and Shida defeated Io and Mio Shirai in a tag team match on May 3 at Smash.17. On May 14, along with Tajiri and Hajime Ohara, traveled to Mexico to represent Smash at Toryumon Mexico's DragonMania VI event.
Syuri teamed with Lluvia and Marcela to defeat La Comandante, Dalys la Caribeña and Mima Shimoda in a six-woman tag team match, submitting Dalys for the win. Upon returning to Japan, Syuri avenged her Ice Ri
The 2nd Parachute Chasseur Regiment or 2e RCP, is one of the most decorated French units of the Second World War, the only land unit awarded the red fourragère in that war, including six citations at the orders of the armed forces. The French Navy 1500-ton class submarine Casabianca accumulated six citations at the orders of the armed forces and therefore its crewmen were entitled to wear the same fourragère; the unit was referred to in the British Armed Forces as the 4th SAS. July 1, 1943: creation of the 1st Air Infantry Battalion. November 1, 1943: renamed 4th Air Infantry Battalion. April 1, 1944: redesignated 4th SAS Regiment or 2nd Parachute Chasseur Regiment 2e RCP in the French army. September 30, 1946: dissolution of the regiment; the 1st Air Infantry Battalion was formed July 1, 1943 in the Old Dean camp at Camberley from volunteers and from the 1st Air Infantry Company and 2nd Air Infantry Company formed September 15, 1940. The unit notably deployed in Crete and Libya, winning a citation.
The battalion joined the Free French Air Forces, entrusted to Commandant Pierre Fourcaud. At the time the battalion had 398 men, in four combat companies; these men received parachute training at the Central Landing Establishment of RAF Ringway. The unit was renamed the 4th Air Infantry Battalion on November 1, 1943 and in February 1943 transferred to the command of Commandant Pierre-Louis Bourgoin, an amputee who had lost his arm during a reconnaissance mission in Tunisia; the 4e B. I. A was joined with the 3rd Parachute Chasseur Regiment of Commandant Pierre Chateau-Jobert to form a demi-brigade commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Durand. Many French volunteers followed a parachute training at the Air Instruction Center of the 1st Independent Polish Parachute Brigade at Upper Largo, in Scotland. In April 1944, the B. I. A, who had in December 1943 joined their British and Belgian namesakes at the SAS Brigade of the Army Air Corps, were given their name and regimental designation: the 3e and 4e B. I.
A became the 3rd and 4th SAS regiments under the British and a little the 2nd and 3rd Parachute Chasseur Regiment under the French. During the night of June 5 to 6, 1944, four SAS under the orders of Lieutenants Marienne, Henri Deplante and Deschamps took off in two four-engined Short Stirlings of the Royal Air Force with the destination of Brittany; the first two teams parachuted into the sector of Plumelec, 15 km from the Maquis de Saint-Marcel, the two other teams into the wooded forest of Duault in the Côtes-d'Armor. Their missions were to establish guerilla bases code named Operation Dingson and Operation Samwest. Lieutenant Marienne's team was spotted. A large Georgian contingent encircled the team and during the skirmish which followed, corporal Emile Bouétard was wounded and killed. Bouétard was the first military casualty of "Operation Overlord". During June and July, SAS paratroopers lived like hunters in the forest, they mounted brutal attacks and fell back, going to ground camouflaged and blending into the forest the better to intervene at a more favorable opportunity.
On the morning of June 18, the camp of the SAS and the resistance was attacked. Following a day-long engagement, the French succeeded in retreating from Sérent and Saint-Marcel, blowing up their ammunition depot. At dawn on July 12, enemy troops and militias managed to infiltrate to the command post of Lieutenant Marienne at Kerihuel, Plumelec where 18 men were posted, including paratroopers and farmers, who were machine-gunned and mutilated; the arrival on August 3 of the armoured brigades of General George S. Patton reached Rennes, brought this to a halt; the 4th SAS regiment, lost 195 men of 50 officers and 500 men. SAS battles have unconventional outcomes. At Montceau-les-Mines, a group of paratroopers and a first section of the Free French Forces, tricked a much larger opposing force number into believing themselves surrounded by the manpower of a division. Accordingly, they managed to take back hundreds of prisoners and cannons. At the end of the campaign, the 3rd Parachute Chasseur Regiment had lost 80 of 400 soldiers.
In their time of existence, the regiment put thousands of opposing forces out of combat, along with some 383 vehicles. On Christmas Day 1944, the paratroopers of the SAS fought in the Belgian Ardennes, in Operation Von Rundstedt. On November 11, 1944, the men of the 2nd Parachute Chasseur regiment received from the hands of Général Charles de Gaulle the Croix de la Libération. In WW2, French SAS parachutists trained in the United Kingdom wore the black beret, the 1er RCP, trained in North Africa, kept the blue Air Army calot. All British parachutists wore an amaranth, or red, beret at the initiative of their leader, General Boy Browning. Beginning in August 1944, French parachutists of the 2e RCP/SAS wore the amaranth beret rather than the black; the 2e RCP marched in Paris on 11 November with this headgear bearing the cap badge of the SAS. During this time, the SAS parachutists of the 3e RCP and the shock troops kept the black beret. In 1945, only the 2e RCP retained the right to wear the amaranth beret, extended to the SAS demi-brigade SAS in 1946-1947.
On April 7, 1945, the two Parachute Chasseur regiments parachuted into the Netherlands in. On August 1, 1945, the 3rd and 4th SAS regiments, became the French 2nd and 3rd Parachute Chasseur Regiments in a transfer to the French Army, they merged to form a single 2nd Parachute Chasseur regiment (2