Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth-most populous city in Germany. With over a million inhabitants within its city boundaries, Cologne is the largest city on the Rhine and the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centered on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.

Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. Cologne functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages the city flourished as being located on one of the most important major trade routes between east and western Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II, the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British.

Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city. The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007.

From 260 to 271, Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus. In 310, under emperor Constantine I, a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève.

Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period. In the 843 Treaty of Verdun Cologne fell into the dominion of Lothair I's Middle Francia—later called Lotharingia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803.

Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City. Archbishop Sigfried II

Pietro Gagliardi

Pietro Gagliardi was an Italian painter and architect, who decorated many churches and palaces in Rome and throughout Italy. Gagliardi was born in Rome on 9 August 1809 to Angela Zucchi, he studied architecture under Professor Francesco Lanci, but after the death of his brother Giovanni, a painter, he directed his attentions to painting. He studied including under such masters as Tommaso Minardi, he partook in school competitions, winning second place in 1827 and the medal of encouragement in 1828. He worked in Rome, his studio was located in Palazzo Giustiniani in Piazza San Luigi dei Francesi, his first major commission dates to 1834, when he decorated the chapel of San Sebastiano in Villa Aldobrandini in Frascati for Prince Francesco Borghese Aldobrandini. By the 1840s, he had established himself as a preeminent painter of sacred art and was active in and around Rome in Tarquinia, where he worked with his nephews Francesco and Giovanni. In 1847, he worked on the completion of the fresco decorations in the Church of San Girolamo dei Croati in Rome.

He continued his painting depicting mythological and historical themes, in other elegant residences, such as Villa Torlonia in Castel Gondolfo. Between 1854 and 1868, he worked on the frescoed decoration of the Church of Sant'Agostino, together with his nephew Giovanni. In 1857, he became a member of the Pontifical Academy of Fine Arts and Letters of the Virtuosi al Pantheon, served as president and regent several times beginning in 1888, he was a professor at the Accademia di San Luca, in 1870 he was a member of the commission for painting at the Roman Exhibition of Catholic Art. Gagliardi died in Frascati on 19 September 1890 and was buried alongside his family and wife, Vittoria Roscioli, in the Chapel of San Giuseppe in the Church of Sant'Agostino in Rome, which he restored and painted. Carta, M.. "L'attività artistica di P. G. nella chiesa di S. Girolamo". In Perić, Ratko. Chiesa Sistina. Rome. OCLC 888599344. Servanzi Collio, Severino. Pitture a fresco del Cavaliere Pietro Gagliardi romano nella chiesa di S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni.

Rome: Tip. Delle Belle Arti. OCLC 41524791. Ovidi, Ernesto. Minardi e la sua scuola. Rome: Tipografia Pietro Rebecca. OCLC 964260220. Retrieved 24 January 2019. Visconti, Carlo Ludovico. Cenni biografici del prof. cav. Pietro Gagliardi nell'adunanza della insigne Congregazione artistica dei Virtuosi al Pantheon. Rome: Setth. OCLC 886617726. Pietro Gagliardi entry by Emanuela Bianchi in the Enciclopedia italiana

Microsoft Movies & TV

Microsoft Movies & TV, or Microsoft Films & TV Xbox Video and Zune Video, is a digital video service developed by Microsoft that offers full HD movies and TV shows available for rental or purchase in the Video Store as well as you can watch and manage on the app your own videos from personal digital collection. The service is available on Xbox 360, Xbox One, Windows 8 and and Windows Phone 8 and later. Movies & TV is accessible on the web. Zune Video Marketplace was released in 2006, was replaced by Xbox Video on October 14, 2012. Renamed Movies & TV in 2015, the service is Microsoft's answer to and competes more directly with similar online video stores including PlayStation Video, iTunes Store, Google Play Movies & TV, Amazon Video. Xbox Live Marketplace's original video store was replaced by Zune Marketplace on September 15, 2009. At E3 2009, Microsoft announced their 1080p streaming video service, which allows users to stream video over an internet connection; this technology is a key part of Xbox Video for their video streaming service.

With the announcement of Xbox Music services which would replace the Zune Marketplace music service, speculation arose about "Xbox Video", a potential service that would offer movies and television series, because the term "music" in the name of the service gave the impression that Xbox Music will offer music, thus excluding films and television series. With the launch of Windows 10, Xbox Video appears under the name of Film & TV in the apps, with the shopping for the content merged into the Windows Store as a whole as part of Microsoft's universal apps initiative; however the name and branding of Xbox Video remains active on all the previous platforms and the official website. On September 17, 2015 with a system update for the Xbox 360, the name of the app changed to reflect the new branding; the Xbox One app had changed in a previous update. After being linked with Movies Anywhere in the past, Microsoft Movies & TV announced that they would be rejoining the service on August 6, 2018; the app in Windows 10 supports a number of formats, Official website Microsoft Movies & TV store