Though the American component was slightly more organic in form and less formal than the International Style, it is more firmly related to it than any other. Brazilian and Scandinavian architects were influential at this time, with a style characterized by clean simplicity. Like many of Wrights designs, Mid-Century architecture was frequently employed in structures with the goal of bringing modernism into Americas post-war suburbs. This style emphasized creating structures with ample windows and open floor plans, with the intention of opening up interior spaces, many Mid-century houses utilized then-groundbreaking post and beam architectural design that eliminated bulky support walls in favor of walls seemingly made of glass. Function was as important as form in Mid-Century designs, with an emphasis placed specifically on targeting the needs of the average American family. George Fred Keck, his brother Willam Keck, Henry P. Glass, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, the city of Palm Springs, California is noted for its many examples of Mid-century modern architecture.
Robinson House and Mrs. Walter H. Annenberg House William Krisel - Ocotillo Lodge, john Black Lee, Specialized in residential houses. M. Home developer, Alexander Homes, popularized this post-and-beam architectural style in the Coachella Valley, Alexander houses and similar homes feature low-pitched roofs, wide eaves, open-beamed ceilings, and floor-to-ceiling windows. E. Restoration projects have undertaken to return many of these residences and businesses to their original condition. Scandinavian design was influential at this time, with a style characterized by simplicity, democratic design. Glassware, tableware and furniture were some of the genres for the products created, on the West Coast of America the industrial designer and potter Edith Heath founded Heath Ceramics in 1948. The company was one of the originally numerous California pottery manufacturers that had their heyday in post-war USA, Edith Heaths Coupe line remains in demand and has been in constant production since 1948, with only periodic changes to the texture and color of the glazes.
Printed ephemera documenting the mid-century transformations in urban development and they consisted primarily of national view-cards of North American cities, buildings and civil and military infrastructures. Mid-century Linen Type postcards came about through innovations pioneered through the use of offset lithography, the cards were produced on paper with a high rag content, which gave the postcard a fabric type look and feel. At the time this was an expensive process. Along with advances in printing technique, Linen Type cards allowed for very vibrant ink colors, curt Teich in Chicago was the most prominent and largest printer and publisher of Linen Type postcards pioneering lithography with his Art Colortone process. The printing of mid-century Linen Type postcards began to give way in the late 1950s to Kodachrome and Ektachrome type glossy color prints, butterfly roof Case Study Houses Danish modern Dingbat Miami Modern Architecture Modern architecture Modernism Populuxe Greensberg, Cara.
Mid-Century Modern, Furniture of the 1950s, lAs Early Moderns, Architecture, Photography
World Trade Center Mexico City
The World Trade Center Mexico City, still commonly called by its former name, Hotel de México, is a building complex located in south-central Mexico City, Mexico. Its most famous and recognizable feature is the 52-story,207 m high Torre WTC, when talking about the World Trade Center México, one usually is referring to the uniquely shaped tower. It will include a 22-floor hotel, which is currently under construction, located on Avenida de los Insurgentes, the complex is served by the Polyforum station of the Metrobús Bus rapid transit system, located a few meters away. The station is named after the Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros, a part of the WTC complex, the WTC México began its existence as the Hotel de México, a building and complex that never really performed their intended functions. Construction of the Hotel de México took place in a lot called Parque de La Lama located in Mexico City Napoles neighborhood, the lot was set aside by real estate businessperson José Jerónimo de La Lama in 1947.
However, by 1966, when the project was started, the owner, plans for the complex were presented at the 13th international architecture contest in Munich. In the mid 1980s, a project was started to turn the Hotel de México complex into a business center. Mr. Suárez backed the idea and, although he died in 1988, in 1995, the complex, now known as World Trade Center México, opened its doors with the tower now remodeled as an office building, as well as a convention center. Floors 40 and 41 housed TV studios for Corporación de Noticias e Información, on May 19,2005, these floors were evacuated after the beginning of a strike at CNI. The facilities have remained untouched due to the cases that have followed CNI since 2005. The WTC houses the facilities for XHFO-FM. Most recently, the World Trade Center added a theater, the 3, 000-seat Pepsi Center. It is used primarily for concerts and stage shows, WTC Tower elevators have a seismic detector that detects any movement of earth and therefore automatically stops the elevator at the nearest stop to allow passengers to get off.
Regis Hotel & Residences, Tower Hills, WTC Tower is managed by an intelligent system that controls all the facilities and equipment harmoniously and efficiently to protect human life of the tenants. In this system are integrated systems, hydro-sanitary, elevator and it has automatic elevators, it means they are smart and are always on the floors of more influx. The building has an air handler to supply at each level. The building has the systems, System Generation and distribution of chilled water energy saver. Extraction System General Sanitary office at every level, mechanical ventilation system, air-in parking, Extraction System Mechanics junk room
Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
The Panama-California Exposition of 1915 in San Diego, highlighting the work of architect Bertram Goodhue, is credited with giving the style national exposure. Embraced principally in California and Florida, the Spanish Colonial Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1915 and 1931, the antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to the Mediterranean Revival architectural style. The possibilities of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style were brought to the attention of architects attending late 19th and they integrated porticoes and colonnades influenced by Beaux Arts classicism as well. By the early years of the 1910s, architects in Florida had begun to work in a Spanish Colonial Revival style, Frederick H. Trimbles Farmers Bank in Vero Beach, completed in 1914, is a fully mature early example of the style. The city of St. Cloud, espoused the style both for homes and commercial structures and has a collection of subtle stucco buildings reminiscent of colonial Mexico.
Many of these were designed by architectural partners Ida Annah Ryan, the major location of design and construction in the Spanish Colonial Revival style was California, especially in the coastal cities. In 1915 the San Diego Panama-California Exposition, with architects Bertram Goodhue and Carleton Winslow Sr. popularized the style in the state and it is best exemplified in the California Quadrangle, built as the grand entrance to that Exposition. In the early 1920s, architect Lilian Jeannette Rice designed the style in the development of the town of Rancho Santa Fe in San Diego County, the city of Santa Barbara adopted the style to give it a unified Spanish character after widespread destruction in the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. Its County Courthouse is an example of the style. Real estate developer Ole Hanson favored the Spanish Colonial Revival style in his founding and development of San Clemente, the Pasadena City Hall, as well as the Sonoma and Beverly Hills City Halls are other notable civic examples in California.
Between 1922 and 1931, architect Robert H. Spurgeon constructed 32 Spanish colonial revival houses in Riverside California, many houses of this style can still be seen in the Colonia Nápoles, Condesa and Lomas de Chapultepec areas of Mexico City. By the time the United States liberated the Philippines from the Spaniards, American architects further developed this style in the Philippines, given the Philippines Spanish heritage, but at the same time modernizing the buildings with American amenities. The best example of the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture and California mission style is the famed Manila Hotel designed by William E. Parsons and built in 1909. Other examples exist throughout the country such as Gota de Leche, Paco Market, the majority of these buildings though were lost through earthquakes and most especially during World War II when the Americans bombed Manila to counter the Japanese. Mediterranean style became popular in places like Sydney suburbs Manly and Bondi in the 1920s and 1930s.
One variant, known as Spanish Mission or Hollywood Spanish, became popular as Australians saw films of, Spanish mission houses began to appear in the wealthier suburbs, the most famous being Boomerang, at Elizabeth Bay. The Plaza Theatre in Sydney is a cinema in the style. In the 1930s, numerous houses in Spanish Revival style were built in Shanghai, although Shanghai was not culturally linked to the Spanish-speaking world, these buildings were probably inspired by Hollywood movies, which were highly influential in the city at the time
Mexico City Metro
It is the second largest metro system in North America after the New York City Subway. In 2015, the system served 1.623 billion passengers, the inaugural STC Metro line was 12.7 kilometres long, serving 16 stations, and opened to the public on 4 September 1969. The system has expanded since in a series of fits and starts, as of 2015, the system has 12 lines, serving 195 stations, and 226.49 kilometres of route. Ten of the lines are rubber-tyred, instead of steel wheels, they use pneumatic traction. The system survived the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, of the STC Metros 195 stations,24 serve two or more lines. Many stations are named for figures, places, or events in Mexican history. It has 115 underground stations,54 surface stations and 26 elevated stations, all lines operate from 5 am to midnight. This line opened on 30 October 2012, the metro has figured in Mexicos cultural history, as the inspiration for a musical composition for strings, Metro Chabancano and the 1982 Rodrigo Rockdrigo Gonzálezs 1982 song, Metro Balderas.
It has been a site for the 1990 Hollywood movie Total Recall, public intellectual, Carlos Monsiváis has commented on the cultural importance of the metro, a space for collective expression, where diverse social sectors are compelled to mingle every day. 65 of the 91 lines of bus and electric transport served this area, with four thousand units in addition to 150,000 personal automobiles peak hours, the average speed was less than walking pace. The principal promoter of the construction of the Mexico City Metro was engineer Bernardo Quintana and he carried out a series of studies that resulted in a draft plan which would ultimately lead to the construction of the Mexico City Metro. On 19 June 1967, in the crossroad of Chapultepec Avenue with Avenida Bucareli, two years later, on 4 September 1969, an orange train made the inaugural trip between stations Zaragoza and Insurgentes, thus beginning daily operation up to today. The first stage of construction comprised the construction and inauguration of lines 1,2 and 3.
Between 1,200 and 4,000 specialists and 48,000 workers participated, building at least one kilometer of track per month, during this stage of construction workers uncovered two archaeological ruins, one Aztec idol, and the bones of a mammoth. By the end of the first stage, namely on 10 June 1972, the STC Metro had 48 stations and a total length of 41. Construction of lines 4 and 5 was begun and completed on 26 May and 30 August 1982, the first one from Martín Carrera to Santa Anita and the latter from Politécnico to Pantitlán. Line 4 was the first STC Metro line built as an elevated track and this construction stage took place from the beginning of 1983 through the end of 1985. Lines 1,2 and 3 were expanded to their current lengths, the length of the network was increased by 35.29 kilometres and the number of stations to 105
Metro Eje Central
Metro Eje Central is a station on Line 12 of the Mexico City Metro. The station is located between Parque de los Venados and Ermita and it was opened on 30 October 2012 as a part of the first stretch of Line 12 between Mixcoac and Tláhuac. The station is located south of the city center, at the intersection between Eje Central and Avenida Popocatepetl, the stations icon shows the outline of a Mexico City trolleybus. Media related to Eje Central at Wikimedia Commons
In urban planning, infill is the rededication of land in an urban environment, usually open space, to new construction. Infill applies within an urban polity to construction on any undeveloped land that is not on the urban margin, the slightly broader term land-recycling is sometimes used instead. Infill has been promoted as a use of existing infrastructure. Its detractors view it as overloading urban services, including increased traffic congestion and pollution and it focuses on the reuse and repositioning of obsolete or underutilized buildings and sites. This type of development is essential to renewing blighted neighborhoods and knitting them back together with more prosperous communities, Redevelopment or land recycling is development that occurs on previously developed land. Infill buildings are constructed on vacant or underutilized property or between existing buildings, costs for developers include acquiring land, removing existing structures, and testing for and cleaning up any environmental contamination.
Scholars have argued that development is more financially feasible for development when it occurs on a large plot of land. Large scale development benefits from what economists call economies of scale, large scale infill development is often difficult in a blighted neighborhood for several reasons. These include the difficulties in acquiring land and in gaining community support, amassing land is one challenge that infill development poses that greenfield development does not. Neighborhoods that are targets for infill often have parcels of blighted land scattered among places of residence, developers must be persistent in order to amass land parcel by parcel, and often find resistance from landowners in the target area. One way to approach this problem is for city management to use eminent domain to claim land and this is often unpopular among city management, as well as among neighborhood residents. Developers meet with high social goal barriers in which the local officials, suburban infill describes the development of land in existing suburban areas that was left vacant during the development of the suburb.
It is one of the tenets of the New Urbanism and smart growth trends of urging densification to reduce the need for automobiles, encourage walking, and ultimately save energy. In New Urbanism an exception to infill is the practice of urban agriculture, Infill housing is the insertion of additional housing units into an already approved subdivision or neighborhood. These can be provided as additional units built on the lot, by dividing existing homes into multiple units. Units may be built on vacant lots, Infill residential development does not require the subdivision of greenfield land, natural areas, or prime agricultural land, although it usually reduces green space. In some cases of residential infill, existing infrastructure may need expansion in order to provide utilities. Typical are increased electrical and water usage, additional sewage, need for increased traffic control, as with any new construction, structures built as infill may clash architecturally with older, existing buildings
Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros
The Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros is a cultural and social facility located in Mexico City as part of the World Trade Center Mexico City. It was designed and decorated by David Alfaro Siqueiros in the 1960s and hosts the largest mural work in the world called “La Marcha de la Humanidad. ”The building has a theatre and more, but the focus is the Forum Universal. Visitors can experience the mural while standing on a rotating stage, the Polyforum is a decagon shaped construction with different exhibition spaces that feature David Alfaro Siqueiros’ work. The building is part of a complex called the World Trade Center Mexico City in the Benito Juárez borough of Mexico City. ”The exterior is in the form of a diamond. The Polyforum is an event facility dedicated to cultural and social events. Its main aspects include a 500-seat theatre, two galleries and the Foro Universal or Universal Forum, the outside wall was built in 1970 as a way for patron Manuel Suárez to prevent encroachment or destruction of his property.
The press allegedly deemed the defensive and antisocial, and Siqueiros tried to defend the wall by saying that it was merely an aesthetic extension of the Polyforum itself. The mural prominently features portraits of Rivera and Orozco, as well as Dr. Atl, a key figure in the start of the mural movement, the Polyforums exterior, a 2,750 ft. area, features a twelve-faced sculptural mural painting. Each face depicts a different symbolic concept, the twelve concepts depicted are, Ecology, Masses, Christ, Indigenous Peoples, Mythology, Mingling of Races and Atom. The exterior work is meant to serve as a preview of the mural, to entice visitors to enter the building. The year 1960 marked the year of the Mexican Revolution. The early 1960s was marked by major control by the Left and attempts to create class equality, in 1964, the combination of both an economic decline and an announcement that allottable land was near exhaustion led many peasants to revolt. In the late 1960s, the Right gained control, which led to many doctor, the most shocking example of the murky political situation in 1960s Mexico happened in the form of the Tlatelolco Massacre on October 2,1968.
During a student demonstration that happened ten days before the Summer Olympics in Mexico City, the final death toll remains a mystery, but it is has been reported that four students died, twenty were wounded, and thousands were beaten and disappeared. The Polyforum was designed as part of a major redevelopment/improvement project for Mexico City entitled Mexico 2000, because of an increase in Mexico City’s urban population, Mexico 2000 strived to generate income for the city through tourism and services at its decentralized location at Parque de la Lama. The plaza’s major hotel, “El Hotel de Mexico, ” is 730 foot high building that was designed to house a number of tourists. At the time, the hotel was the tallest reinforced concrete and earthquake-resistant building in the world, equally important to tourism as the Polyforum, “El Hotel de Mexico” was built for both functionality and aesthetic pleasure through its architectural grandeur. Siqueiros officially accepted the commission from art patron and industrialist Manuel Suárez on September 7,1964, the first request of Suárez was for a large mural to be housed in Cuernavaca