Colonial Office

The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire. Despite its name, the Colonial Office was never responsible for all Britain's Imperial territories, it was headed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies known more informally as the Colonial Secretary. Prior to 1768, responsibility for the affairs of the British colonies was part of the duties of the Secretary of State for the Southern Department and a committee of the Privy Council known as the Board of Trade and Plantations. In 1768 the separate American or Colonial Department was established, in order to deal with colonial affairs in British North America. With the loss of the American colonies, the department was abolished in 1782. Responsibility for the remaining colonies was given to the Home Office, subsequently transferred to the War Office.

The War Office was renamed the War and Colonial Office in 1801, under a new Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, to reflect the increasing importance of the colonies. In 1825 a new post of Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies was created within this office, it was held by Robert William Hay initially. His successors were James Stephen, Herman Merivale, Frederic Rogers, Robert Herbert and Robert Henry Meade. In 1854, the War and Colonial Office was divided in two, a new Colonial Office was created to deal with the affairs in the colonies and assigned to the Secretary of State for the Colonies; the Colonial Office did not have responsibility for all British possessions overseas: for example, both the Indian Empire and other British territories near India, were under the authority of the India Office from 1854. Other, more informal protectorates, such as the Khedivate of Egypt, fell under the authority of the Foreign Office; the increasing independence of the Dominions – Australia, New Zealand and South Africa – following the 1907 Imperial Conference, led to the formation of a separate Dominion Division within the Colonial Office.

From 1925 onwards the UK ministry included a separate Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs. On 16 April 1947 the Irgun placed a bomb at the Colonial Office; the plot was linked to the 1946 Embassy bombing. After the Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan gained independence in 1947, the Dominion Office was merged with the India Office to form the Commonwealth Relations Office. In 1966, the Commonwealth Relations Office was re-merged with the Colonial Office, forming the Commonwealth Office. Two years this department was itself merged into the Foreign Office, establishing the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; the Colonial Office had its offices in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office Main Building in Whitehall. From 1862, the Colonial Office published historical and statistical information concerning the United Kingdom's colonial dependencies in The Colonial Office List, though between 1926 and 1940 it was known as The Dominions Office and Colonial Office List, it became known as the Commonwealth Relations Office Year Book and Commonwealth Office Year Book.

In addition to the official List published by the Colonial Office, an edited version was produced by Waterlow and Sons. It can be difficult to distinguish between the two versions in library catalogue descriptions. For example, The Sydney Stock and Station Journal of 3 December 1915 commented: This used to be the "Colonial Office Journal," but it looked – or sounded – too official, so they changed it to "The Colonial Journal." But it is still edited by Sir W. H. Mercer, K. C. M. G. One of the Crown Agents for the Colonies, it comes as near to being an "Official publication" as possible. British Empire Colonial Service List of British Empire-related topics Beaglehole, J. C.. "The Colonial Office, 1782–1854". Historical Studies: Australia and New Zealand. 1: 170–189. Doi:10.1080/10314614108594796. Egerton, Hugh Edward. A Short History of British Colonial Policy 610pp online Laidlaw, Zoë. Colonial connections, 1815-45: patronage, the information revolution and colonial government. McLachlan, N. D.. "Bathurst at the Colonial Office, 1812–27: A reconnaissance∗".

Historical Studies. 13: 477–502. Doi:10.1080/10314616908595394. Manning, Helen Taft. "Who Ran the British Empire 1830-1850?". Journal of British Studies. 5: 88–121. Doi:10.1086/385512. Shaw, A. G. L.. "British Attitudes to the Colonies, ca. 1820-1850". Journal of British Studies. 9: 71–95. Doi:10.1086/385581. Bell, Kenneth Norman, William Parker Morrell, eds. Select documents on British colonial policy, 1830-1860

Ptolemy II Philadelphus in the Library of Alexandria

Ptolemy Philadelphus in the Library of Alexandria is an 1813 oil on canvas painting by Vincenzo Camuccini. It is now in the National Museum of Capodimonte in Naples; the work was commissioned by Napoleon I along with Charlemagne Ordering Italian Scholars to Found the University of Paris, both for the central hall of Rome's Palazzo del Quirinale. It shows Ptolemy II Philadelphus in red robes among several philosophers in the Library of Alexandria; the artist had returned to Italy from Paris and decided to accept the commission. Ptolemy was moved to the Capodimonte Palace by Gioacchino Murat and in 1867 moved to the Palazzo Reale di Napoli, before being given to the Camera dei deputati in Palazzo Montecitorio in Rome, it returned to Naples and since 1997 has hung in its original position in Room 31 of the Royal Apartments known as the Salone della Culla

Mediodactylus russowii

Mediodactylus russowii known as the grey thin-toed gecko, Russow's bent-toed gecko, the Transcaspian bent-toed gecko, is a species of lizard in the family Gekkonidae. The species is native to Asia. There are two recognized subspecies; the specific name, russowii, is in honor of Estonian naturalist Valerian von Russow. M. russowii is found from Russia to Turkmenistan, northeastern Iran, northwestern China, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The preferred natural habitats of M. russowii are desert and shrubland, at altitudes from 45 m below sea level to 2,000 m above sea level. M. russowii is oviparous. The following two subspecies are recognized including the nominotypical subspecies. Mediodactylus russowii russowii Mediodactylus russowii zarudnyi Nota bene: A trinomial authority in parentheses indicates that the subspecies was described in a genus other than Mediodactylus. Nikolsky AM. "Reptiles, amphibies et poissons, recueillis pendant le voyage de Mr. N. A. Zaroudny en 1898 dans la Perse ". Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 24: 376-417 + Plate XX...

Sindaco R, Jeremčenko VK. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic. 1. Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Turtles, Crocodiles and Lizards of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia.. Latina, Italy: Edizioni Belvedere. 580 pp. ISBN 978-88-89504-14-7.. Strauch A. "Bemerkungen über die Geckoniden-Sammlung im zoologischen Museum der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu St. Petersburg ". Mémoires de l'Académie impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Septième Série 35: 1-72 + i-ii + one plate