The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, the subsequent further south Roanoke Island by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607; the Popham colony failed due to a famine and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, was at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony.
After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the General Assembly, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; the colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion"; the entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky and Illinois, portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
The name "Virginia" is the oldest designation for English claims in North America. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh sent Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore what is now the North Carolina coast, they returned with word of a regional king named Wingina, who ruled a land called Wingandacoa; the name Virginia for a region in North America may have been suggested by Sir Walter Raleigh, who named it for Queen Elizabeth I, in 1584. In addition the term Wingandacoa may have influenced the name Virginia." On his next voyage, Raleigh learned that while the chief of the Secotans was indeed called Wingina, the expression wingandacoa heard by the English upon arrival meant "What good clothes you wear!" in Carolina Algonquian, was not the name of the country as misunderstood. "Virginia" was a term used to refer to North America's entire eastern coast from the 34th parallel north to 45th parallel. This area included the shores of Acadia; the colony was known as the Virginia Colony, the Province of Virginia, as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia or His Majesty's Most Ancient Colloney and Dominion of Virginia In gratitude for the loyalty of Virginians to the crown during the English Civil War, Charles II gave it the title of "Old Dominion".
The colony seal stated from Latin,'Behold, Virginia gives the fifth", with Virginia claimed as the fifth English dominion after England, France and Ireland. The state of Virginia maintains "Old Dominion" as its state nickname; the athletic teams of the University of Virginia are known as the "Cavaliers," referring to supporters of Charles II, Virginia has another state public university called "Old Dominion University". Although Spain, France and the Netherlands all had competing claims to the region, none of these prevented the English from becoming the first European power to colonize the Mid-Atlantic coastline. Earlier attempts had been made by the Spanish in what is now Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia. Farther south, the Spanish colony of Spanish Florida, centered on St. Augustine, was established in 1565, while to the north, the French were establishing settlements in what is now Canada. In 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh sent his first colonisation mission to the island of Roanoke, with over 100 male settlers.
However, when Sir Francis Drake arrived at the colony in summer 1586, the colonists opted to return to England, due to lack of supply ships, abandoning the colony. Supply ships arrived at the now-abandoned colony in 1586. In 1587, Raleigh sent another group to again attempt to establish a permanent settlement; the expedition leader, John White, returned to England for supplies that same year but was unable to return to the colony due to war between England and Spain. When he did return in 1590, he found the colony abandoned; the houses were intact, but the colonists had disappeared. Although there are a number of theories about the fate of the colony, it remains a mystery and has come to be known as the "Lost Co
The Avro Club Cadet was a 1930s single-engined British biplane trainer aircraft and built by Avro as a development of the earlier Cadet. It was planned for private and club use and, unlike the Cadet, was fitted with folding wings; the Avro 638 Club Cadet was a modified version of the Avro Cadet intended for both private and club use. The Club Cadet was fitted with unstaggered wings; the prototype flew in May 1933, powered by an Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major radial piston engine, another 16 were built, production finished in 1935. A single prototype of an enclosed three-seat cabin version, the Avro 639 Cabin Cadet was built, first flew in 1933, but did not enter production. A second three-seat version, the Avro 640 Cadet, was produced for joy-riding work, with a widened fuselage accommodating an open cockpit for two passengers side by side in front of the pilot. Nine of these were built, the first four powered by 140 hp Cirrus Hermes IV engines, the remaining five powered by Genet Major engines.
Most Club Cadets were used by flying schools, although intended for private as well as club use, the largest user being Airwork, that operated five Club Cadets. These were re-engined with 130 hp de Havilland Gipsy Major engines. Avro 638 Club Cadet Two-seat trainer aircraft, powered by 135 hp Genet Major or 130 hp Gipsy Major I engine, 17 built. Avro 638 Club Cadet Special One aircraft, fitted with a 140 hp Cirrus Hermes IVA inverted in-line engine. Avro 639 Cabin Cadet Enclosed cockpit, one built. Avro 640 Cadet Three seat joyriding aircraft, powered by 140 hp Cirrus Hermes IV inverted in-line or 135 hp Genet Major engine, nine built. United KingdomAirwork Data from Avro Aircraft since 1908 General characteristics Crew: Two Length: 24 ft 9 in Wingspan: 30 ft 2 in Height: 8 ft 9 in Wing area: 262 ft2 Empty weight: 1,244lb Loaded weight: 2,000 lb Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major 1 seven cylinder radial, 135 hp Performance Maximum speed: 100 kn Cruise speed: 87 kn Range: 283 nmi Service ceiling: ft Rate of climb: ft/min Wing loading: 7.63 lb/ft2 Power/mass: 0.075 hp/lb Related development Avro Tutor Avro Cadet Canadian Aviation Museum Avro Club Cadet – British Aircraft of World War II
Steer riding is a rodeo youth event, an introductory form of bull riding for younger riders between the ages of seven and fourteen. Instead of bucking bulls, the children ride steers that buck. Steers are used because they are known to have a less volatile temperament than bulls and many breeds weigh less than bulls, which makes them a perfect stepping stone to junior bulls; the steers weigh between 500 to 1,000 pounds. Steer riding follows mutton busting and calf riding as the participant ages and grows. Many young and aspiring bull riders who train in steer riding compete in the National Junior Bullriders Association; the National Junior Bullriders Association holds these annual contests: 6 & Under Mutton Busting 8 & Under Calf Riding 11 & Under Steer Riding 13 & Under Peewee Bullriding 15 & Under Jr. Bullriding 19 & Under Sr. BullridingRiders use equipment and riding techniques that are similar to adult bull riding; the steers are equipped with the following: a flank strap – the flank strap is placed around a steer's flank, just in front of the hind legs, to encourage bucking.
And they use a "steer rope" – a rope that goes around the steer for the rider to hang onto with a bell underneath. The riders wear batwing chaps, spurs. For safety, they use protective vests and helmets with a face mask that resemble those worn by hockey goalies. Events are broken down by age brackets. Parental permission is required for their children to compete, they must sign a liability waiver, it is possible for competitors to be injured in the event. Like bull riding, riders must stay on for eight seconds for a qualified ride. Half of the score is awarded for the cowboy's ability to ride, the other half for the steer's ability to buck. One difference is that in some steer riding competitions, riders are allowed to hang on with both hands, they can choose to compete riding one-handed, like the adults, but if they do, they fall under the same rules as bull riding and can be disqualified for grabbing the steer with both hands. Riders can be disqualified for touching the animal or themselves during the ride.
Failure to stay on for the full 8 seconds or a disqualification results in a no score. Riding steers allows riders to develop needed skills before taking on bulls; as bulls are being bred to be more athletic and dangerous, it is more important than for adolescent and young adults to get all of the experience they need before taking on bulls. One man, a former PRCA World Champion Bull Rider, Cody Custer, discusses this issue at length on his web site; when youngsters take on "junior bulls" that only a decade or two ago were considered pro level bulls, they have an low success rate and get discouraged or injured beyond what is reasonably acceptable. There are some steers not used in rodeo who have been trained not to buck and instead are gentled to be ridden. Most people who have trained their cattle to be ridden have used them to perform similar tasks which horses perform, such as trail riding and running. However, they do require different handling than horses; some breeds of cattle are more conducive than others.