OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Tol'dot, Toldos, or Tol'doth is the sixth weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. The parashah tells of the conflict between Jacob and Esau, Isaac's passing off his wife Rebekah as his sister, Isaac's blessing of his sons, it constitutes Genesis 25:19–28:9. The parashah is made up of 5,426 Hebrew letters, 1,432 Hebrew words, 106 verses, 173 lines in a Torah Scroll. Jews read it the sixth Sabbath after Simchat Torah in November, or in early December. In traditional Sabbath Torah reading, the parashah is divided into עליות, aliyot. In the Masoretic Text of the Tanakh, Parashat Toledot has two "open portion" divisions. Parashat Toledot has three "closed portion" divisions; the first open portion divides the first reading. The second open portion spans the balance of the parashah. Two closed portion divisions further divide the fifth reading, setting apart the discussion of Esau's marriage to the two Hittite women. In the first reading, Isaac was 40 years old when he married Rebekah, when she proved barren, Isaac pleaded with God on her behalf, God allowed Rebekah to conceive.
As twins struggled in her womb, she inquired of God, who answered her that two separate nations were in her womb, one mightier than the other, the older would serve the younger. When Rebekah gave birth, the first twin emerged red and hairy, so they named him Esau, his brother emerged holding Esau's heel, so they named him Jacob. Isaac was 60 years old. Esau became a skillful hunter and outdoorsman. Isaac favored Esau for his game. Once when Jacob was cooking, Esau returned to the camp famished and demanded some of Jacob's red stew. Jacob demanded that Esau first sell him his birthright, Esau did so with an oath, spurning his birthright; the first open portion ends here with the end of chapter 25. As the reading continues in chapter 26, another famine struck the land, Isaac went to the house of the Philistine King Abimelech in Gerar. God told Isaac not to go down to Egypt, but to stay in the land that God would show him, for God would remain with him, bless him, assign the land to him and his numerous heirs, as God had sworn to Abraham, who had obeyed God and kept God's commandments.
The first reading ends here. In the second reading, Isaac settled in Gerar, when the men of Gerar asked Isaac about his beautiful wife, he said that she was his sister out of fear that the men might kill him on account of her, but looking out of the window, Abimelech saw Isaac fondling Rebekah, Abimelech summoned Isaac to complain that Isaac had called her his sister. Isaac explained. Abimelech complained that one of the people might have lain with her, Isaac would have brought guilt upon the Philistines, Abimelech charged the people not to molest Isaac or Rebekah, on pain of death. God blessed Isaac; the second reading ends here. In the third reading, Isaac grew wealthy, to the envy of the Philistines; the Philistines stopped up all the wells that Abraham's servants had dug, Abimelech sent Isaac away, for his household had become too big. So Isaac left to settle in the wadi of Gerar, where he dug anew the wells that Abraham's servants had dug and called them by the same names that his father had.
But when Isaac's servants dug two new wells, the herdsmen of Gerar quarreled with Isaac's herdsmen and claimed them for their own, so Isaac named those wells Esek and Sitnah. Isaac moved on and dug a third well, they did not quarrel over it, so he named it Rehoboth; the third reading ends here. In the fourth reading, Isaac went to Beersheba, that night God appeared to Isaac, telling Isaac not to fear, for God was with him, would bless him and increase his offspring for Abraham's sake. So Isaac invoked the Lord by name, and Isaac pitched his tent there and his servants began digging a well. Abimelech, Ahuzzath his councilor, Phicol his general came to Isaac, Isaac asked them why they had come, since they had driven Isaac away, they answered that they now recognized that God had been with Isaac, sought a treaty that neither would harm the other. The fourth reading ends here. In the fifth reading, Isaac threw a feast for the Philistines, the next morning, they exchanged oaths and the Philistines departed from him in peace.
In the day, Isaac's servants told him that they had found water, Isaac named the well Shibah, so that place became known as Beersheba. A closed portion ends here. In the continuation of the reading, when Esau was 40 years old, he married two Hittite women and Basemath, causing bitterness for Isaac and Rebekah. Another closed portion ends here with the end of chapter 26; as the reading continues in chapter 27, when Isaac was old and his sight had dimmed, he called Esau and asked him to hunt some game and prepare a dish, so that Isaac might give him his innermost blessing before he died. Rebekah had been listening, when Esau departed, she instructed Jacob to fetch her two choice kids so that she might prepare
Anatolia known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west; the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. The eastern border of Anatolia is traditionally held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highland to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Nowadays, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises the entire country. By some definitions, the area called the Armenian highlands lies beyond the boundary of the Anatolian plateau.
The official name of this inland region is the Eastern Anatolia Region. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were replaced by the Greek language starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages included Hittite and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives; the Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Arabic, Laz and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Assyrians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian and Aeolian Greeks. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau; this traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.
To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria and the Mesopotamian plain. Following the Armenian genocide, Ottoman Armenia was renamed "Eastern Anatolia" by the newly established Turkish government. Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory referred to as Armenia an "ahistorical imposition", notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia". Most archeological sources consider the boundary of Anatolia to be Turkey's eastern border; the highest mountains in "Eastern Anatolia" are Mount Ararat. The Euphrates, Araxes and Murat rivers connect the Armenian plateau to the South Caucasus and the Upper Euphrates Valley. Along with the Çoruh, these rivers are the longest in "Eastern Anatolia"; the oldest known reference to Anatolia – as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire. The first recorded name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.
As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks in Late Antiquity came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία or Asia Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more “sunrise”; the precise reference of this term has varied over time originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia Region; the term "Anatolia" is Medieval Latin. The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή; the Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. The term "Anatolia" referred to a northwestern Byzantine province. By the 12th century Europeans had started referring to Anatolia as Turchia, it has also been called "Asia Minor". In earlier times, it was called" Rûm" by the Seljuqs.
During the era of the Ottoman Empire mapmakers outside the Empire referred to the mountainous plateau in eastern Anatolia as Armenia. Other contemporary sources called the same area Kurdistan. Geographers have variously used the terms east Anatolian plateau and Armenian plateau to refer to the region, although the territory encompassed by each term overlaps with the other. According to archaeologist Lori Khatchadourian this difference in terminology "primarily result from the shifting political fortunes and cultural trajectories of the region since the nineteenth century."Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former corresponding to the weste
Usability is the ease of use and learnability of a human-made object such as a tool or device. In software engineering, usability is the degree to which a software can be used by specified consumers to achieve quantified objectives with effectiveness and satisfaction in a quantified context of use; the object of use can be a software application, book, machine, vehicle, or anything a human interacts with. A usability study may be conducted as a primary job function by a usability analyst or as a secondary job function by designers, technical writers, marketing personnel, others, it is used in consumer electronics and knowledge transfer objects and mechanical objects such as a door handle or a hammer. Usability includes methods of measuring usability, such as needs analysis and the study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance. In human-computer interaction and computer science, usability studies the elegance and clarity with which the interaction with a computer program or a web site is designed.
Usability considers user satisfaction and utility as quality components, aims to improve user experience through iterative design. The primary notion of usability is that an object designed with a generalized users' psychology and physiology in mind is, for example: More efficient to use—takes less time to accomplish a particular task Easier to learn—operation can be learned by observing the object More satisfying to useComplex computer systems find their way into everyday life, at the same time the market is saturated with competing brands; this has made usability more popular and recognized in recent years, as companies see the benefits of researching and developing their products with user-oriented methods instead of technology-oriented methods. By understanding and researching the interaction between product and user, the usability expert can provide insight, unattainable by traditional company-oriented market research. For example, after observing and interviewing users, the usability expert may identify needed functionality or design flaws that were not anticipated.
A method called contextual inquiry does this in the occurring context of the users own environment. In the user-centered design paradigm, the product is designed with its intended users in mind at all times. In the user-driven or participatory design paradigm, some of the users become actual or de facto members of the design team; the term user friendly is used as a synonym for usable, though it may refer to accessibility. Usability describes the quality of user experience across websites, software and environments. There is no consensus about the relation of the terms usability; some think of usability as the software specialization of the larger topic of ergonomics. Others view these topics as tangential, with ergonomics focusing on physiological matters and usability focusing on psychological matters. Usability is important in website development. According to Jakob Nielsen, "Studies of user behavior on the Web find a low tolerance for difficult designs or slow sites. People don't want to wait.
And they don't want to learn. There's a manual for a Web site. People have to be able to grasp the functioning of the site after scanning the home page—for a few seconds at most." Otherwise, most casual users leave the site and browse or shop elsewhere. ISO defines usability as "The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness and satisfaction in a specified context of use." The word "usability" refers to methods for improving ease-of-use during the design process. Usability consultant Jakob Nielsen and computer science professor Ben Shneiderman have written about a framework of system acceptability, where usability is a part of "usefulness" and is composed of: Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design? Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how can they perform tasks? Memorability: When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how can they re-establish proficiency?
Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, how can they recover from the errors? Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design? Usability is associated with the functionalities of the product, in addition to being a characteristic of the user interface. For example, in the context of mainstream consumer products, an automobile lacking a reverse gear could be considered unusable according to the former view, lacking in utility according to the latter view; when evaluating user interfaces for usability, the definition can be as simple as "the perception of a target user of the effectiveness and efficiency of the Interface". Each component may be measured subjectively against criteria, e.g. Principles of User Interface Design, to provide a metric expressed as a percentage, it is important to distinguish between usability engineering. Usability testing is the measurement of ease of use of a piece of software. In contrast, usability engineering is the research and design process that ensures a product with good usability.
Usability is a non-functional requirement. As
Fleet Street is a major street in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which the street was named. Having been an important through route since Roman times, businesses were established along the road during the Middle Ages. Senior clergy lived in Fleet Street during this period where there are several churches including Temple Church and St Bride's. Fleet Street became known for printing and publishing at the start of the 16th century and it became the dominant trade so that by the 20th century most British national newspapers operated from here. Much of the industry moved out in the 1980s after News International set up cheaper manufacturing premises in Wapping, but some former newspaper buildings are listed and have been preserved; the term Fleet Street remains a metonym for the British national press, pubs on the street once frequented by journalists remain popular.
Fleet Street has a significant number of monuments and statues along its length, including the dragon at Temple Bar and memorials to a number of figures from the British press, such as Samuel Pepys and Lord Northcliffe. The street is mentioned in several works by Charles Dickens and is where the murderous barber Sweeney Todd lived. Fleet Street is named after the River Fleet, which runs from Hampstead to the River Thames at the western edge of the City of London, it was established by the Middle Ages. In the 13th century, it was known as Fleet Bridge Street, in the early 14th century it became known as Fleet Street; the street runs east from Temple Bar, the boundary between the Cities of London and Westminster, as a continuation of the Strand from Trafalgar Square. It crosses Chancery Fetter Lane to reach Ludgate Circus by the London Wall; the road ahead is Ludgate Hill. The street numbering runs consecutively from west to east south-side and east to west north-side, it links the medieval boundaries of the City after the latter was extended.
The section of Fleet Street between Temple Bar and Fetter Lane is part of the A4, a major road running west through London, although it once ran along the entire street and eastwards past St Paul's Churchyard towards Cannon Street. The nearest London Underground stations are Temple, Chancery Lane, Blackfriars tube/mainline station and the City Thameslink railway station. London Bus routes 4, 11, 15, 23, 26, 76 and 172 run along the full length of Fleet Street, while route 341 runs between Temple Bar and Fetter Lane. Fleet Street was established as a thoroughfare in Roman London and there is evidence that a route led west from Ludgate by 200 AD. Local excavations revealed remains of a Roman amphitheatre near Ludgate on what was Fleet Prison, but other accounts suggest the area was too marshy for regular inhabitation by the Romans; the Saxons did not occupy the Roman city but established Lundenwic further west around what is now Aldwych and the Strand. Many prelates lived around the street during the Middle Ages, including the Bishops of Salisbury and St Davids and the Abbots of Faversham, Tewkesbury and Cirencester.
Tanning of animal hides became established on Fleet Street owing to the nearby river, though this increased pollution leading to a ban on dumping rubbish by the mid-14th century. Many taverns and brothels were established along Fleet Street and have been documented as early as the 14th century. Records show that Geoffrey Chaucer was fined two shillings for attacking a friar in Fleet Street, though modern historians believe this is apocryphal. An important landmark in Fleet Street during the late Middle Ages was a conduit, the main water supply for the area; when Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen following her marriage to Henry VIII in 1533, the conduit flowed wine instead of water. By the 16th century, Fleet Street, along with much of the City, was chronically overcrowded, a Royal proclamation in 1580 banned any further building on the street; this had little effect, construction continued timber. Prince Henry's Room over the Inner Temple gate dates from 1610 and is named after Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I, who did not survive to succeed his father.
The eastern part of the street was destroyed by the Great Fire of London in 1666, despite attempts to use the River Fleet to preserve it. Fire damage reached to about Fetter Lane, the special tribunal of the'Fire Courts' was held at Clifford's Inn, an inn of Chancery at the edge of the extent of the fire, to arbitrate on claimants' rights. Properties were rebuilt in the same style as before the fire. During the early-18th century, a notorious upper-class gang known as the Mohocks operated on the street causing regular violence and vandalism. Mrs Salmon's Waxworks was established at Prince Henry's Room in 1711, it had a display of macabre and black-humoured exhibits, including the execution of Charles I. The waxworks were a favourite haunt of William Hogarth, survived into the 19th century; the Apollo Society, a music club, was established in 1733 at the Devil Tavern on Fleet Street by composer Maurice Greene. In 1763, supporters of John Wilkes, arrested for libel against the Earl of Bute, burned a jackboot in the centre of the street in protest against Bute.
It led to violent demonstrations and rioting in 1769 and 1794. Tanning and other industries declined after the River Fleet was routed underground in 1766; the street was widened during the late-19th century, when Temple Bar was demolished and Ludgate Circus was constructed. The headquarters of the Anti-C
The Diamond Sūtra is a Mahāyāna sūtra from the Prajñāpāramitā sutras or'Perfection of Wisdom' genre. Translated into a variety of languages over a broad geographic range, the Diamond Sutra is one of the most influential Mahayana sutras in East Asia, is prominent within the Chan tradition, along with the Heart Sutra. A copy of the Tang-dynasty Chinese version of the Diamond Sūtra was found among the Dunhuang manuscripts in 1907 by Daoist monk Wang Yuanlu on June 25, 1900, sold to Aurel Stein, they are dated back to 11 May 868. It is, in the words of the British Library, "the earliest complete survival of a dated printed book."It is the first creative work with an explicit public domain dedication, as its colophon at the end claims it was created "for universal free distribution." The Sanskrit title for the sūtra is the Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, which may be translated as the "Vajra Cutter Perfection of Wisdom Sūtra" or "The Perfection of Wisdom Text that Cuts Like a Thunderbolt". In English, shortened forms such as Diamond Sūtra and Vajra Sūtra are common.
The title relies on the power of the vajra to cut things as a metaphor for the type of wisdom that cuts and shatters illusions to get to ultimate reality. The sutra is called by the name "Triśatikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra"; the Diamond Sūtra is regarded in a number of Asian countries with traditions of Mahayana Buddhism. Translations of this title into the languages of some of these countries include: Sanskrit: वज्रच्छेदिकाप्रज्ञापारमितासूत्र, Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra Chinese: 《金剛般若波羅蜜多經》, Jingang Borepoluomiduo Jing; the first Chinese translation dates to the early 5th Century, but by this point the 4th or 5th Century monks Asanga and Vasubandhu seem to have authored authoritative commentaries on its content. The Vajracchedika sutra was an influential work in the Mahayana Buddhist tradition. Early translations into a number of languages have been found in locations across Central and East Asia, suggesting that the text was studied and translated. In addition to Chinese translations, translations of the text and commentaries were made into Tibetan, translations and paraphrases survive in a number of Central Asian languages.
The first translation of the Diamond Sūtra into Chinese is thought to have been made in 401 by the venerated and prolific translator Kumārajīva. Kumārajīva's translation style is distinctive, possessing a flowing smoothness that reflects his prioritization on conveying the meaning as opposed to precise literal rendering; the Kumārajīva translation has been highly regarded over the centuries, it is this version that appears on the 868 Dunhuang scroll. It is the most used and chanted Chinese version. In addition to the Kumārajīva translation, a number of translations exist; the Diamond Sūtra was again translated from Sanskrit into Chinese by Bodhiruci in 509, Paramārtha in 558, Dharmagupta and Yijing in 703. The Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang visited a Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravāda monastery at Bamiyan, Afghanistan, in the 7th century. Using Xuanzang's travel accounts, modern archaeologists have identified the site of this monastery. Birchbark manuscript fragments of several Mahāyāna sūtras have been discovered at the site, including the Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, these are now part of the Schøyen Collection.
This manuscript was written in the Sanskrit language, written in an ornate form of the Gupta script. This same Sanskrit manuscript contains the Medicine Buddha Sūtra; the Diamond Sūtra gave rise to a culture of artwork, sūtra veneration, commentaries in East Asian Buddhism. By the end of the Tang Dynasty in China there were over 80 commentaries written on it, such as those by prominent Chinese Buddhists like Sengzhao, Xie Lingyun, Jizang and Zongmi. Copying and recitation of the Diamond Sutra was a widespread devotional practice, stories attributing miraculous powers to these acts are recorded in Chinese, Japanese and Mongolian sources. One of the best known commentaries is the Exegesis on the Diamond Sutra by Huineng, the Sixth Patriarch of the Chan School; the Diamond Sutra features prominently in the Platform Sutra, the religious biography of Huineng, where hearing its recitation is supposed to have triggered the enlightening insight that led Huineng to abandon his life as a woodcutter to become a Buddhist monk.
The Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sutra contains the discourse of the Buddha to a senior monk, Subhuti. Its major themes are anatman, the emptiness of all phenomena, the liberation of all beings without attachment and the importance of spreading and teaching the Diamond sutra itself. In his commentary on the Diamond Sūtra, Hsing Yun describes the four main points from the sū
O'Reilly Media is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics. Their distinctive brand features a woodcut of an animal on many of their book covers; the company began in 1978 as a private consulting firm doing technical writing, based in the Cambridge, Massachusetts area. In 1984, it began to retain publishing rights on manuals created for Unix vendors. A few 70-page "Nutshell Handbooks" were well-received, but the focus remained on the consulting business until 1988. After a conference displaying O'Reilly's preliminary Xlib manuals attracted significant attention, the company began increasing production of manuals and books; the original cover art consisted of animal designs developed by Edie Freedman because she thought that Unix program names sounded like "weird animals". In 1993 O'Reilly Media created the first web portal, when they launched one of the first Web-based resources, Global Network Navigator.
GNN was sold to AOL in one of the first large transactions of the dot-com bubble. GNN was the first site on the World Wide Web to feature paid advertising. Although O'Reilly Media got its start in publishing two decades after its genesis the company expanded into event production. In 1997, O'Reilly launched The Perl Conference to cross-promote its books on the Perl programming language. Many of the company's other software bestsellers were on topics that were off the radar of the commercial software industry. In 1998, O'Reilly invited many of the leaders of software projects to a meeting. Called the freeware summit, the meeting became known as the Open Source Summit; the O'Reilly Open Source Convention is now one of O'Reilly's flagship events. Other key events include the Strata Conference on big data, the Velocity Conference on Web Performance and Operations, FOO Camp. Past events of note include the Web 2.0 Summit. Overall, O'Reilly describes its business not as publishing or conferences, but as "changing the world by spreading the knowledge of innovators."Today, the company offers over one dozen conferences: Strata + Hadoop World OSCON Fluent Velocity The Next:Economy Summit The Next:Money Summit The Solid Conference The O'Reilly Software Architecture Conference The O'Reilly Design Conference O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference Tools of Change Conference Web 2.0 Summit Web 2.0 Expo MySQL Conference and Expo RailsConf Where 2.0 Money:Tech Gov 2.0 Expo and Gov 2.0 Summit O'Reilly school of technology will be discontinued as of January 6, 2016, new enrollments are no longer accepted.
In the late 1990s, O'Reilly founded the O'Reilly Network, which grew to include sites such as: LinuxDevCenter.com MacDevCenter.com WindowsDevCenter.com ONLamp.com O'Reilly RadarIn 2008 the company revised its online model and stopped publishing on several of its sites. The company produced dev2dev in association with BEA and java.net in association with Sun Microsystems and CollabNet. In 2001, O'Reilly launched Safari Books Online, a subscription-based service providing access to ebooks as a joint venture with the Pearson Technology Group. Safari Books Online includes books and video from Adobe Press, Alpha Books, Cisco Press, FT Press, Microsoft Press, New Riders Publishing, O'Reilly, Peachpit Press, Prentice Hall, Prentice Hall PTR, Que and Sams Publishing. In 2014, O'Reilly Media acquired Pearson's stake, making Safari Books Online a wholly owned subsidiary of O'Reilly Media. O'Reilly did a redesign of the site and has some success in the attempt to expand beyond Safari's core B2C market into the B2B Enterprise market.
In 2017, O'Reilly Media announced they were no longer selling books including eBooks. Instead, everyone was encouraged to sign up to Safari. In 2003, after the dot com bust, O'Reilly's corporate goal was to reignite enthusiasm in the computer industry. To do this, Dale Dougherty and Tim O'Reilly decided to use the term "Web 2.0" coined in January 1999 by Darcy DiNucci. The term was used for the Web 2.0 Summit run by O'Reilly TechWeb. CMP registered Web 2.0 as a Service Mark "for arranging and conducting live events, namely trade shows, business conferences and educational conferences in various fields of computers and information technology." Web 2.0 framed what distinguished the companies that survived the dot com bust from those that died, identified key drivers of future success, including what is now called “cloud computing,” big data, new approaches to iterative, data-driven software development. In May 2006 CMP Media learned of an impending event called the "Web 2.0 Half day conference."
Concerned over their obligation to take reasonable means to enforce their trade and service marks CMP sent a cease and desist letter to the non-profit Irish organizers of the event. This attempt to restrict through legal mechanisms the use of the term was criticized by some; the legal issue was resolved by O'Reilly's apologizing for the early and aggressive involvement of attorneys, rather than calling the organizers, allowing them to use the service mark for this single event. In January 2005 the compan