In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph. An example is the character æ as used in English; the common ampersand developed from a ligature in which the handwritten Latin letters e and t were combined. The origin of typographical ligatures comes from the invention of writing with a stylus on fibrous material or clay. Businessmen who needed a way to speed up the process of written communication found that conjoining letters and abbreviating words for lay use was more convenient for record keeping and transaction than the bulky long forms; the earliest known script, Sumerian cuneiform, includes many cases of character combinations that, over time evolve from ligatures into separately recognizable characters. Ligatures figure prominently in many historical manuscripts, notably the Brahmic abugidas, or the bind rune of the Migration Period Germanic runic inscriptions. Medieval scribes who wrote in Latin increased their writing speed by combining characters and by introducing notational abbreviations.
Others conjoined letters for aesthetic purposes. For example, in blackletter, letters with right-facing bowls and those with left-facing bowls were written with the facing edges of the bowls superimposed. In many script forms, characters such as h, m, n had their vertical strokes superimposed. Scribes used notational abbreviations to avoid having to write a whole character in one stroke. Manuscripts in the fourteenth century employed hundreds of such abbreviations. Modifications to script bodies like these originate from legal and monastic sources, with the emphasis shifting from business to monastic sources by around the 9th and 10th centuries. In hand writing, a ligature is made by joining two or more characters in atypical fashion by merging their parts, or by writing one above or inside the other. In printing, a ligature is a group of characters, typeset as a unit, so the characters do not have to be joined. For example, in some cases the fi ligature prints the letters f and i with a greater separation than when they are typeset as separate letters.
When printing with movable type was invented around 1450, typefaces included many ligatures and additional letters, as they were based on handwriting. Ligatures made printing with movable type easier because one block would replace frequent combinations of letters and allowed more complex and interesting character designs which would otherwise collide with one another. Ligatures began to fall out of use due to their complexity in the 20th century. Sans serif typefaces used for body text avoid ligatures, though notable exceptions include Gill Sans and Futura. Inexpensive phototypesetting machines in the 1970s generally avoid them. A few, became characters in their own right, see below the sections about German ß, various Latin accented letters, & et al.. The trend against digraph use was further strengthened by the desktop publishing revolution starting around 1977 with the production of the Apple II. Early computer software in particular had no way to allow for ligature substitution, while most new digital typefaces did not include ligatures.
As most of the early PC development was designed for the English language dependence on ligatures did not carry over to digital. Ligature use fell as the number of traditional hand compositors and hot metal typesetting machine operators dropped due to the mass production of the IBM Selectric brand of electric typewriter in 1961. A designer active in the period commented: "some of the world's greatest typefaces were becoming some of the world's worst fonts."Ligatures have grown in popularity over the last 20 years due to an increasing interest in creating typesetting systems that evoke arcane designs and classical scripts. One of the first computer typesetting programs to take advantage of computer-driven typesetting was Donald Knuth's TeX program. Now the standard method of mathematical typesetting, its default fonts are explicitly based on nineteenth-century styles. Many new fonts feature extensive ligature sets. Mrs Eaves by Zuzana Licko contains a large set to allow designers to create dramatic display text with a feel of antiquity.
A parallel use of ligatures is seen in the creation of script fonts that join letterforms to simulate handwriting effectively. This trend is caused in part by the increased support for other languages and alphabets in modern computing, many of which use ligatures somewhat extensively; this has caused the development of new digital typesetting techniques such as OpenType, the incorporation of ligature support into the text display systems of macOS, applications like Microsoft Office. An increasing modern trend is to use a "Th" ligature which reduces spacing between these letters to make it easier to read, a trait infrequent in metal type. Today, modern font programming divides ligatures into three groups, which can be activated separately: standard and historical. Standard ligatures are needed to allow the font to display without errors such as character collision. Designers sometimes find contextual and historic ligatures desirable for creating effects or to evoke an old-fashioned print look.
Many ligatures combine f with the following letter. A prominent example is ﬁ; the tittle of t
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the US, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system; the Industrial Revolution led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company.
The development of trade and the rise of business were major causes of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth; some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries. GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. Although the structural change from agriculture to industry is associated with the Industrial Revolution, in the United Kingdom it was almost complete by 1760.
The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. Eric Hobsbawm held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred between 1760 and 1830. Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and textiles in France. An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the original innovations of the Industrial Revolution, such as mechanized spinning and weaving and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth.
Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. These new innovations included new steel making processes, mass-production, assembly lines, electrical grid systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of advanced machinery in steam-powered factories; the earliest recorded use of the term "Industrial Revolution" seems to have been in a letter from 6 July 1799 written by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, announcing that France had entered the race to industrialise. In his 1976 book Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for "Industry": "The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century." The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was becoming more common by the late 1830s, as in Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui's description in 1837 of la révolution industrielle.
Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society". However, although Engels wrote in the 1840s, his book was not translated into English until the late 1800s, his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose 1881 lectures gave a detailed account of the term; some historians, such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts, have argued that the economic and social changes occurred and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among some historians; the commencement of the Industrial Revolution is linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around 500.
The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40. The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50. Large gains in productivity occurred in spinning and weaving of w
A logo is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type, as opposed to a ligature, two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today synonymous with its trademark or brand. Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, including cylinder seals, trans-cultural diffusion of logographic languages, coats of arms, silver hallmarks, the development of printing technology; as the industrial revolution converted western societies from agrarian to industrial in the 18th and 19th centuries and lithography contributed to the boom of an advertising industry that integrated typography and imagery together on the page.
Typography itself was undergoing a revolution of form and expression that expanded beyond the modest, serif typefaces used in books, to bold, ornamental typefaces used on broadsheet posters. The arts were expanding in purpose—from expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands and products that the growing middle classes were consuming. Consultancies and trades-groups in the commercial arts were organizing. Artistic credit tended to be assigned to the lithographic company, as opposed to the individual artists who performed less important jobs. Innovators in the visual arts and lithographic process—such as French printing firm Rouchon in the 1840s, Joseph Morse of New York in the 1850s, Frederick Walker of England in the 1870s, Jules Chéret of France in the 1870s—developed an illustrative style that went beyond tonal, representational art to figurative imagery with sections of bright, flat colors. Playful children’s books, authoritative newspapers, conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, expanding audiences.
As printing costs decreased, literacy rates increased, visual styles changed, the Victorian decorative arts led to an expansion of typographic styles and methods of representing businesses. The Arts and Crafts Movement of late-19th century in response to the excesses of Victorian typography, aimed to restore an honest sense of craftsmanship to the mass-produced goods of the era. A renewal of interest in craftsmanship and quality provided the artists and companies with a greater interest in credit, leading to the creation of unique logos and marks. By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an avant-garde artistic movement in Europe to become an international, commercialized movement with adherents in the United States and elsewhere; the visual simplicity and conceptual clarity that were the hallmarks of Modernism as an artistic movement formed a powerful toolset for a new generation of graphic designers whose logos embodied Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s dictum, "Less is more." Modernist-inspired logos proved successful in the era of mass visual communication ushered in by television, improvements in printing technology, digital innovations.
The current era of logo design began in the 1870s with the first abstract logo, the Bass red triangle. As of 2014, many corporations, brands, services and other entities use an ideogram or an emblem or a combination of sign and emblem as a logo; as a result, only a few of the thousands of ideograms in circulation are recognizable without a name. An effective logo may consist of both an ideogram and the company name to emphasize the name over the graphic, employ a unique design via the use of letters and additional graphic elements. Ideograms and symbols may be more effective than written names for logos translated into many alphabets in globalized markets. For instance, a name written in Arabic script might have little resonance in most European markets. By contrast, ideograms keep the general proprietary nature of a product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross exemplifies a well-known emblem that does not need an accompanying name; the red cross and red crescent are among the best-recognized symbols in the world.
National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and their Federation as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross include these symbols in their logos. Branding can aim to facilitate cross-language marketing. Consumers and potential consumers can identify the Coca-Cola name written in different alphabets because of the standard color and "ribbon wave" design of its logo; the text was written in Spencerian Script, a popular writing style when the Coca Cola Logo was being designed. Since a logo is the visual entity signifying an organization, logo design is an important area of graphic design. A logo is the central element of a complex identification system that must be functionally extended to all communications of an organization. Therefore, the design of logos and their incorporation in a visual identity system is one of the most difficult and important areas of graphic design. Logos fall into three classifications. Ideographs, such as Chase Bank, are abstr
A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both informative. Posters may be used for many purposes, they are a frequent tool of advertisers, propagandists and other groups trying to communicate a message. Posters are used for reproductions of artwork famous works, are low-cost compared to the original artwork; the modern poster, as we know it, dates back to the 1840s and 1850s when the printing industry perfected colour lithography and made mass production possible. According to the French historian Max Gallo, "for over two hundred years, posters have been displayed in public places all over the world. Visually striking, they have been designed to attract the attention of passers-by, making us aware of a political viewpoint, enticing us to attend specific events, or encouraging us to purchase a particular product or service."
The modern poster, as we know it, dates back to the mid-nineteenth century, when several separate but related changes took place. First, the printing industry perfected colour lithography and made mass production of large and inexpensive images possible. Second, government censorship of public spaces in countries like France was lifted, and advertisers began to market mass-produced consumer goods to a growing populace in urban areas."In little more than a hundred years", writes poster expert John Barnicoat, "it has come to be recognized as a vital art form, attracting artists at every level, from painters like Toulouse-Lautrec and Mucha to theatrical and commercial designers." They have ranged in styles from Art Nouveau, Symbolism and Art Deco to the more formal Bauhaus and the incoherent hippie posters of the 1960s. Posters, in the form of placards and posted bills, have been used since earliest times for advertising and announcements. Purely textual posters have a long history: they advertised the plays of Shakespeare and made citizens aware of government proclamations for centuries.
However, the great revolution in posters was the development of printing techniques that allowed for cheap mass production and printing, including notably the technique lithography, invented in 1796 by the German Alois Senefelder. The invention of lithography was soon followed by chromolithography, which allowed for mass editions of posters illustrated in vibrant colors to be printed. By the 1890s, the technique had spread throughout Europe. A number of noted French artists created poster art in this period, foremost amongst them Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Adolphe Willette, Pierre Bonnard, Louis Anguetin, Alfred Choubrac, Georges de Feure and Henri-Gabriel Ibels. Chéret is considered to be the "father" of advertisement placards, he was a pencil artist and a scene decorator, who founded a small lithography office in Paris in 1866. He used striking characters and bright colors, created over 1000 advertisements for exhibitions and products; the industry soon attracted the service of many aspiring painters who needed a source of revenue to support themselves.
Chéret developed a new lithographic technique that suited better the needs of advertisers: he added a lot more colour which, in conjunction with innovative typography, rendered the poster much more expressive. Not Chéret is said to have introduced sex in advertising or, at least, to have exploited the feminine image as an advertising ploy. In contrast with those painted by Toulouse-Lautrec, Chéret's laughing and provocative feminine figures called "chérettes," meant a new conception of art as being of service to advertising. Posters soon transformed the thoroughfares of Paris, making the streets into what one contemporary called "the poor man’s picture gallery." Their commercial success was such. Some of these artists were, like Alphonse Mucha, in great demand and theatre stars selected their own favorite artist to do the poster for an upcoming performance; the popularity of poster art was such. By the 1890s, poster art had widespread usage in other parts of Europe, advertising everything from bicycles to bullfights.
By the end of the 19th century, during an era known as the Belle Époque, the standing of the poster as a serious artform was raised further. Between 1895 and 1900, Jules Chéret created the Maîtres de l'Affiche series that became not only a commercial success but is now seen as an important historical publication. Alphonse Mucha and Eugène Grasset were influential poster designers of this generation, known for their Art Nouveau style and stylized figures of women. Advertisement posters became a special type of graphic art in the modern age. Poster artists such as Théophile Steinlen, Albert Guillaume, Leonetto Cappiello, Henri Thiriet and others became important figures of their day, their art form transferred to magazines for advertising as well as for social and political commentary. Indeed, as design historian Elizabeth Guffey notes, “As large, colorful posters began to command the spaces of public streets and squares, the format itself took on a civic respectability never afforded to Victorian handbills.”In the United States, posters underwent a different evolution.
By the 1850s, the advent of the traveling circus brought colorful posters to tell citizens that a carnival was coming to town. While many of these posters were beautifully printed, the earliest were mass
A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light, caused by thickness or density variations in the paper. Watermarks have been used on postage stamps and other government documents to discourage counterfeiting. There are two main ways of producing watermarks in paper. Watermarks vary in their visibility. Various aids have been developed, such as watermark fluid. A watermark is useful in the examination of paper because it can be used for dating, identifying sizes, mill trademarks and locations, determining the quality of a sheet of paper; the word is used for digital practices that share similarities with physical watermarks. In one case, overprint on computer-printed output may be used to identify output from an unlicensed trial version of a program. In another instance, identifying codes can be encoded as a digital watermark for a music, picture, or other file; the origin of the water part of a watermark can be found back when a watermark was something that only existed in paper.
At that time the watermark was created by changing the thickness of the paper and thereby creating a shadow/lightness in the watermarked paper. This was done while the paper was still wet/watery and therefore the mark created by this process is called a watermark. Watermarks were first introduced in Fabriano, Italy, in 1282. Traditionally, a watermark was made by impressing a water-coated metal stamp or dandy roll onto the paper during manufacturing; the invention of the dandy roll in 1826 by John Marshall revolutionised the watermark process and made it easier for producers to watermark their paper. The dandy roll is a light roller covered by material similar to window screen, embossed with a pattern. Faint lines are made by laid wires that run parallel to the axis of the dandy roll, the bold lines are made by chain wires that run around the circumference to secure the laid wires to the roll from the outside; because the chain wires are located on the outside of the laid wires, they have a greater influence on the impression in the pulp, hence their bolder appearance than the laid wire lines.
This embossing is transferred to the pulp fibres and reducing their thickness in that area. Because the patterned portion of the page is thinner, it transmits more light through and therefore has a lighter appearance than the surrounding paper. If these lines are distinct and parallel, and/or there is a watermark the paper is termed laid paper. If the lines appear as a mesh or are indiscernible, and/or there is no watermark it is called wove paper; this method is called line drawing watermarks. Another type of watermark is called the cylinder mould watermark, it is a shaded watermark first used in 1848 that incorporates tonal depth and creates a greyscale image. Instead of using a wire covering for the dandy roll, the shaded watermark is created by areas of relief on the roll's own surface. Once dry, the paper may be rolled again to produce a watermark of thickness but with varying density; the resulting watermark is much clearer and more detailed than those made by the Dandy Roll process, as such Cylinder Mould Watermark Paper is the preferred type of watermarked paper for banknotes, motor vehicle titles, other documents where it is an important anti-counterfeiting measure.
In philately, the watermark is a key feature of a stamp, constitutes the difference between a common and a rare stamp. Collectors who encounter two otherwise identical stamps with different watermarks consider each stamp to be a separate identifiable issue; the "classic" stamp watermark is a small crown or other national symbol, appearing either once on each stamp or a continuous pattern. Watermarks were nearly universal on stamps in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but fell out of use and are not used on modern U. S. issues. Some types of embossing, such as that used to make the "cross on oval" design on early stamps of Switzerland, resemble a watermark in that the paper is thinner, but can be distinguished by having sharper edges than is usual for a normal watermark. Stamp paper watermarks show various designs, letters and pictorial elements; the process of bringing out the stamp watermark is simple. Sometimes a watermark in stamp paper can be seen just by looking at the unprinted back side of a stamp.
More the collector must use a few basic items to get a good look at the watermark. For example, watermark fluid may be applied to the back of a stamp to temporarily reveal the watermark. Using the simple watermarking method described, it can be difficult to distinguish some watermarks. Watermarks on stamps printed in yellow and orange can be difficult to see. A few mechanical devices are used by collectors to detect watermarks on stamps such as the Morley-Bright watermark detector and the more expensive Safe Signoscope; such devices can be useful for they can be used without the application of watermark fluid and allow the collector to look at the watermark for a longer period of time to more detect the watermark. Audio watermark detection Thomas Harry Saunders Allan H. Stevenson Overprinting Overprint Buxton, B. H; the Buxton Encyclopedia of Watermarks. Tappan, N. Y.: Buxton Stamp Co. 1977 114p. Felix, Ervin J; the Stamp Collector's Guidebook of Worldwide Perforations, from 1840 to date. Racine, WI.: Whitman Publishing Co. 1966 256p.
A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface wet clay. Cylinder seals were invented around 3500 BC in the Near East, at the contemporary sites of Uruk in southern Mesopotamia and later at Susa in south-western Iran during the Proto-Elamite period, they are linked to the invention of the latter’s cuneiform writing on clay tablets. They were used as an administrative tool, a form of signature, as well as jewelry and as magical amulets. In periods, they were used to notarize or attest to multiple impressions of clay documents. Graves and other sites housing precious items such as gold, silver and gemstones included one or two cylinder seals, as honorific grave goods; the cylinder seals themselves are made from hardstones, some are a form of engraved gem. They may instead use glass or ceramics, like Egyptian faience. Many varieties of material such as hematite, steatite, lapis lazuli and carnelian were used to make cylinder seals.
As the alluvial country of Mesopotamia lacks good stone for carving, the large stones of early cylinders were imported from Iran. Most seals have a hole running through the centre of the body, they are thought to have been worn on a necklace so that they were always available when needed. While most Mesopotamian cylinder seals form an image through the use of depressions in the cylinder surface, some cylinder seals print images using raised areas on the cylinder; the former are used on wet clays. Cylinder seals are a form of impression seal, a category which includes the stamp seal and finger ring seal, they survive in large numbers and are important as art in the Babylonian and earlier Assyrian periods. Impressions into a soft material can be taken without risk of damage to the seal, they are displayed in museums together with a modern impression on a small strip. Cylinder seal impressions were made on a variety of surfaces: amulets bales of commodities bricks clay tablets cloth components of fabricated objects doors envelopes storage jars The images depicted on cylinder seals were theme-driven sociological or religious.
Instead of addressing the authority of the seal, a better study may be of the thematic nature of the seals, since they presented the ideas of the society in pictographic and text form. In a famous cylinder depicting Darius I of Persia: he is aiming his drawn bow at an upright enraged lion impaled by two arrows, while his chariot horse is trampling a deceased lion; the scene is framed between two slim palm trees, a block of cuneiform text, above the scene, the Faravahar symbol of Ahura Mazda, the god representation of Zoroastrianism. The reference below, covers many of the following categories of cylinder seal. Dominique Collon's book First Impressions, dedicated to the topic, has over 1000 illustrations. A categorization of cylinder seals: Akkadian cylinder seals. Akkadian seal, ca. 2300 BC, stone seal w/ modern impression. See National Geographic Ref; the glyptic shows "God in barge", offerings. Assyrian cylinder seals. Cypriote Cylinder Seals. Egyptian cylinder seals. Predynastic Egyptian Naqada era graves.
Egyptian Faience. Hittite cylinder seals. Clay envelope usage, etc.. Kassite, cylinder seals. Mittanian cylinder seals. Old Babylonian cylinder seals. Persian cylinder seals. Proto-Elamite cylinder seals. Sumerian cylinder seals. Seals of the "Moon-God". See Ref. Seal of Ur-Nammu, 2112-2095 BC. Close-up picture of Seal, adjacent'modern impression', high resolution, 2X-3X natural size. "Shamash pictographic seals". Neo-Sumerian cylinder seals. See Ref, "Seated God, Worshippers", Cylinder seal, a modern Impressin, p. 40. Syrian cylinder seals. Ancient Near Eastern seals and sealing practices Seal Impression seal Stamp seal LMLK seal Mudbrick stamp Scaraboid seal Bahn, Paul. Lost Treasures, Great Discoveries in World Archaeology, Ed. by Paul G. Bahn, c 1999. Examples of, or discussions of Stamp seals, cylinder seals and a metal stamp seal. Collon, Dominique. First Impressions, Cylinder Seals in the Ancient Near East, 1987, 2005. Comprehensive and up to date account, with many illustrations; the author has compiled several of the volumes cataloging the collection of cylinder seals in the British Museum.
Collon, Dominique. Near Eastern Seals, 1990. Shorter account which includes stamp seals. Part of the BM's Interpreting the Past series Frankfort, H. Cylinder Seals, 1939, London. A classic, though doesn't reflect research. Garbini, Giovanni. Landmarks of the World's Art, The Ancient World, by Giovanni Garbini, General Eds, Bernard S. Myers, New York, Trewin Copplestone, London, c 1966. "Discussion, or pictures of about 25 cylinder seals". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Cuneiform Texts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Tablets and Bricks of the Third and Second Millennia B. C. vol. 1 (New Yor