SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Emblem

An emblem is an abstract or representational pictorial image that represents a concept, like a moral truth, or an allegory, or a person, like a king or saint. Although the words emblem and symbol are used interchangeably, an emblem is a pattern, used to represent an idea or an individual. An emblem crystallizes in concrete, visual terms some abstraction: a deity, a tribe or nation, or a virtue or vice. An emblem may be otherwise used as an identifying badge or patch. For example, in America, police officers' badges refer to their personal metal emblem whereas their woven emblems on uniforms identify members of a particular unit. A real or metal cockle shell, the emblem of St. James the Apostle, sewn onto the hat or clothes, identified a medieval pilgrim to his shrine at Santiago de Compostela. In the Middle Ages, many saints were given emblems, which served to identify them in paintings and other images: St. Catherine had a wheel, or a sword, St. Anthony Abbot, a pig and a small bell; these are called attributes when shown carried by or close to the saint in art.

Kings and other grand persons adopted personal devices or emblems that were distinct from their family heraldry. The most famous include Louis XIV of France's sun, the salamander of Francis I of France, the boar of Richard III of England and the armillary sphere of Manuel I of Portugal. In the fifteenth and sixteenth century, there was a fashion, started in Italy, for making large medals with a portrait head on the obverse and the emblem on the reverse. Pisanello produced many of the finest of these. A symbol, on the other hand, substitutes one thing for another, in a more concrete fashion: The Christian cross is a symbol of the Crucifixion; the Red Cross is one of three symbols representing the International Red Cross. A red cross on a white background is the emblem of humanitarian spirit; the crescent shape is a symbol of the moon. The skull and crossbones is a symbol identifying a poison; the skull is an emblem of the transitory nature of human life. A totem is an animal emblem that expresses the spirit of a clan.

Heraldry knows its emblems as charges. The lion passant serves as the emblem of England, the lion rampant as the emblem of Scotland. An icon consists of an image. A logo is an impersonal, secular icon of a corporate entity. Since the 15th century the terms of emblem and emblematura belong to the termini technici of architecture, they mean an iconic painted, drawn, or sculptural representation of a concept affixed to houses and belong—like the inscriptions—to the architectural ornaments. Since the publication of De Re Aedificatoria, by Leon Battista Alberti, patterned after the De architectura by the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius, emblema are related to Egyptian hieroglyphics and are considered as being the lost universal language. Therefore, the emblems belong to the Renaissance knowledge of antiquity which comprises not only Greek and Roman antiquity but Egyptian antiquity as proven by the numerous obelisks built in 16th and 17th century Rome; the 1531 publication in Augsburg of the first emblem book, the Emblemata of the Italian jurist Andrea Alciato launched a fascination with emblems that lasted two centuries and touched most of the countries of western Europe.

"Emblem" in this sense refers to a didactic or moralizing combination of picture and text intended to draw the reader into a self-reflective examination of his or her own life. Complicated associations of emblems could transmit information to the culturally-informed viewer, a characteristic of the 16th-century artistic movement called Mannerism. A popular collection of emblems, which ran to many editions, was presented by Francis Quarles in 1635; each of the emblems consisted of a paraphrase from a passage of Scripture, expressed in ornate and metaphorical language, followed by passages from the Christian Fathers, concluding with an epigram of four lines. These were accompanied by an emblem that presented the symbols displayed in the accompanying passage. Emblems are certain gestures; these meanings are associated with the culture they are established in. Using emblems creates a way for humans to communicate with one another in a non-verbal way. An individual waving their hand at a friend, for example, would communicate "hello" without having to verbally say anything.

Although sign language uses hand gestures to communicate words in a non-verbal way, it should not be confused with emblems. Sign language contains linguistic properties, similar to those used in verbal languages, is used to communicate entire conversations. Linguistic properties are verbs, pronouns, adjectives, etc... In contrast with sign language, emblems are a non-linguistic form of communication. Emblems are single gestures. Emblems are associated with the culture they are subjective to that culture. For example, the sign made by forming a circle with the thumb and forefinger is used in America to communicate "OK" in a non-verbal way, in Japan to mean "money", in some southern European countries to mean something sexual. Furthermore, the thumbs up sign in America means "good job ", but in some parts of the Middle East the thumbs up sign means something offensive. Coat of Arms Crest Emblem book Meme Mission patch National emblem Saint symbology Seal Symbol Badge Drysdall, Denis. "Claude Mign

Winifred Dawson

Winifred Dawson was a librarian and close friend of Philip Larkin. Winifred Dawson was born in Stourbridge and spent her early life in North East England, her parents were Samuel Clauson Arnott, an electrical engineer, Bertha Arnott. At the start of the Second World War she was evacuated to Lisburn in Northern Ireland, where she lived with her father's relations until the German bombing of Belfast, when she was evacuated to a Huguenot castle on the coast of the Irish Sea, she studied English at Queen's University Belfast, graduating in 1949. She worked as a cataloguer in Queen's Great Library, completed postgraduate studies at Birkbeck College in London. In 1954 she married Geoffrey Bradshaw, who worked for the Ministry of Defense in London, the couple had three children, their marriage ended in divorce in 1976. Dawson remarried in 1981 to Grant Dawson. In 2014 she self-published the life of Amy Audrey Locke, she came across the story of historian Amy Audrey Locke whilst working as a librarian at St Swithun's school in Winchester.

She was a committed member of the Larkin Society and enjoyed travel, hill walking, singing in choirs. Dawson died in 2014 from a stroke, aged 85. Dawson was a close friend of the poet Philip Larkin; the relationship between them has been described as a'romantic friendship'. They met at Queen's University Belfast in the 1950s, where Dawson worked as a library assistant and Larkin as a librarian. Dawson was the inspiration and subject of several of Philip Larkin's poems, including Lines on a Young Lady's Photograph Album. Dawson read one of Larkin's poems at the unveiling of the Larkin plaque at King's Cross station in London, she had friendships with other women connected to Larkin, including Maeve Brennan, Jean Hartley, Larkin's former fiancée Ruth Siverns. In the Selected Letters of Philip Larkin, 26 are to Dawson, many of which date from her time studying for a postgraduate diploma in librarianship in London. Philip Larkin's letters to Dawson are held at the Bodleian University of Oxford. Dawson's letters to Larkin, along with a photograph album that inspired Larkin's poem Lines on a Young Lady's Photograph Album, are held at Hull University Archives

Embassy of the United States to the Holy See

The Embassy of the United States of America to the Holy See is the diplomatic mission of United States of America to the Holy See, a term referring to the central government and universal reach of the Roman Catholic Church. The current embassy moved to new headquarters in September 2015 in a separate building on the same compound as the United States Embassy Rome; the embassy was located on Aventine Hill in the Villa Domiziana in Rome, built as a private residence in 1953. In 1994, the U. S. government acquired the property as the new chancery for embassy. On October 16, 2017, Callista L. Gingrich was confirmed by the U. S. Senate as the next Ambassador to the Holy See; the embassy is a part of the "Tri-Mission Community" in Rome, the other two being the Embassy of the United States and the United States Mission to the U. N. Agencies in Rome. Formal diplomatic relations with the Holy See were established in 1984 by President Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II; the mission works in partnership with the Holy See on global issues including: democracy and security.

This facility became the focus of an unexpected controversy when it was falsely reported on November 27, 2013, that the Embassy would be closed. The embassy was set to be transferred in January 2015 to a larger building adjacent to the U. S. Embassy to Italy for reasons of cost and proximity to the Vatican itself. However, as part of a broader push to cut security for U. S. embassies, Congress blocked the move in 2014. The Embassy of the United States to the Holy See located on Aventine Hill, moved to new headquarters in September 2015 in a separate building on the same compound as the United States Embassy Rome. Official website