The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow a learning curve, Learning does not happen all at once, but it builds upon and is shaped by previous knowledge. To that end, learning may be viewed as a process, Learning produces changes in the organism and the changes produced are relatively permanent. Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development, schooling and it may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation. The study of how learning occurs is part of psychology, learning theory. Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness, Learning that an aversive event cant be avoided nor escaped is called learned helplessness. Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning, children experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact through play. Lev Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for childrens development, since they make meaning of their environment through playing educational games, non-associative learning refers to a relatively permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus due to repeated exposure to that stimulus.
Changes due to such factors as sensory adaptation, fatigue, or injury do not qualify as non-associative learning, non-associative learning can be divided into habituation and sensitization. Habituation is an example of learning in which the strength or probability of a response diminishes when the response is repeated. The response is typically a reflex or unconditioned response, habituation must be distinguished from extinction, which is an associative process. In operant extinction, for example, a response declines because it is no longer followed by reward. An example of habituation can be seen in small song birds—if a stuffed owl is put into the cage, soon the birds react less, showing habituation. If another stuffed owl is introduced, the birds react to it again as though it were a predator, habituation has been shown in essentially every species of animal, as well as the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica and the large protozoan Stentor coeruleus. Sensitization is an example of learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus.
An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated stimulation of peripheral nerves that occurs if a person rubs their arm continuously. After a while, this creates a warm sensation that eventually turns painful. The pain results from the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning that the stimulation is harmful, sensitisation is thought to underlie both adaptive as well as maladaptive learning processes in the organism
The Interpretation of Dreams
Freud revised the book at least eight times and, in the third edition, added an extensive section which treated dream symbolism very literally, following the influence of Wilhelm Stekel. Freud said of this work, Insight such as this falls to ones lot, the book was first published in an edition of 600 copies, which did not sell out for eight years. The Interpretation of Dreams gained in popularity, and seven editions were published in Freuds lifetime. Because of the length and complexity, Freud wrote an abridged version called On Dreams. The original text is regarded as one of Freuds most significant works. Freud spent the summer of 1895 at Schloss BelleVue near Grinzing in Austria, at the moment I see little prospect of it. — Freud in a letter to Wilhelm Fliess, June 12,1900 While staying at Schloss Bellevue and his reading and analysis of the dream allowed him to be exonerated from his mishandling of the treatment of a patient in 1895. In 1963, Belle Vue manor was demolished, but today a plaque with just that inscription has been erected at the site by the Austrian Sigmund Freud Society.
Dreams, in Freuds view, are all forms of wish fulfillment — attempts by the unconscious to resolve a conflict of some sort, whether something recent or something from the recesses of the past. Because the information in the unconscious is in an unruly and often disturbing form, Freud introduced the term manifest content to describe what the dream recalled. As such, images in dreams are not what they appear to be, according to Freud. Freud used to mention the dreams as The Royal Road to the Unconscious and he proposed the phenomenon of condensation, the idea that one simple symbol or image presented in a persons dream may have multiple meanings. For this very reason, Freud tried to focus on details during psychoanalysis, an abridged version called On Dreams was published in 1901 as part of Lowenfeld and Kurellas Grenzfragen des Nerven und Seelenlebens. It was re-published in 1911 in slightly larger form as a book, on Dreams is included in the 1953 edition and the second part of Freuds work on dreams, Volume Five, The Interpretation of Dreams II and On Dreams.
It follows chapter seven in The Interpretation of Dreams and in this edition, is fifty three pages in length, there are thirteen chapters in total and Freud directs the reader to The Interpretation of Dreams for further reading throughout On Dreams, in particular, in the final chapter. Immediately after its publication, Freud considered On Dreams as a version of The Interpretation of Dreams. The English translation of On Dreams was first published in 1914, Freud investigates the subject of displacement and our inability to recognize our dreams. This accomplished by investigation will terminate as it will reach the point where the problem of the dream meets broader problems and he makes his argument by describing a number of dreams which he claims illustrate his theory
In geometry, an octagon is an eight-sided polygon or 8-gon. A regular octagon has Schläfli symbol and can be constructed as a truncated square, t. A truncated octagon, t is a hexadecagon, t, the sum of all the internal angles of any octagon is 1080°. As with all polygons, the external angles total 360°, the midpoint octagon of a reference octagon has its eight vertices at the midpoints of the sides of the reference octagon. A regular octagon is a figure with sides of the same length. It has eight lines of symmetry and rotational symmetry of order 8. A regular octagon is represented by the Schläfli symbol, the internal angle at each vertex of a regular octagon is 135°. The area of an octagon of side length a is given by A =2 cot π8 a 2 =2 a 2 ≃4.828 a 2. In terms of the circumradius R, the area is A =4 sin π4 R2 =22 R2 ≃2.828 R2. In terms of the r, the area is A =8 tan π8 r 2 =8 r 2 ≃3.314 r 2. These last two coefficients bracket the value of pi, the area of the unit circle. The area can be expressed as A = S2 − a 2, where S is the span of the octagon, or the second-shortest diagonal, and a is the length of one of the sides, or bases.
This is easily proven if one takes an octagon, draws a square around the outside and takes the corner triangles and places them with right angles pointed inward, the edges of this square are each the length of the base. Given the length of a side a, the span S is S = a 2 + a + a 2 = a ≈2.414 a. The area is as above, A =2 − a 2 =2 a 2 ≈4.828 a 2, expressed in terms of the span, the area is A =2 S2 ≈0.828 S2. Another simple formula for the area is A =2 a S, more often the span S is known, and the length of the sides, a, is to be determined, as when cutting a square piece of material into a regular octagon. From the above, a ≈ S /2.414, the two end lengths e on each side, as well as being e = a /2, may be calculated as e = /2. The circumradius of the octagon in terms of the side length a is R = a
A uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organizations activity. Modern uniforms are most often worn by armed forces and paramilitary organizations such as police, emergency services, security guards, in workplaces and schools. In some countries, some other officials wear uniforms in their duties, for some public groups, such as police, it is illegal for non members to wear the uniform. Workers sometimes wear uniforms or corporate clothing of one nature or another, the use of uniforms by these organizations is often an effort in branding and developing a standard corporate image but has important effects on the employees required to wear the uniform. Academic work on organizational dress by Rafaeli & Pratt referred to uniformity of dress as one dimension, and conspicuousness as a second. Employees all wearing black, for example, may appear conspicuous and thus represent the organization even though their attire is uniform only in the color of their appearance, not in its features.
Pratt & Rafaeli, described struggles between employees and management about organizational dress as struggles about deeper meanings and identities that dress represents, and Pratt & Rafaeli described dress as one of the larger set of symbols and artifacts in organizations which coalesce into a communication grammar. Uniforms are required in many schools, school uniforms vary from a standard issue T-shirt to rigorous requirements for many items of formal wear at private schools. School uniforms are in place in public schools as well. The ties will usually be in a set pattern for the school, and jackets will usually carry a patch on the breast pocket with the name, coat of arms. Jackets are being replaced in many schools by sweatshirts bearing the school badge, children in many United Kingdom state primary schools will have a uniform jumper and/or polo shirt with the school name and logo. From about 1800 to after the Second World War, diplomats from most countries wore official uniforms at public occasions, such uniforms are now retained by only a few diplomatic services, and are seldom worn. A prison uniform is any uniform worn by individuals incarcerated in a prison, most, if not all, sports teams wear uniforms, made in the teams distinctive colors.
In individual sports like tennis and golf, players may choose any clothing design allowed by the competition rules, National Football League and National Hockey League teams wear their color uniforms for home games. By contrast, Major League Baseball and National Basketball Association teams wear their uniforms for home games. These rules are not strictly enforced, for any of the four professional sports leagues in North America. Some NFL teams, most notably the Dallas Cowboys, prefer to wear their white jerseys for home games, when Joe Gibbs was the head coach of the Washington Redskins — first from 1981-1992, and again from 2004-2007 — the Redskins exclusively wore white jerseys at home games. In the United Kingdom, especially in football, the kit or strip are more common
An emblem is an abstract or representational pictorial image that represents a concept, like a moral truth, or an allegory, or a person, like a king or saint. Although the words emblem and symbol are used interchangeably, an emblem is a pattern that is used to represent an idea or an individual. An emblem crystallizes in concrete, visual terms some abstraction, a deity, an emblem may be worn or otherwise used as an identifying badge or patch. For example, in America, police officers badges refer to their personal metal emblem whereas their woven emblems on uniforms identify members of a particular unit. A real or metal shell, the emblem of St. James the Apostle, sewn onto the hat or clothes. In the Middle Ages, many saints were given emblems, which served to them in paintings and other images, St. Catherine had a wheel, or a sword, St. Anthony Abbot, a pig. These are called attributes, especially when carried by or close to the saint in art. Kings and other grand persons increasingly adopted personal devices or emblems that were distinct from their family heraldry.
The most famous include Louis XIV of Frances sun, the salamander of Francis I of France, the boar of Richard III of England, pisanello produced many of the earliest and finest of these. A symbol, on the hand, substitutes one thing for another, in a more concrete fashion, The Christian cross is a symbol of the Crucifixion. The Red Cross is one of three representing the International Red Cross. A red cross on a background is the emblem of humanitarian spirit. The crescent shape is a symbol of the moon, it is an emblem of Islam, the skull and crossbones is a symbol identifying a poison. The skull is an emblem of the nature of human life. A totem is specifically an animal emblem that expresses the spirit of a clan, heraldry knows its emblems as charges. The lion passant serves as the emblem of England, the lion rampant as the emblem of Scotland, an icon consists of an image, that has become standardized by convention. A logo is an impersonal, secular icon, usually of a corporate entity, since the 15th century the terms of emblem and emblematura belong to the termini technici of architecture.
They mean an iconic painted, drawn, or sculptural representation of a concept affixed to houses, Emblem in this sense refers to a didactic or moralizing combination of picture and text intended to draw the reader into a self-reflective examination of his or her own life
Joseph John Campbell was an American mythologist and lecturer, best known for his work in comparative mythology and comparative religion. His work covers many aspects of the human experience, Campbells magnum opus is his book titled The Hero with a Thousand Faces in which he discusses his theory of the journey of the archetypal hero found in world mythologies. Since publication of The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Campbells theory has been applied by a wide variety of modern writers. His philosophy has been summarized by his own often repeated phrase, Joseph Campbell was born in White Plains, New York, the son of Josephine and Charles William Campbell. He was from an upper-middle-class Irish Catholic family, during his childhood, he moved with his family to nearby New Rochelle, New York. In 1919 a fire destroyed the home in New Rochelle. In 1921 Campbell graduated from the Canterbury School in New Milford, while at Dartmouth College he studied biology and mathematics, but decided that he preferred the humanities.
He transferred to Columbia University, where he received a BA in English literature in 1925, at Dartmouth he had joined Delta Tau Delta. An accomplished athlete, he received awards in track and field events, in 1924 Campbell traveled to Europe with his family. In 1927 Campbell received a fellowship from Columbia University to study in Europe, Campbell studied Old French, Provençal and Sanskrit at the University of Paris in France and the University of Munich in Germany. He learned to read and speak French and German, on his return to Columbia University in 1929, Campbell expressed a desire to pursue the study of Sanskrit and Modern Art in addition to Medieval literature. Lacking faculty approval, Campbell withdrew from graduate studies, in life he said while laughing but not in jest that it is a sign of incompetence to have a PhD in the liberal arts, the discipline covering his work. With the arrival of the Great Depression a few later, Campbell spent the next five years living in a rented shack on some land in Woodstock.
There, he contemplated the next course of his life engaged in intensive. He said that he would divide the day into four four-hour periods, I would get nine hours of sheer reading done a day. And this went on for five years straight, Campbell traveled to California for a year, continuing his independent studies and becoming close friends with the budding writer John Steinbeck and his wife Carol. On the Monterey Peninsula, like John Steinbeck, fell under the spell of marine biologist Ed Ricketts, Campbell began writing a novel centered on Ricketts as a hero but, unlike Steinbeck, did not complete his book. Bruce Robison writes that Campbell would refer to days as a time when everything in his life was taking shape
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Star of David
The Star of David, known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David, is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism. Its shape is that of a hexagram, the compound of two equilateral triangles, unlike the menorah, the Lion of Judah, the shofar and the lulav, the Star of David was never a uniquely Jewish symbol. During the 19th century the symbol began to proliferate amongst the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe, a significant motivating factor was the desire to imitate the influence of the Christian cross. The earliest Jewish usage of the symbol was inherited from medieval Arabic literature by Kabbalists for use in talismanic protective amulets where it was known as a Seal of Solomon. The symbol was used in Christian churches as a decorative motif many centuries before its first known use in a Jewish synagogue. The symbol became representative of the worldwide Zionist community, and the broader Jewish community, the identification of the term Star of David or Shield of David with the hexagram shape dates to the 17th century.
The term Shield of David is used in the Siddur as a title of the God of Israel, the hexagram does appear occasionally in Jewish contexts since antiquity, apparently as a decorative motif. For example, in Israel, there is a bearing a hexagram from the arch of a 3rd–4th century synagogue in the Galilee. Originally, the hexagram may have employed as an architectural ornament on synagogues, as it is, for example, on the cathedrals of Brandenburg and Stendal. A pentagram in this form is found on the ancient synagogue at Tell Hum, in the synagogues, perhaps, it was associated with the mezuzah. Similarly, the symbol illuminates a medieval Tanakh manuscript dated 1307 belonging to Rabbi Yosef bar Yehuda ben Marvas from Toledo, Spain. A Siddur dated 1512 from Prague displays a large hexagram on the cover with the phrase, turcomans who ruled in Anatolia during the 13th century, inherited it from the Seljuk Turks. A hexagram has been noted on a Jewish tombstone in Taranto, Apulia in Southern Italy, the Jews of Apulia were noted for their scholarship in Kabbalah, which has been connected to the use of the Star of David.
Medieval Kabbalistic grimoires show hexagrams among the tables of segulot, the six sfirot of the masculine Zer Anpin correspond to the six items on the seder plate, while the seventh sfira being the feminine Malkhut corresponds to the plate itself. However, these triangles are parallel, one above the other. According to G. S. Oegema Isaac Luria provided the hexagram with a further mystical meaning, similarly, M. Costa wrote that M. Some say that one represents the ruling tribe of Judah. It is seen as a dalet and yud, the two assigned to Judah
Flag desecration is a term applied to the desecration of flags or violation of flag protocol, a various set of acts that intentionally destroy, damage, or mutilate a flag in public. Often, in case of a flag, such action is intended to make a political point against a country or its policies. Some countries have laws forbidding methods of destruction or forbidding particular uses, Flag desecration may be undertaken for a variety of reasons. It may be a protest against a foreign policy, including ones own. It may be a protest against nationalism, or a deliberate and it may be a protest at the very laws prohibiting the act of desecrating a flag. Burning or defacing a flag is a crime in some countries, in countries where it is not, the act may still be prosecuted as disorderly conduct, arson, or theft if conducted against someone elses property. Using a flag unconventionally, such as hanging it upside down or reversed, flying a flag at half-mast is considered desecration in Saudi Arabia. In some countries, flying a flag upside-down is conventional protocol to indicate an emergency or problem, some flags when hung upside down and/or reversed look the same because they are vertically and/or horizontally symmetrical.
Some countries regard it as desecration to make paper, doormats. It is, increasingly common in countries to see clothing with the image of the flag forming a substantial part of the piece. Views vary as to some of this is an act of national pride or disrespect. In Algeria, flag desecration is a crime, according to article 160bis of the Algerian penal code, the intentional and public shredding, distortion, or desecration of the national flag is punishable by 5 to 10 years of imprisonment. In 2010, an Algerian court convicted 17 people of flag desecration and punished them by up to 6 years of imprisonment and $10,000 in fines after protests about jobs and housing. The Penal Code on its Article 222 criminalizes the desecration of the national flag, coat of arms, national anthem, or any provincial symbol. Flag desecration is not, in itself, illegal in Australia, flag desecration must otherwise be compliant with the law. There have been attempts to pass bills making flag burning illegal in Australia.
As of May 2016, the most recent bill which attempted to ban flag burning was the Flags Amendment Bill 2016, which was introduced by National Party MP George Christensen and is not proceeding. During the 2005 Cronulla riots, a Lebanese-Australian youth, whose name has kept secret, climbed an RSL club building
Knowledge can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit or explicit, it can be more or less formal or systematic, several definitions of knowledge and theories to explain it exist. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes, perception and reasoning, the eventual demarcation of philosophy from science was made possible by the notion that philosophys core was theory of knowledge, a theory distinct from the sciences because it was their foundation. Without this idea of a theory of knowledge, it is hard to imagine what philosophy could have been in the age of modern science, the definition of knowledge is a matter of ongoing debate among philosophers in the field of epistemology. Some claim that conditions are not sufficient, as Gettier case examples allegedly demonstrate. Richard Kirkham suggests that our definition of knowledge requires that the evidence for the belief necessitates its truth. In contrast to this approach, Ludwig Wittgenstein observed, following Moores paradox, that one can say He believes it, but it isnt so, but not He knows it, but it isnt so.
He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distinct mental states, what is different here is not the mental state of the speaker, but the activity in which they are engaged. For example, on account, to know that the kettle is boiling is not to be in a particular state of mind. Wittgenstein sought to bypass the difficulty of definition by looking to the way knowledge is used in natural languages and he saw knowledge as a case of a family resemblance. Following this idea, knowledge has been reconstructed as a concept that points out relevant features. Symbolic representations can be used to indicate meaning and can be thought of as a dynamic process, hence the transfer of the symbolic representation can be viewed as one ascription process whereby knowledge can be transferred. Other forms of communication include observation and imitation, verbal exchange, philosophers of language and semioticians construct and analyze theories of knowledge transfer or communication. In his collection of essays Technopoly, Neil Postman demonstrates the argument against the use of writing through an excerpt from Platos work Phaedrus, in this excerpt, the scholar Socrates recounts the story of Thamus, the Egyptian king and Theuth the inventor of the written word.
In this story, Theuth presents his new invention writing to King Thamus, King Thamus is skeptical of this new invention and rejects it as a tool of recollection rather than retained knowledge. Media theorists like Andrew Robinson emphasise that the depiction of knowledge in the modern world was often seen as being truer than oral knowledge. It is harder to preserve records of what was said or who originally said it – usually neither the nor the content can be verified. Gossip and rumors are examples prevalent in both media, major libraries today can have millions of books of knowledge
The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations. They exist to further the foreign and domestic policies of their body and to defend that body. Armed force is the use of armed forces to achieve political objectives, the study of the use of armed forces is called military science. Broadly speaking, this involves considering offense and defense at three levels, operational art, and tactics, all three levels study the application of the use of force in order to achieve a desired objective. In most countries the basis of the forces is the military. However, armed forces can include other paramilitary structures, the obvious benefit to a country in maintaining armed forces is in providing protection from foreign threats and from internal conflict. In recent decades armed forces personnel have used as emergency civil support roles in post-disaster situations. On the other hand, they may harm a society by engaging in counter-productive warfare. Expenditure on science and technology to develop weapons and systems sometimes produces side benefits, although some claim that greater benefits could come from targeting the money directly
An alphabet is a standard set of letters that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes of the spoken language. This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries and logographies, the Proto-Canaanite script, known as the Phoenician alphabet, is the first fully phonemic script. Thus the Phoenician alphabet is considered to be the first alphabet, the Phoenician alphabet is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Latin, Cyrillic and possibly Brahmic. Under a terminological distinction promoted by Peter T. Daniels, an alphabet is a script that represents both vowels and consonants as letters equally. In this narrow sense of the word the first true alphabet was the Greek alphabet, in other alphabetic scripts such as the original Phoenician, Hebrew or Arabic, letters predominantly or exclusively represent consonants, such a script is called an abjad. A third type, called abugida or alphasyllabary, is one where vowels are shown by diacritics or modifications of consonantal letters, as in Devanagari.
The Khmer alphabet is the longest, with 74 letters, there are dozens of alphabets in use today, the most popular being the Latin alphabet. Many languages use modified forms of the Latin alphabet, with additional letters formed using diacritical marks, while most alphabets have letters composed of lines, there are exceptions such as the alphabets used in Braille. Alphabets are usually associated with an ordering of letters. This makes them useful for purposes of collation, specifically by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order and it means that their letters can be used as an alternative method of numbering ordered items, in such contexts as numbered lists and number placements. The English word alphabet came into Middle English from the Late Latin word alphabetum, the Greek word was made from the first two letters and beta. The names for the Greek letters came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet, which meant ox, and bet, in the alphabet song in English, the term ABCs is used instead of the word alphabet.
Knowing ones ABCs, in general, can be used as a metaphor for knowing the basics about anything, the history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt. These glyphs were used as guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections. Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs and this script had no characters representing vowels, although originally it probably was a syllabary, but unneeded symbols were discarded. An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including three that indicate the vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BC. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit, the Proto-Sinaitic script eventually developed into the Phoenician alphabet, which is conventionally called Proto-Canaanite before ca.1050 BC. The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram and this script is the parent script of all western alphabets