Color, or colour, is the characteristic of visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, yellow, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of photoreceptor cells by electromagnetic radiation. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light, reflected from them; this reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates, which in 1931 were named in global agreement with internationally agreed color names like mentioned above by the International Commission on Illumination; the RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near 564–580 nm. There may be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness).
The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species varies from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot be compared to one another. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet but is insensitive to red. Papilio butterflies may have pentachromatic vision; the most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or color science, it includes the study of the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range. Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its intensity; when the wavelength is within the visible spectrum, it is known as "visible light". Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths.
Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. In fact, one may formally define a color as a class of spectra that give rise to the same color sensation, although such classes would vary among different species, to a lesser extent among individuals within the same species. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question; the familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum—named using the Latin word for appearance or apparition by Isaac Newton in 1671—include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors. The table at right shows approximate wavelengths for various pure spectral colors; the wavelengths listed are as measured in vacuum. The color table should not be interpreted as a definitive list—the pure spectral colors form a continuous spectrum, how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency.
A common list identifies six main bands: red, yellow, green and violet. Newton's conception included a seventh color, between blue and violet, it is possible that what Newton referred to as blue is nearer to what today is known as cyan, that indigo was the dark blue of the indigo dye, being imported at the time. The intensity of a spectral color, relative to the context in which it is viewed, may alter its perception considerably; the color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as well as on the angles of illumination and viewing; some objects not only reflect light, but transmit light or emit light themselves, which contributes to the color. A viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but on a host of contextual cues, so that color differences between objects can be discerned independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc.
This effect is known as color constancy. Some generalizations of the physics can be drawn, neglecting perceptual effects for now: Light arriving at an opaque surface is either reflected "specularly", scattered, or absorbed—or some combination of these. Opaque objects that do not reflect specularly have their color determined by which wavelengths of light they scatter (with the light that is
Devotion is the sixth studio album by American band, L. T. D. Released in 1979 through A&M Records; the album peaked at No. 5 on the R&B albums chart. It reached No. 29 on the Billboard 200. The album features the singles "Dance'N' Sing'N'", which peaked at No. 15 on the Hot Soul Singles chart, "Stranger", which charted at No. 14 on the same chart. Alvino M. Bennett – acoustic drums, electric drums Lorenzo Carnegie – alto saxophone, tenor saxophone Henry E. Davis – bass, flute James E. Davis – acoustic piano, Yamaha electric piano, background vocals, clavinet John McGhee – guitar Abraham "Onion" Miller, Jr. – tenor saxophone Jeffrey Osborne – percussion, lead vocals, background vocals William M. Osborne – organ, lead vocals, background vocals, Fender Rhodes, percussion Jake Riley – trombone Carle W. Vickers – trumpet, flute, percussion Album Singles Devotion at Discogs
Fuck for Forest is a non-profit environmental organisation founded in 2004 in Norway by Leona Johansson and Tommy Hol Ellingsen. It funds itself through a website of sexually explicit videos and photographs, charging a membership fee for access. A portion of funds are donated to the cause of rescuing the world's rainforests, it is the world's first eco-porn organization and may be the only porn website created to raise money for a cause. The group moved from Oslo, Norway to Berlin, Germany following the trial of its founders for having sex in public. Fuck for Forest co-founders Leona Johansson and Tommy Hol Ellingsen had backgrounds in progressive and green theater and teaching troubled teens; the two started Fuck for Forest to protest the state of the world's rainforests and to make a difference. In its first six months of existence the group received seed funding from the government of Norway for the creation of an alternative environmental group. Ellingsen believes, he explained: "Porn makes really a lot of money, so why not use that money for good?"
In 2004, its first year of existence, the organisation's website netted over $100,000 for rain forest protection through the sale of paid memberships. Website subscribers pay $20 per month and the organization says that over 80 percent of the money goes to charities that work to preserve the world's rain forests; the organisation's unorthodox methods have made it difficult to distribute the money. Both the Norwegian chapter of the Rainforest Foundation Fund, the World Wide Fund for Nature in the Netherlands have refused to accept donations from FFF; as a result, Fuck for Forest is working on a project to work directly with indigenous communities in Costa Rica and the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. The group's founders gained notoriety when they had sex on stage during a 2004 Quart Festival concert featuring Norwegian singer Kristopher Schau and his band The Cumshots. After delivering a brief talk on the impact humans have on forests, Ellingsen asked "How far are you willing to go to save the world?" and the pair began stripping.
A banner was raised on stage informing the audience of 5,000 that the couple was having sex to save the rainforest. Commenting on the event Ellingsen said, "I had a bit of a stagefright, but it disappeared as soon as I got going." Johansson added that "I got turned on by all the people."Ellingsen and Johansson were fined 10,000 Kroner each for a public sex act, a violation of Norwegian law. Commenting on their arrest, Ellingsen said "It is ridiculous that we are prosecuted and sentenced on a moral basis at the same time as Norway is in the war against Iraq... Violence is aired on TV every day, if this is so terrible, we could have called this performance art, we wouldn't have been fined then?" The event promoters were not fined. The two made their court appearance dressed in children's clothes. Ellingsen showed his penis during a break in the court proceedings. Ellingsen told Nettavisen that "We would have liked to have fucked here in court as well, it’s a nice space, but we would be thrown in jail."
The group moved its headquarters to Berlin, Germany. Ellingsen said that within three months of their arrest, the website has attracted more than 1,000 new members, each paying $15 per month. On 2 June 2011, Fuck for Forest members simulated intercourse in Oslo Cathedral during Mass; the leader of Oslo Bishopry told Norwegian media that the stunt makes him "sad on behalf of those who did it." Two of the individuals performing in the Cathedral were ordered by the Oslo District Court to pay fines of 9,000 and 7,500 kroner for indecent behavior and outraging public decency, to pay 2,000 kroner each for the trial cost. The 2006 documentary film Fuck was released during the Cannes Film Festival; the poster for the film showed FFF onstage during the Quart Festival incident. The film sought to explore artists who experiment with modes of expression that challenge prevailing social mores. A feature-length cinema documentary entitled Fuck for Forest was released in 2012; the film, directed by Michał Marczak, is a narrative-driven story that loosely revolves around the group's environmental projects, but focuses on subjects like sexuality, contemporary lifestyles, western morals and cultural variants of human perception.
Anarchism and issues related to love and sex FEMEN Fuck for the heir Puppy Bear! Global Orgasm Media related to Fuck for Forest at Wikimedia Commons Official website Can Sex Sell Environmentalism? Bitch article discussing FFF in relation to other, comparable initiatives. Fuck for Forest - a documentary movie by Michał Marczak