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Color temperature

Not to be confused with warm and cool colors. The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of a color comparable to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in lighting, videography, manufacturing, astrophysics and other fields. In practice, color temperature is meaningful only for light sources that do in fact correspond somewhat to the radiation of some black body, i.e. light in a range going from red to orange to yellow to white to blueish white. Color temperature is conventionally expressed in kelvins, using the symbol K, a unit of measure for absolute temperature. Color temperatures over 5000 K are called "cool colors", while lower color temperatures are called "warm colors". "Warm" in this context is an analogy to radiated heat flux of traditional incandescent lighting rather than temperature. The spectral peak of warm-coloured light is closer to infrared, most natural warm-coloured light sources emit significant infrared radiation.

The fact that "warm" lighting in this sense has a "cooler" color temperature leads to confusion. The color temperature of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from an ideal black body is defined as its surface temperature in kelvins, or alternatively in micro reciprocal degrees; this permits the definition of a standard. To the extent that a hot surface emits thermal radiation but is not an ideal black-body radiator, the color temperature of the light is not the actual temperature of the surface. An incandescent lamp's light is thermal radiation, the bulb approximates an ideal black-body radiator, so its color temperature is the temperature of the filament, thus a low temperature emits a dull red and a high temperature emits the white of the traditional incandescent light bulb. Metal workers are able to judge the temperature of hot metals by their color, from dark red to orange-white and white. Many other light sources, such as fluorescent lamps, or light emitting diodes emit light by processes other than thermal radiation.

This means. These sources are assigned. CCT is the color temperature of a black-body radiator which to human color perception most matches the light from the lamp; because such an approximation is not required for incandescent light, the CCT for an incandescent light is its unadjusted temperature, derived from comparison to a black-body radiator. The Sun approximates a black-body radiator; the effective temperature, defined by the total radiative power per square unit, is about 5780 K. The color temperature of sunlight above the atmosphere is about 5900 K; the Sun may appear red, yellow, or white from Earth, depending on its position in the sky. The changing color of the Sun over the course of the day is a result of the scattering of sunlight and is not due to changes in black-body radiation. Rayleigh scattering of sunlight by Earth's atmosphere causes the blue color of the sky, which tends to scatter blue light more than red light; some daylight in the early morning and late afternoon has a lower color temperature due to increased scattering of shorter-wavelength sunlight by atmospheric particles – an optical phenomenon called the Tyndall effect.

Daylight has a spectrum similar to that of a black body with a correlated color temperature of 6500 K or 5500 K. For colors based on black-body theory, blue occurs at higher temperatures, whereas red occurs at lower temperatures; this is the opposite of the cultural associations attributed to colors, in which "red" is "hot", "blue" is "cold". For lighting building interiors, it is important to take into account the color temperature of illumination. A warmer light is used in public areas to promote relaxation, while a cooler light is used to enhance concentration, for example in schools and offices. CCT dimming for LED technology is regarded as a difficult task, since binning and temperature drift effects of LEDs change the actual color value output. Here feedback loop systems are used, for example with color sensors, to monitor and control the color output of multiple color mixing LEDs. In fishkeeping, color temperature has different foci in the various branches. In freshwater aquaria, color temperature is of concern only for producing a more attractive display.

Lights tend to be designed to produce an attractive spectrum, sometimes with secondary attention paid to keeping the plants in the aquaria alive. In a saltwater/reef aquarium, color temperature is an essential part of tank health. Within about 400 to 3000 nanometers, light of shorter wavelength can penetrate deeper into water than longer wavelengths, providing essential energy sources to the algae hosted in coral; this is equivalent to an increase of color temperature with water depth in this spectral range. Because coral live in shallow water and receive intense, direct tropical sunlight, the focus was once on simulating this situation with 6500 K lights. In the meantime higher temperature light sources have become more popular, first with 10000 K and more 16000 K and 20000 K. Actinic lighting at the violet end of the visible range is used to allow night viewing wi

Ang Ui-jin

Ang Ui-jin is a Taiwanese linguist. He was the chief architect of the Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet and remains an influential scholar in the progressive reform and development of the Taiwanese language, he obtained his Bachelor's degree in Chinese Studies from Chinese Culture University in 1969 And his Master's degree from the Chinese Language Research Institute of National Taiwan Normal University in 1973. He obtained his PhD from the Language Research Institute of National Tsing Hua University, his research expertises include Min Nan Phonetics, Chinese phonology, Sociology of language. He was persecuted during the White Terror and sentenced to life imprisonment for'crimes of rebellion' in 1973, he was granted amnesty and released from jail after 6 years and 8 months. He was once a full-time Associate Professor of Yuan Ze University, he became Dean and full-time Professor at Department of Taiwanese Languages and Literature at National Taichung University in 2006. He was the 6th President of the Taiwan Linguistics Society.

In 1992 he founded Taiwanese Hokkien magazine Digest of the Taiwanese language. 中國訓詁學之理論基礎. National Taiwan Normal University. 1971. 台灣河佬話聲調研究. Taipei: 自立晚報 Independence Evening Post. 1985. 台灣禮俗語典. Taipei: 自立晚報. 1986. 台灣方言之旅. Taipei: 前衛出版社. 1992. 台灣語言危機. Taipei: 前衛出版社. 1992. 『彙音妙悟』與古代泉州音. Taipei: 國立中央圖書館台灣分館. 1996. 台灣話音韻入門──附台灣十五音字母. Taipei: 國立復興劇藝實驗學校. 1996. 台灣文獻書目解題:語言類. Taipei: 國立中央圖書館台灣分館. 1996. 高雄縣閩南語方言. 高雄縣政府. 1997. 新竹市志‧住民志‧語言篇. 新竹市政府. 1997. Taiwanese Romanization System Pe̍h-ōe-jī Taiwanese Hokkien Hokkien Klöter, Henning. Written Taiwanese. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-05093-4. 洪惟仁:台語文工作者

Fiesta Nacional de la Vendimia

Fiesta Nacional de la Vendimia takes place annually in Mendoza City, Argentina. It is one of the most important festivals in the country, attracting large numbers of tourists to the region, it is a celebration of the winemaking industry. Each of the 18 departments in Mendoza Province prepare for the festival in the early months of the year; the main event occurs in the first week of March in Mendoza city featuring hundreds of dancers and performers, the selection of a "Reina Nacional de la Vendimia" and a large fireworks display. The first vendimia celebrations in Mendoza Province occurred in the 17th Century; the first official valendimia festival took place in 1936. Mendoza's Vendimia ranked number two in National Geographic's Top 10 World's Harvest Festivals, after the Thanksgiving celebrations in Plymouth Plantation, Massachusetts; each of Mendoza's departments are represented at the festival: The blessing of the fruit takes place on the last Sunday of February. On the evening of the first Friday of March the prettiest women elected as Reinas from each department parade in allegoric chariots through the streets of Mendoza dressed in decorative outfits designed to celebrate the winemaking tradition and the character of their Departments.

This event has been known to attract over 200,000 spectators. The Carrusel Vendimial takes place on the Saturday morning, it takes the form of a daylight parade, where the Reinas ride their chariots through the streets, accompanied formations of men dressed in Gaucho style outfits and riding horses, they are followed by dancers representing various provinces of Argentina and other Latin American Countries; this parade attracts huge numbers of spectators. The "Acto Central" takes place in the Frank Romero Day Greek theatre, it is an impressive spectacle of sound featuring over 1000 performers and dancers. The show pays homage to the "Virgen de la Carrodilla" and features traditional folklore music; the finale of the show sees the election of the "Reina Nacional de la Vendimia" and a large firework display. National Sea Festival Vendimia Mendoza website

2015 Temple Owls football team

The 2015 Temple Owls football team represented Temple University in the 2015 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Owls were led by third-year head coach Matt Rhule and played their home games at Lincoln Financial Field, they were members of the East Division of the American Athletic Conference. They finished the season 10–4, 7–1 in American Athletic play to finish as champions of the East Division, they represented the East Division in the American Athletic Championship Game where they lost to Houston. They were invited to the Boca Raton Bowl; the season was highlighted by the first win against Penn State since 1941, their first 7–0 start, their first AP Poll and Coaches Poll ranking since 1979, was considered a breakout season for the program. Schedule Source: This was the Owls' first victory over Penn State since 1941; the announced crowd at Lincoln Financial Field was a record for a Temple home game. After the Nittany Lions scored 10 points in the first quarter, Temple responded with 27 unanswered points.

Penn State quarterback Christian Hackenberg was sacked 10 times, with Temple linebacker Tyler Matakevich recording three sacks. This game was Temple's first victory over a Big Ten team since a 1990 victory over the Wisconsin Badgers, as the Owls snapped a 31-game losing streak in the series to the Nittany Lions; this was the Owls' first victory over Cincinnati since 1985. This was the first game, win, for a nationally ranked Owls team since 1979; this was the first time. Set up at Independence Mall, the broadcast attracted more than 10,000 fans; this win sealed the Owl's berth in the inaugural AAC Championship, their second division title in team history. DefenseTyler Matakevich - LB - Senior Chuck Bednarik Award - Winner Bronko Nagurski Trophy - Winner Lott IMPACT Trophy - Finalist Rotary Lombardi Award - Semi-Finalist Consensus All-AmericanTyler Matakevich - LB - Senior Phil Steele All American TeamDion Dawkins - OL - Junior - 4th Team DefenseTyler Matakevich - LB - Senior American Athletic Conference Defensive Player of the Year - Winner First TeamKyle Friend, CMatt Ioannidis, DL Eric Lofton, OLTyler Matakevich, LB Nate D. Smith, DL Jahad Thomas, RB Alex Wells, FS Second TeamDion Dawkins, OL Sean Chandler, DB Honorable MentionHaason Reddick, DL Three Temple players were invited to participate in the 2016 NFL Scouting Combine.

† Top performer Following the season, the following members of the Temple football team were selected in the 2016 NFL Draft. In addition to the draft selections above, the following Temple players signed NFL contracts after the draft

Kita-Saitama District, Saitama

Kita-Saitama District was a district located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Prior to its abolition, Kita-Saitama District had three towns: Town of Kisai Town of Kitakawabe Town of Ōtone On March 23, 2010, all three towns merged with the city of Kazo to newly create the city of Kazo and the district dissolved; as a result, it was the first district to dissolve within Saitama Prefecture since the districts were reorganized in 1896. January 1, 1971 - The village of Ōtone becomes the town of Ōtone. April 1, 1971 - The village of Kitakawabe becomes the town of Kitakawabe. May 1, 2001 - The village of Kawasato becomes the town of Kawasato. October 1, 2005 - The town of Kawasato merged into the city of Kōnosu. January 1, 2006 - The village of Minamikawara merged into the city of Gyōda. March 23, 2010 - The towns of Kisai, Ōtone merged with the city of Kazo to newly form the city of Kazo. Kita-Saitama District was dissolved the same day. Minami-Saitama District, Saitama List of dissolved districts of Japan


Zero Band are a Chinese rock band from Inner Mongolia. The lead singer is Zhou Xiaoou; the English name "Zero Band" was used in Beijing concert advertisements, though the band did not use an English name. The band appeared on the Jingwen label in China, but were licensed outside China by JVC. One of the top Beijing bands at the end of the 1990s, Lingdian suffered the same resistance from government-owned venues as other indigenous PRC rock bands. Lead singer Zhou Xiaoou announced that he was retiring from the band in 2008, following his acting role in the TV series Struggle, leading the media, such as Xinhuanet, to conclude that the band had broken up. Bie wuhui 别误会 1996 永恒的起点 每一夜每一天 00:00:00 没有什么不可以 越来越 风·雷·动