Mission 66 was a United States National Park Service ten-year program, intended to expand Park Service visitor services by 1966, in time for the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Park Service. When the National Park Service was created in 1916, long-distance travel in North America was accomplished by train. There was no national road system, airline travel was in its infancy. Railroads were involved in the development of visitor services at such parks as Grand Canyon National Park, Glacier National Park and Yellowstone National Park, in many cases the railroads built and operated park visitor facilities. With the development of the US highway system as a public works project during the Great Depression, many remote parks became accessible via good roads and inexpensive automobiles; the explosion in prosperity following World War II brought a tide of automobile-borne tourists that the parks were ill-equipped to receive. By the mid-1950s it was apparent. Mission 66 was conceived as the means to accommodate increased visitor numbers and to provide high-quality interpretation services.
While Mission 66 involved a variety of infrastructure projects such as roads and employee housing, the most visible components were interpretive facilities and visitor centers. Visitor centers were the first point of contact between the Park Service and visitors, the Park Service put considerable emphasis on the appropriate orientation and learning opportunities that visitor centers could provide. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, the Park Service came under increasing criticism for neglect of the park system. An essay by Bernard DeVoto in Harper's Magazine proposed that the national parks should be closed until they were funded appropriately. While this had little immediate effect, it highlighted an increasing level of concern about the state and future direction of the park system. In 1955, Park Service Director Conrad Wirth proposed a decade-long program of capital improvement, to be funded as a single program by Congress; the expressed aim was to complete the upgrades in time for the Park Service's 50th anniversary in 1966.
In early parks, visitor orientation facilities were built on a small scale in the form of "trailside museums" for visitor edification. With the development of the visitor center concept, the visitor center was to be the main point of contact between the Park Service and visitors, providing orientation, toilets, public safety and administrative services in one location; as a new feature, visitor centers had to be built and in quantity. The National Park Service Rustic style, popular was suitable for the 1930s, when cheap and plentiful Civilian Conservation Corps labor was available, but was not practical on a large scale in a time of full employment. Managers such as Thomas Chalmers Vint, the Park Service director of design and construction, made a conscious decision to employ a more streamlined modern style of design for Mission 66 facilities; the simpler, cleaner design philosophy was faster and less expensive to implement, its public image fitted with the idea of a "new era" in park services.
Mission 66 involved substantial re-planning of entire park infrastructures, with new developments reaching the proportions of new towns. Grant Village and Canyon Village, together with the never-built Firehole Village were intended to diminish the impact of visitor accommodations on sensitive areas close to park attractions in Yellowstone National Park replacing heavy development at West Thumb, the Canyon Hotel, the Old Faithful Inn and Lodge; the similar Wuksachi Village in Sequoia National Park was planned to replace the Giant Forest and Camp Kaweah developments. Colter Bay Village in Grand Teton National Park included the relocation of cabins from guest ranches displaced by the expansion of the park into Jackson Hole. Mission 66 was controversial at the time that it was established, "and it continues to incite debate over the policies it represented. Hastening the advent of the modern environmental movement, it transformed the Sierra Club from a regional mountaineering club into a national advocacy organization."
While a large portion of the funding for Mission 66 was devoted to visitor facilities, attention was given to employee housing. Much of the existing housing amounted to little more than cabins. Using the model of postwar military housing, a series of standard designs was developed, focusing on the ranch style detached housing popular at the time. While most Mission 66 projects were intended for infrastructure improvements and visitor services, some urban projects involved the creation of new attractions at the expense of the urban landscape; the Gateway Arch National Park on the St. Louis, Missouri riverfront entailed the demolition of forty blocks of the city to create a new urban park at the feet of Gateway Arch; the old warehouse district had been targeted for demolition by the city to eradicate "urban blight", the arch and its park were seen as a means to this end, pursued since the 1930s. Much of the exploration and expansion the new project commemorated had originated from the demolished riverfront district.
In Philadelphia, the development of Independence National Historical Park involved the creation of Independence Mall. The mall was designed to provide a vista of Independence Hall, necessitating the demolition of numerous 19th-century buildings. While Mission 66 is most associated with physical improvements, it funded a number of continuing programs; the Historic
National Park Service rustic
National Park Service rustic — sometimes colloquially called Parkitecture — is a style of architecture that developed in the early and middle 20th century in the United States National Park Service through its efforts to create buildings that harmonized with the natural environment. Since its founding in 1916, the NPS sought to design and build visitor facilities without visually interrupting the natural or historic surroundings; the early results were characterized by intensive use of hand labor and a rejection of the regularity and symmetry of the industrial world, reflecting connections with the Arts and Crafts movement and American Picturesque architecture. Architects, landscape architects and engineers combined native wood and stone with convincingly native styles to create visually appealing structures that seemed to fit within the majestic landscapes. Examples of the style can be found in numerous types of National Park structures, including entrance gateways and lodges, park roads and bridges, visitor centers, trail shelters, informational kiosks, mundane maintenance and support facilities.
Many of these buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The first national parks were a response to the romanticism that restructured the American concept of wilderness in the nineteenth century; as seen in the artistry of John James Audubon, James Fenimore Cooper, Thomas Cole, George Catlin, William Cullen Bryant and others, the idea of wilderness developed during the course of the nineteenth century from an entity to be feared and conquered into a resource that should be preserved and treasured. The early wilderness preservation philosophies — expressed through painting, poetry and photography — helped lay the foundations for the acceptance of the first national parks. Beginning with Yosemite in 1864 and Yellowstone in 1872, public lands were set aside as parks. Early administration of these reserves was haphazard. Yosemite fell prey to a politicized board of state commissions, while Yellowstone was given an unpaid superintendent and no appropriations. In 1883, because of extensive poaching and political scandal, the Army was authorized to protect Yellowstone although it was not called upon by the Secretary of the Interior to do so until 1886.
The Army stayed in Yellowstone in an administrative capacity until 1916. After 1890, the Army was called on to protect Sequoia, the General Grant tree, Yosemite. In each of the Army parks, the War Department was compelled to erect basic facilities for its own use. Fort Yellowstone, was the most important of these complexes; the army buildings there were constructed to standard Army specifications. The Army had no direct interest in the landscape, this was echoed in their architecture. In those early parks where the Interior Department retained administrative responsibility, government buildings were limited to primitive, vernacular expressions of facility need. Crude frame shacks, log cabins, or tent frames sufficed; these early government facilities could be simple because responsibility for housing and transporting the park visitor was delegated to the park concessioners. The early park concessioners received little supervision, their structures were typical makeshift frontier efforts. Not until after the completion of the northern transcontinental railroads in the 1890s, did more advanced concessioner facilities appear in Yellowstone, for example.
Among the first of these was the Lake Hotel, constructed by the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1890. The formal classicism of this structure, with its ionic columns, three projecting porticos and symmetrical façade, made it clear that the building owed nothing to its setting; the railroads brought the first major developments to the parks. At the same time, as a part of this process, they introduced their architectural and engineering expertise; the railroads' search for architectural styles suitable for park settings occurred at a time when landscape architecture was beginning to exert major influence on architectural design and theory. In 1842, landscape architect Andrew Jackson Downing had publicized his ideas on "picturesque" landscape and the importance of nature in architectural design in his distributed book Cottage Residences. Several decades Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr. a friend and pupil of Downing, working in conjunction with architects such as Henry Hobson Richardson, strengthened the connections between architecture and landscape architecture.
Building forms responded to landscaping becoming an integral part of the design. While buildings were constructed of natural materials such as native stone and shingles, few were intentionally "rustic." Early "rustic" examples were "follies" — gazebos and small pavilions. Larger buildings intentionally rustic in style appeared in the Adirondack Mountains in the 1870s, creating the style known as Adirondack Architecture; this influence began to appear in park architecture after 1900. As the Park Service became more organized in the 1920s, it established a policy of rustic design. Promulgated by landscape architect Thomas Chalmers Vint, with support from architect Herbert Maier, rustic design became entrenched as standard practice in the Park Service. During the 1930s, the Park Service administered Civilian Conservation Corps projects in state parks, used the opportunity to promote rustic design on a widespread scale. However, in the post-World War II period, it became apparent that facilities could not be built in sufficient quantity to contend with a huge increase in automobile-borne park visitation.
In the Mission 66 program and Maier consciously abandoned the rustic style in favor of a leaner and more expediti
Grand Junction, Colorado
Grand Junction is a home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Mesa County, United States. The city has a council–manager form of government, is the most populous municipality in all of western Colorado. Grand Junction is 247 miles west-southwest of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 58,566. Grand Junction is the 15th most populous city in the state of Colorado and the most populous city on the Colorado Western Slope, it is a major commercial and transportation hub within the large area between the Green River and the Continental Divide. It is the principal city of the Grand Junction Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 146,723 in 2010 census; the city is along the Colorado River, at its confluence with the Gunnison River, which comes in from the south. "Grand" refers to the historical Grand River. "Junction" refers to the confluence of the Gunnison rivers. Grand Junction has been nicknamed "River City".
It is near the midpoint of a 30-mile arcing valley, known as the Grand Valley. The valley was long occupied by earlier indigenous cultures, it was not settled by European-American farmers until the 1880s. Since the late 20th century, several wineries have been established in the area; the Colorado National Monument, a unique series of canyons and mesas, overlooks the city on the west. Most of the area is surrounded by federal public lands managed by the US Bureau of Land Management; the Book Cliffs are a prominent series of cliffs. Interstate 70 connects the city eastward to Glenwood Springs and Denver and westward to Green River, Utah. S Route 6; the Country Jam Ranch, near Grand Junction just north of I-70 at the Mack exit, is a permanent festival site built for music festivals, including Country Jam. This event has been held annually since 1992; the Grand Junction area has developed as a mountain biking destination, with many bikers coming from the Front Range of Colorado, the Salt Lake City area, as far away as California to enjoy the area's abundant single-track trails.
Two prominent trails are the Tabeguache and Kokopelli trails, the latter running from near Loma to Moab, Utah. Fruita, with its 18-Road trail system, is within 10 miles of the city and has become a major mountain biking destination. In September 1881 the former Ute Indian Territory was abolished and the Utes removed to a reservation so that the U. S. government could open the area to white settlers. Clinton County, Pennsylvania-born George Addison Crawford soon purchased a plot of land. On July 22, 1882, he incorporated the town of Grand Junction and planted Colorado's first vineyard near Palisade, causing the area to become known as the Colorado Wine Country. Grand Junction has a storied past with gunfighters and early settlers of the American Southwest; the infamous "Doc" Holliday was buried in Grand Junction Cemetery after his death from "consumption", as Grand Junction was one of his favorite places before he began living full-time at the sanatorium in Glenwood Springs, Colorado. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 38.6 square miles, with 38.2 square miles of it land, 0.39 square miles, or 0.87% of it water.
The downtown area displays a semi-arid climate grading into an arid type. Grand Junction sits in a large area of high desert lands in Western Colorado. Winters are cold and dry, with a January mean temperature of 27.4 °F. Due to its location west of the Rockies, Grand Junction does not receive as much influence from the Chinook winds as locations in Colorado east of the Front Range, yet it does receive protection from the Arctic masses that can settle to the east of the Rockies; this is illustrated by the fact. Lows drop below on 2.9 nights per year. Snowfall is low compared to much of the rest of the state, averaging 19.1 inches per season. Snow is greatest in January. Spring warming is quickens when nearing June. Summer is hot but dry, with a July mean temperature of 78.2 °F. Grand Junction averages 64.5 days a year with temperatures at 90 °F or above, an average 6.5 days attaining 100 °F or more. Autumn cooling is rapid, with the average first freeze date being October 15; the area receives little precipitation year-round, averaging 9.42 inches, with no real seasonal spike.
Sunshine hours are abundant in winter, total just over 3200 hours per year, or 73% of the possible total. According to the census.gov website the estimate population as of July 1, 2017 is 62,475 people. As of the census of 2000, there were 41,986 people, 17,865 households, 10,540 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,362.6 people per square mile. There were 18,784 housing units at an average density of 609.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.78% White, 0.60% African American, 0.94% Native American, 0.76% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 3.81% from other races, 1.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Lati
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water. Dunes occur in different sizes, formed by interaction with the flow of air or water. Most kinds of dunes are longer on the stoss side, where the sand is pushed up the dune, have a shorter "slip face" in the lee side; the valley or trough between dunes is called a slack. A "dune field" or erg is an area covered by extensive dunes. Dunes occur along some coasts; some coastal areas have one or more sets of dunes running parallel to the shoreline directly inland from the beach. In most cases, the dunes are important in protecting the land against potential ravages by storm waves from the sea. Although the most distributed dunes are those associated with coastal regions, the largest complexes of dunes are found inland in dry regions and associated with ancient lake or sea beds. Dunes can form under the action of water flow, on sand or gravel beds of rivers and the sea-bed; the modern word "dune" came into English from French c.
1790, which in turn came from Middle Dutch dūne. Dunes are made of sand-sized particles, may consist of quartz, calcium carbonate, gypsum, or other materials; the upwind/upstream/upcurrent side of the dune is called the stoss side. Sand is pushed or bounces up the stoss side, slides down the lee side. A side of a dune that the sand has slid down is called a slip face; the Bagnold formula gives the speed. Five basic dune types are recognized: crescentic, star and parabolic. Dune areas may occur in three forms: simple and complex. Barchan dunes are crescent-shaped mounds which are wider than they are long; the lee-side slipfaces are on the concave sides of the dunes. These dunes form under winds that blow from one direction, they form separate crescents. When the sand supply is greater, they may merge into barchanoid ridges, transverse dunes; some types of crescentic dunes move more over desert surfaces than any other type of dune. A group of dunes moved more than 100 metres per year between 1954 and 1959 in China's Ningxia Province, similar speeds have been recorded in the Western Desert of Egypt.
The largest crescentic dunes on Earth, with mean crest-to-crest widths of more than three kilometres, are in China's Taklamakan Desert. See lunettes and parabolic dues, for dunes similar to crescent-shaped ones. Abundant barchan dunes may merge into barchanoid ridges, which grade into linear transverse dunes, so called because they lie transverse, or across, the wind direction, with the wind blowing perpendicular to the ridge crest. Seif dunes are linear dunes with two slip faces; the two slip faces make them sharp-crested. They are called seif dunes after the Arabic word for "sword", they may be more than 160 kilometres long, thus visible in satellite images. Seif dunes are associated with bidirectional winds; the long axes and ridges of these dunes extend along the resultant direction of sand movement. Some linear dunes merge to form Y-shaped compound dunes. Formation is debated. Bagnold, in The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes, suggested that some seif dunes form when a barchan dune moves into a bidirectional wind regime, one arm or wing of the crescent elongates.
Others suggest. In the sheltered troughs between developed seif dunes, barchans may be formed, because the wind is constrained to be unidirectional by the dunes. Seif dunes are common in the Sahara, they range up to 300 km in length. In the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, a vast erg, called the Rub' al Khali or Empty Quarter, contains seif dunes that stretch for 200 km and reach heights of over 300 m. Linear loess hills known; these hills appear to have been formed during the last ice age under permafrost conditions dominated by sparse tundra vegetation. Radially symmetrical, star dunes are pyramidal sand mounds with slipfaces on three or more arms that radiate from the high center of the mound, they tend to accumulate in areas with multidirectional wind regimes. Star dunes grow upward rather than laterally, they dominate the Grand Erg Oriental of the Sahara. In other deserts, they occur around the margins of the sand seas near topographic barriers. In the southeast Badain Jaran Desert of China, the star dunes are up to 500 metres tall and may be the tallest dunes on Earth.
Oval or circular mounds that lack a slipface. Dome dunes occur at the far upwind margins of sand seas. Fixed crescentic dunes that form on the leeward margins of playas and river valleys in arid and semiarid regions in response to the direction of prevailing winds, are known as lunettes, source-bordering dunes and clay dunes, they may be composed of clay, sand, or gypsum, eroded from the basin floor or shore, transported up the concave side of the dune, deposited on the convex side. Examples in Australia are up to 6.5 km long, 1 km wide, up to 50 metres high. They occur in southern and West Africa, in parts of the western United States Texas. U-shaped mounds of sand with convex noses trailed by elongated arms are parabolic dunes; these dunes are formed from blowout dunes where the erosion
Public Works Administration
Public Works Administration, part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, it was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges and schools, its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, again in 1938. Called the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, it was renamed the Public Works Administration in 1935 and shut down in 1944; the PWA spent over $7 billion in contracts to private construction firms. It created an infrastructure that generated national and local pride in the 1930s and remains vital eight decades later; the PWA was much less controversial than its rival agency with a confusingly similar name, the Works Progress Administration, headed by Harry Hopkins, which focused on smaller projects and hired unemployed unskilled workers.
Frances Perkins had first suggested a federally financed public works program, the idea received considerable support from Harold L. Ickes, James Farley, Henry Wallace. After having scaled back the initial cost of the PWA, Franklin Delano Roosevelt agreed to include the PWA as part of his New Deal proposals in the "Hundred Days" of spring 1933; the PWA headquarters in Washington planned projects, which were built by private construction companies hiring workers on the open market. Unlike the WPA, it did not hire the unemployed directly. More than any other New Deal program, the PWA epitomized the progressive notion of "priming the pump" to encourage economic recovery. Between July 1933 and March 1939 the PWA funded and administered the construction of more than 34,000 projects including airports, large electricity-generating dams, major warships for the Navy, bridges, as well as 70% of the new schools and one-third of the hospitals built in 1933–1939. Streets and highways were the most common PWA projects, as 11,428 road projects, or 33% of all PWA projects, accounted for over 15% of its total budget.
School buildings, 7,488 in all, came in second at 14% of spending. PWA functioned chiefly by making allotments to the various Federal agencies. For example, it provided funds for the Indian Division of the CCC to build roads and other public works on and near Indian reservations; the PWA became, with its "multiplier-effect" and first two-year budget of $3.3 billion, the driving force of America’s biggest construction effort up to that date. By June 1934, the agency had distributed its entire fund to 13,266 federal projects and 2,407 non-federal projects. For every worker on a PWA project two additional workers were employed indirectly; the PWA accomplished the electrification of rural America, the building of canals, bridges, streets, sewage systems, housing areas, as well as hospitals and universities. The PWA electrified the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington, DC. At the local level it built courthouses, schools and other public facilities that remain in use in the 21st century.
Lincoln Tunnel in New York City Overseas Highway connecting Key West, Florida, to the mainland Triborough Bridge Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge Bourne Bridge Sagamore Bridge Hoover Dam Fort Peck Dam Grand Coulee Dam in Washington state Pensacola Dam Mansfield Dam Tom Miller Dam Upper Mississippi River lock & dams List of New Deal airports The PWA created three Greenbelt communities based on the ideas of Ebenezer Howard which are now the municipalities of Greenbelt, Greenhills and Greendale, Wisconsin. The PWA was the centerpiece of the New Deal program for building public housing for the poor people in cities; however it did not create as much affordable housing as supporters would have hoped, building only 29,000 units in 4 1⁄2 years. The PWA spent over $6 billion, but did not succeed in returning the level of industrial activity to pre-depression levels. Though successful in many aspects, it has been acknowledged that the PWA's objective of constructing a substantial number of quality, affordable housing units was a major failure.
Some have argued that because Roosevelt was opposed to deficit spending, there was not enough money spent to help the PWA achieve its housing goals. Reeves argues that the competitive theory of administration used by Roosevelt proved to be inefficient and produced delays; the competition over the size of expenditure, the selection of the administrator, the appointment of staff at the state level, led to delays and to the ultimate failure of PWA as a recovery instrument. As director of the budget, Lewis Douglas overrode the views of leading senators in reducing appropriations to $3.5 billion and in transferring much of that money to other agencies in lieu of their own specific appropriations. The cautious and penurious Ickes won out over the more imaginative Hugh S. Johnson as chief of public works administration. Political competition between rival Democratic state organizations and between Democrats and Progressive Republicans led to delays in implementing PWA efforts on the local level. Ickes instituted quotas for hiring skilled and unskilled black people in construction financed through the Public Works Administration.
Resistance from employers and unions was overcome by negotiations and implied
The Coors International Bicycle Classic was a stage race sponsored by the Coors Brewing Company. Coors was the race's second sponsor. Over the years, the event became America's national tour, listed as the fourth largest race in the world after the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia, Vuelta a España; the race grew from 3 days of racing in its first years as the Red Zinger Bicycle Classic to 2 weeks in the Coors Classic years. Race stages were held in Colorado in the early years expanding first from Boulder and Denver back to the Keystone ski resort adding Estes Park, Vail and Grand Junction, before further expansion that included Wyoming, Nevada and Hawaii. All but the last year the race concluded with a short circuit in North Boulder Park. On August 4, 2010 Colorado governor Bill Ritter and cycling legend Lance Armstrong announced that they would revive stage racing in Colorado with the USA Pro Cycling Challenge, it was a seven-day race held in August 2011. In 1975, Mo Siegel and John and Wyck Hay, founders of the Celestial Seasonings herbal tea company, launched the Red Zinger Bicycle Classic race to promote their new Red Zinger tea.
In 1979, Michael Aisner, the race's PR director, bought the race for one dollar from Siegel, with his blessing took the idea of a grander event to Peter Coors, the beer impresario. Over the next eight years, the Coors Classic grew into two weeks of racing in California and Colorado, with stages in some years in Hawaii and Wyoming; the race's legendary merchandise had custom annual graphics, sold in every state, generating $1 million in 1987 and $1.5 million in 1988 in sales to help support the race. The Red Zinger and Coors Classic stage races showcased world-class men and women's cycling throughout the scenic terrain of Colorado, Nevada and Hawaii; the race was considered the fourth biggest race on the world cycling calendar and was ground-breaking as the single biggest women's stage race held. The Coors Classic launched the careers of some of the world's greatest cyclists and paved the way for the sport's growth in the U. S. A permanent tribute to the Classics was created in 2018 in North Boulder Park, where the race ended 12 of its 13 years.
Plaques tell the stories of the race near a cobblestone Champions Plaza, where the 19 winner's names are inscribed. The Coors International Bicycle Classic had many storied stages, including the world-renowned Morgul-Bismarck circuit; the site of the Grand Junction, road race, the Colorado National Monument, was so exotic in appearance that the stage became known as "The Tour of the Moon" and was featured in the Warner Brothers movie American Flyers. One recurring stage near Snowmass, was run up "Suicide Hill", a road so steep that it was heated in the winter. Races were run over mountains such as the Vail, McClure Passes in Colorado. Popular recurring stages in California included San Francisco-area events such as a hill climb up to famed Coit Tower for a prologue and the Fisherman's Wharf Criterium and a road stage crossing the Sierra Nevada range. One year the race started in Hawaii's Big Island in Hilo with a volcano circuit road race that had to be rerouted a month before the event when the perimeter road course was cut off by a lava flow from Kilauea.
Another year a stage went from Cheyenne, to Colorado's capitol, Denver. The race finished every year but its last in North Boulder Park; the Red Zinger/Coors Classic served as an inspiration for a youth bicycle road racing series in Colorado called the Red Zinger Mini Classics, which ran from 1981–1992, serving as a springboard for the development of several professional cyclists, including pro greats Bobby Julich, Jonathan Vaughters, Chris Wherry, Ruthie Matthes, Colby Pearce and Jimi Killen. According to the liner notes from the 2006 DVD Red Zinger/Coors Classic, the following are some interesting facts about this race: The Coors Classic was the biggest men’s pro-am and women’s race in the world Credited by the Tour de France for inspiring their addition of a women’s division Grew to have 13 full-time staff, 150 paid race-time staff, with a 300 race-week traveling crew "Classic"-branded merchandise sales exceeded $1 million each year for 2 years. S. National Park and Coit Tower road in San Francisco Created unique, reverse swivel seat BMW camerabike to interest network TV coverage Received network rights fees and aired on CBS, NBC, ESPN John Tesh’s first network sports assignment, leading him to Emmy Awards for his Tour de France work It hosted Olympic teams just before the Los Angeles Olympiad Biggest women's race in the world, hosting stars like Olympic champions Connie Carpenter, Jeannie Longo, Beth Heiden and Rebecca Twigg Commemorative race pennants were placed on space shuttle Challenger.
NASA legal saw the corporate Coors name and removed it just before launch A million Coors Classic drink napkins promoting the race were distributed on Frontier Airlines and Continental Airlines planes as part of their race sponsorship Celebrities attending included President and First Lady Gerald and Betty Ford, John Denver, Bill Walton, Susan Saint James, Shaun Cassidy, George Will, Joe Morgan, Wally Schirra Actor/comedian Robin Williams credited this race with inspiring his cycling fanaticism BMW cars and motorcycles were official race vehicles, in 1988 a 325i was the top prize in the men's division. Race winner Davis Phinney handed the keys to his long-time coach and team director Jim Ochowicz Warner Bros. Studios secured
The Grand Mesa is a large mesa in western Colorado in the United States. It is the largest flat-topped mountain in the world, it has an area of about 500 square miles and stretches for about 40 miles east of Grand Junction between the Colorado River and the Gunnison River, its tributary to the south. The north side of the mesa is drained by Plateau Creek, a smaller tributary of the Colorado; the west side is drained by Kannah Creek, received to the west by the lower Gunnison River. The mesa rises about 6,000 feet above the surrounding river valleys, including the Grand Valley to the west, reaching an elevation of about 11,000 feet. Much of the mesa is within Grand Mesa National Forest. Over 300 lakes, including many reservoirs created and used for drinking and irrigation water, are scattered along the top of the formation; the Grand Mesa is quite rugged in others. The mesa is topped by a hard volcanic basalt; this layer, formed 10 million years ago by basalt flows, suppressed erosion compared to the surrounding sedimentary rock layers, which suffered rapid downcutting from the action of the Colorado and the Gunnison rivers.
The top layer rests on a thick sequence of Eocene shale and sandstone known as the Green River and Wasatch Formations. These layers in turn rest on a Cretaceous layer known as the Mesaverde Group that forms a cliff about halfway up the side of the mesa; the lowest layers are gray Mancos Shale of late Cretaceous age. The shale continues outward into the surrounding valleys in the vicinity of the mesa, providing a soil base, fertile for various kinds of agriculture in the Gunnison Valley to the south. Climate on Grand Mesa varies by elevation. Higher elevations tend to receive more precipitation; the top of the mesa is more than two miles above sea level, experiences an alpine climate with substantial amounts of precipitation throughout the year. Because of the high altitude, summer days are mild, temperatures drop after sunset. Winter temperatures rise above freezing, can be cold falling far below zero at night; the top of the mesa is snow-free from late June through early October. Accumulations of 20 or 30 inches of snow in the winter are typical.
Surrounding areas with lower elevation are more arid throughout the year. The following climate data is for Mesa Lakes Resort, located on the north slopes of the mesa at 9,800 feet above sea level, which experiences a subalpine climate; the mesa is traversed by the Grand Mesa Scenic and Historic Byway, which includes SH 65, between the town of Mesa on the north and the town of Cedaredge on the south. The route over the mesa provides a dramatic contrast in landscape and vegetation. On the north side, the road climbs the steep terrain near the Powderhorn Resort ski area; the forested top of the mesa remains snowbound much in the spring than the surrounding valleys, is a popular location for cross-country skiing and snowmobiling. Mountain ranges of Colorado Table 2014 West Salt Creek landslide Halka Chronic. Roadside Geology of Colorado. Missoula Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Co. ISBN 0-87842-105-X. "Grand Mesa". Peakbagger.com. Summer Nightfall on Grand Mesa