Leadville is the statutory city, the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Lake County, United States. The city population was 2,759 at the 2017 United States Census. Situated at an elevation of 10,152 feet, Leadville has the highest elevation of any incorporated city in the United States. Called Silver City, Leadville was the last place Doc Holliday was a law man and the first proposed capital of the state. A former silver mining town that lies amongst the headwaters of the Arkansas River in the heart of the Rocky Mountains, the Leadville Historic District contains many historic structures and sites in its dynamic mining era. In the late 19th century, Leadville was the second most populous city in Colorado, after Denver. Leadville is notable for having a large number of 14,000 foot peaks viewable from town; the Leadville area was first settled in 1859 when placer gold was discovered in California Gulch during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush. By 1860, a town, Oro City, located about a mile from present-day Leadville, had sprung up and a year its population had reached more than 5,000.
But the boom was brief because the placer-mined gold soon ran out and Oro City never became a major settlement. The early miners had noted that mining for placer gold was hampered by heavy black sand in the sluice boxes, in 1874 it was discovered that the heavy sand that impeded gold recovery was the lead mineral cerussite, which has a high silver content. Prospectors traced the cerussite to its source, present day Leadville, by 1876 had discovered several silver-lead lode deposits. Horace Tabor, who became known as the "Leadville Silver King" and his wife Augusta were among the first prospectors to arrive in Oro City. Tabor tried his luck at prospecting while his wife worked as a camp cook, laundress and postmistress. Leadville was founded in 1877 by mine owners Horace Tabor and August Meyer at the start of the Colorado Silver Boom; the town was built on desolate flat land below the tree line. The first miners lived in a rough tented camp near the silver deposits in California Gulch; the settlement was called Slabtown but when the residents petitioned for a post office the name Leadville was chosen.
By 1880 Tabor and Meyer's new town had gas lighting, water mains and 28 miles of streets, five churches, three hospitals, six banks, a school for 1,100 students. Many business buildings were constructed with bricks hauled in by wagons; the first post office was in Tabor's store at Oro, Augusta Tabor was the postmistress. Carriers tried to come back the next. Postage was fifty cents a letter. In early 1878, Harrison, Tabor established a post office in Leadville, with Henderson as postmaster; the post office and the telegraph office both prospered. The town's first newspaper was The Reveille, a Republican weekly, in 1878. Three months a competing Democratic weekly, The Eclipse emerged; the Chronicle was the town's first daily and first newspaper in America to employ a full-time female reporter. Like the Rocky Mountain News, The Chronicle took the lead in outing criminals and thieves, in an attempt to clean up the town's shady business culture. Despite violent threats, the Chronicle survived without major incident.
William Nye opened the first saloon in 1877 and it was followed by many others. The same year "The Coliseum Novelty" was the first theater to open, it offered sleeping rooms upstairs for a nightly rate and provided a variety of entertainments: dancing girls, cockfighting and boxing matches, as well as rooms for gambling. In June 1881, it burned to the ground. Ben Wood who arrived in Leadville in 1878, opened the first legitimate theater,Wood's Opera House, with a thousand seats, it was a first- class theater, where gentleman removed their hats and did not smoke or drink in the presence of a lady. Less than a year Wood opened the Windsor Hotel, his opera house was regarded as the largest and best theater constructed in the west, an honor it held until the opening of the Tabor Opera House. Horace Tabor's Opera House was the most costly structure in Colorado at the time. Building materials were brought by wagons from Denver; the massive three-story opera house, constructed of stone and iron, opened on 20 November 1879.
Tabor from Vermont, became the town's first mayor. After striking it rich, he had an estimated net worth of 10 million dollars and was known for his extravagant lifestyle. In 1883 Horace Tabor divorced his wife of 25 years, married Baby Doe McCourt, half his age. Tabor was by a US senator and the divorce and marriage caused a scandal in Colorado and beyond. Tabor, one of the wealthiest men in Colorado, lost his fortune when the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act caused the Panic of 1893, he remained convinced that the price of silver would rebound. According to legend he told Baby Doe to "hold on the Matchless mine... it will make millions again when silver comes back." She returned to Leadville with her daughters, Silver Dollar and Lily, where she spent the rest of her life believing Tabor's prediction. At one time the "best dressed woman in the West", she lived in a cabin at the Matchless Mine for the last three decades of her life. After a snowstorm in March 1935, she was found frozen in her cabin, aged about 81 years.
Mining in the Leadville area began in 1859 when prospectors discovered gold at the mouth of California Gulch. By 1872, placer mining in California Gulch yielded more than $2,500,000 equivalent to $47,674,478 today. In 1876, black sand, once considered bothersome to placer gold miners, was discovered to contain lead carbonates, leading to a rush of miners to the area and the founding of the town in
Pike's Peak Gold Rush
The Pike's Peak Gold Rush was the boom in gold prospecting and mining in the Pike's Peak Country of western Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory of the United States that began in July 1858 and lasted until the creation of the Colorado Territory on February 28, 1861. An estimated 100,000 gold seekers took part in one of the greatest gold rushes in North American history; the participants in the gold rush were known as "Fifty-Niners" after 1859, the peak year of the rush and used the motto Pike's Peak or Bust! In fact, the location of the Pike's Peak Gold Rush was centered 85 miles north of Pike's Peak; the name Pike's Peak Gold Rush was used because of how well known and important Pike's Peak was at the time. The Pike's Peak Gold Rush, which followed the California Gold Rush by one decade, produced a dramatic but temporary influx of immigrants into the Pike's Peak Country of the Southern Rocky Mountains; the rush was exemplified by the slogan "Pike's Peak or Bust!", a reference to the prominent mountain at the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains that guided many early prospectors to the region westward over the Great Plains.
The prospectors provided the first major European-American population in the region. The rush created a few mining camps such as Denver City and Boulder City that would develop into cities. Many smaller camps such as Auraria and Saint Charles City were absorbed by larger towns. Scores of other mining camps have faded into ghost towns, but quite a few camps such as Central City, Black Hawk and Idaho Springs survive. For many years, people had suspected the mountains in present-day Colorado contained numerous rich gold deposits. In 1835, French trapper Eustace Carriere lost his party and ended up wandering through the mountains for many weeks. During those weeks he found many gold specimens which he took back to New Mexico for examination. Upon examination, they turned out to be "pure gold", but when he tried to lead an expedition back to the location of where he found the gold, they came up short because he could not quite remember the location. In 1849 and 1850, several parties of gold seekers bound for the California Gold Rush panned small amounts of gold from various streams in the South Platte River valley at the foot of the Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain gold failed to impress or delay men with visions of unlimited wealth in California, the discoveries were not reported for several years. As the hysteria of the California Gold Rush faded, many discouraged gold seekers returned home. Rumors of gold in the Rocky Mountains persisted and several small parties explored the region. In the summer of 1857, a party of Spanish-speaking gold seekers from New Mexico worked a placer deposit along the South Platte River about 5 miles above Cherry Creek, now part of metropolitan Denver. William Greeneberry "Green" Russell was a Georgian who worked in the California gold fields in the 1850s. Russell was married to a Cherokee woman, through his connections to the tribe, he heard about an 1849 discovery of gold along the South Platte River. Green Russell organized a party to prospect along the South Platte River, setting off with his two brothers and six companions in February 1858, they rendezvoused with Cherokee tribe members along the Arkansas River in present-day Oklahoma and continued westward along the Santa Fe Trail.
Others joined the party along the way until their number reached 107. Upon reaching Bent's Fort, they turned to the northwest, reaching the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Platte on May 23; the site of their initial explorations is in present-day Confluence Park in Denver. They began prospecting in the river beds, exploring Cherry Creek and nearby Ralston Creek but without success. In the first week of July 1858, Green Russell and Sam Bates found a small placer deposit near the mouth of Little Dry Creek that yielded about 20 troy ounces of gold, the first significant gold discovery in the Rocky Mountain region; the site of the discovery is in the present-day Denver suburb of Englewood, just north of the junction of U. S. Highway 285 and U. S. Highway 85; the first decade of the boom was concentrated along the South Platte River at the base of the Rocky Mountains, in the canyon of Clear Creek in the mountains west of Golden City, at Breckenridge and in South Park at Como and Alma. By 1860, Denver City, Golden City, Boulder City were substantial towns that served the mines.
Rapid population growth led to the creation of the Colorado Territory in 1861. The Pike's Peak Gold Rush sent many Americans into a frenzy, prompting them to pack up their belongings and head to Colorado; this initial boom influenced people to begin falsifying information sending people out to the west without any proof of a true presence of gold. As early as the spring of 1859, people raced to the Pike's Peak country; some dared to go out in the winter of 1858 to try to get a head start, only to realize that they would have to wait until the snow melted to begin their mining for gold. Hardrock mining boomed for a few years, but declined in the mid-1860s as the miners exhausted the shallow parts of the veins that contained free gold, found that their amalgamation mills could not recover gold from the deeper sulfide ores; this problem was solved and gold and silver mining in Colorado became a major industry. Colorado produced 150,000 ounces of gold in 1861 and 225,000 troy ounces in 1862; this led Congress to establish the Denver Mint.
Cumulative Colorado production by 1865 was 1.25 million ounces, of which sixty percent was placer gold. Australian gold rushes Colorado Silver Boom Horace Greeley, namesake of Greeley, who mined for gold in the rush Klondi
Law of Colorado
The law of Colorado consists of several levels, including constitutional, regulatory and case law. The Colorado Revised Statutes form the general statutory law; the Constitution of Colorado is the foremost source of state law. Legislation is enacted by the Colorado General Assembly, published in the Session Laws of Colorado, codified in the Colorado Revised Statutes. State agencies promulgate regulations in the Colorado Register, which are in turn codified in the Code of Colorado Regulations. Colorado's legal system is based on common law, interpreted by case law through the decisions of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals, which are published in the Colorado Reporter and Pacific Reporter. Counties and municipalities may promulgate local ordinances. In addition, there are several sources of persuasive authority, which are not binding authority but are useful to lawyers and judges insofar as they help to clarify the current state of the law; the foremost source of state law is the Constitution of Colorado, which like other state constitutions derives its power and legitimacy from the sovereignty of the people.
The Colorado Constitution in turn is subordinate only to the Constitution of the United States, the supreme law of the land. Pursuant to the state constitution, the Colorado General Assembly has enacted various laws; the bills and concurrent resolutions passed by a particular General Assembly session, together with those resolutions and memorials designated for printing by the House of Representatives and the Senate, are contained in the Session Laws of Colorado. These in turn have been codified in the Colorado Revised Statutes. Pursuant to certain broadly worded statutes, state agencies have promulgated an enormous body of regulations, published in the Colorado Register and codified in the Code of Colorado Regulations, which carry the force of law to the extent they do not conflict with any statutes or the state or federal Constitutions. Colorado's legal system is based on a political party common law. Like all U. S. states except Louisiana, Colorado has a reception statute providing for the "reception" of English law.
All statutes and ordinances are subject to judicial review. Pursuant to common law tradition, the courts of Colorado have developed a large body of case law through the decisions of the Colorado Supreme Court and the Colorado Court of Appeals. There is no official reporter; the Colorado Reporter is an unofficial reporter for appellate decisions from 1883. Decisions of the Colorado Supreme Court were published in the official Colorado Reports from 1864 to 1980, decisions of the Court of Appeals were published in the official Colorado Court of Appeals Reports from 1891 to 1980. Colorado is divided into 64 counties, as well as some 271 active incorporated municipalities, including 196 towns, 73 cities, two consolidated city and county governments. Colorado counties have the authority to adopt and enforce ordinances and resolutions regarding health and welfare issues "as otherwise prescribed by law" which are not in conflict with any state statute, as well as the power to adopt ordinances for control or licensing of those matters of purely local concern in a number of policy areas.
All such ordinances of a general or permanent nature and those imposing any fine, penalty, or forfeiture must be published. Colorado municipalities have the power to adopt ordinances which are necessary and proper to provide for the safety, preserve the health, promote the prosperity, improve the morals, order and convenience of the municipality and its inhabitants and which are not in conflict with any laws, have the power to enforce them with fines of up to $2,650.00, imprisonment for up to one year or both. All such ordinances of a general or permanent nature and those imposing any fine, penalty, or forfeiture must be published in a local newspaper, or three local public places otherwise. Drug policy of Colorado Capital punishment in Colorado Felony murder rule Gun laws in Colorado Politics of Colorado Law enforcement in Colorado Crime in Colorado Law of the United States Colorado Revised Statutes from LexisNexis Colorado Revised Statutes from the Colorado Office of Legislative Legal Services Colorado Revised Statutes from Public.
Resource. Org Code of Colorado Regulations from the Colorado Secretary of State Session Laws of Colorado from the Office of Legislative Legal Services Colorado Session Laws Digital Collection from the University of Colorado Law School Colorado Register from the Colorado Secretary of State Supreme Court and Court of Appeals opinions from the Colorado Bar Association Supreme Court opinions from the Colorado State Court Administrator Court of Appeals opinions from the Colorado State Court Administrator Denver Revised Municipal Code from Municode Local ordinance codes from Public. Resource. Org
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i
Seal of Colorado
The Seal of the State of Colorado is an adaptation of the territorial seal, adopted by the First Territorial Assembly on November 6, 1861. The only changes made to the territorial seal design being the substitution of the words, "State of Colorado" and the figures "1876" for the corresponding inscriptions on the territorial seal; the first General Assembly of the State of Colorado approved the adoption of the state seal on March 15, 1877. The Colorado Secretary of State alone is authorized to affix the Great Seal of Colorado to any document whatsoever. By statute, the seal of the state is two and one-half inches in diameter with the following devices inscribed thereon: At the top is the Eye of Providence or "All Seeing Eye" within a triangle, from which golden rays radiate on two sides. Below the eye is a Roman fasces, a bundle of birch or elm rods with a battle axe bound together with a ribbon of red and blue with the words and Constitution; the bundle of rods bound together symbolizes strength, lacking in the single rod.
The axe symbolizes leadership. Below the fasces is a heraldic shield bearing across the top a red sky behind three snow-capped mountains and clouds above them; the lower half of the shield has two miner's tools, the pick and sledge hammer, crossed on a golden ground. Below the shield, on a scroll, is the motto, "Nil Sine Numine", Latin words meaning "Nothing without providence" or "nothing without the Deity", at the bottom the figures 1876, the year Colorado came into statehood; the design for the territorial seal which served as a model for the state seal or Great Seal of Colorado has been variously credited, but the individual responsible was Lewis Ledyard Weld, the territorial secretary, appointed by President Abraham Lincoln in July 1861. There is evidence that Territorial Governor William Gilpin was at least responsible for the design. Both Weld and Gilpin were knowledgeable in the symbolism of heraldry. Elements of design from both the Weld and Gilpin families’ coats of arms are incorporated in the territorial seal.
Nil sine numine is the state motto of Colorado. The Latin phrase appears to be an adaptation from Virgil's Aeneid where in Book II, line 777 the words "...non haec sine numine devum eveniunt" are found. The Colorado Department of Personnel and Administration said about the translation of the motto: At recurring intervals, discussion has ensued concerning interpretation of this Latin phrase which translated is "'Nothing without providence'". Others say it is "Nothing without God". Merriam Webster's translates it as "Nothing without the divine will". In the early mining days of the state, the unregenerate said it meant "nothing without a new mine"; the word "numen" means god or goddess, or divine spirit. The best evidence of intent of Colorado's official designers and framers of the resolution for adoption of the seal is contained in the committee report wherein clear distinction was made between "numine" and "Deo" and it states that the committee's interpretative translation was "Nothing without the Deity".
The motto appeared when Colorado's first territorial governor, asked Secretary of the Territory L. L. Weld for a suitable motto for the state seal. According to the story, Weld said: "Well, what would you suggest?" Gilpin is said to have paused in thought for a moment and responded "Nil Sine Numine". On November 6, 1861 by joint resolution the First Territorial Assembly adopted the motto with the territorial seal. Nil sine numine is the motto of the Weld family of Lulworth Castle in England; the family are descended from Sir Humphrey Weld, Lord Mayor of London in 1601 and were notable as a recusant family prior to Catholic Emancipation in the 19th century. The Luttrell Psalter, a famous medieval manuscript dated to the 14th century, contains inside its binding an armorial bookplate of Thomas Weld, one of the book's owners, the motto on the plate's ribbon reads "nil sine numine"; the motto is used by Colorado School of Mines and High Point University, a small liberal arts university in High Point, North Carolina, by Virginia Intermont College, a liberal arts college in Bristol, VA.
List of Colorado state symbols Flag of Colorado Seal of the State of Colorado
Denver metropolitan area
Denver is the central city of a conurbation region in the U. S. state of Colorado. The conurbation includes one continuous region consisting of the six central counties of Adams, Broomfield, Denver and Jefferson; the Denver region is part of the Front Range Urban Corridor. The United States Office of Management and Budget has delineated the Denver–Aurora–Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area consisting of ten Colorado counties: the City and County of Denver, Arapahoe County, Jefferson County, Adams County, Douglas County, the City and County of Broomfield, Elbert County, Park County, Clear Creek County, Gilpin County; the United States Census Bureau estimates that the population was 2,888,227 as of July 1, 2017, an increase of +13.55% since the 2010 United States Census, ranking as the 19th most populous metropolitan statistical area of the United States. The Office of Management and Budget delineated the more extensive Denver–Aurora combined statistical area comprising the Denver-Aurora-Lakewood Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Boulder Metropolitan Statistical Area, the Greeley Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The central part of the metropolitan statistical area includes Denver and three adjacent counties: Jefferson County to the west, Adams County to the north and east, Arapahoe County to the south and east. The continuously urbanized area extends northwest into the City and County of Broomfield, bordering Jefferson and Adams counties, south into Douglas County, adjoining Arapahoe County. Included in the federally defined MSA are four rural counties: Elbert County on the southeastern prairie and Clear Creek and Park counties in the Rocky Mountains; the Denver-Aurora-Lakewood Metropolitan Statistical Area comprises ten counties. The sortable table below includes the following information: The official name of the county, The county population as of July 1, 2017, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau, The county population as of April 1, 2010, as enumerated by the 2010 United States Census, The percent population change from April 1, 2010, to July 1, 2017. Arvada Aurora Centennial Denver Lakewood Thornton Westminster Berkley Brighton Broomfield Castle Rock Columbine Commerce City Englewood Federal Heights Golden Greenwood Village Highlands Ranch Ken Caryl Littleton Northglenn Parker Sherrelwood Welby Wheat Ridge Acres Green Applewood Alma Aspen Park Bailey Black Hawk Byers Carriage Club Pines Castle Pines North Central City Cherry Hills Village Coal Creek Columbine Valley Cottonwood Deer Trail Derby Downieville-Lawson-Dumont East Pleasant View Edgewater Elizabeth Empire Evergreen Fairplay Foxfield Franktown Genesee Georgetown Glendale Grand View Estates Heritage Hills Idaho Springs Indian Hills Kiowa Kittredge Lakeside Larkspur Lochbuie Lone Tree Louviers Meridian Montbello Morrison Mountain View North Washington Perry Park Ponderosa Park Roxborough Park Sedalia Sheridan Silver Plume Simla St. Mary's Stonegate Strasburg The Pinery Todd Creek Twin Lakes Westcreek West Pleasant View Boulder Longmont Lafayette Louisville Superior Dacono Firestone Fort Lupton Frederick The Denver Regional Council of Governments is a regional planning and inter-governmental coordination organization in a nine-county region.
The Scientific and Cultural Facilities District provides funding for scientific and cultural facilities in a seven-county region including: The Denver Museum of Nature and Science The Denver Zoo The Denver Art Museum The Denver Center for the Performing Arts The Denver Botanic GardensIn addition, the Regional Transportation District provides mass transit, including a light rail system. In 2005 the RTD developed a twelve-year comprehensive plan, called "FasTracks", to build and operate rail transit lines and expand and improve bus service throughout the region; the most prosperous parts of the area are in the south, while the most industrialized areas are in the northeast in the northern part of Denver proper and extending to areas such as Commerce City in Adams County. Changes in house prices for the area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index. Electricity is provided by Xcel Energy. Cable television is provided by Comcast; the following table shows sports teams in the Denver metropolitan area that average more than 12,000 fans per game: The center of the metropolitan area sits in a valley, the Denver Basin, suffers from air pollution known colloquially as the brown cloud, building up if the air is stagnant as it is in the winter.
Severity of pollution in this area has varied enormously over the years. In the late 1980s the area was in violation of multiple National Ambient Air Quality Standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; the Regional Air Quality Council was formed in 1989 to create plans to address the problem. Through a variety of measures the area's air quality was improved and in 2002 the EPA designated the area in compliance with all federal health-based air quality standards. Denver was the first major city in the United States to reach compliance with all six of these standards after violating five of them. Since the EPA introduced a new standard for small particulates and made the existing ozone standard stricter. In 2003 the new ozone standard was exceeded in the area and was exceeded as far away as
Gold mining in Colorado
Gold mining in Colorado, a state of the United States, has been an industry since 1858. It played a key role in the establishment of the state of Colorado. Explorer Zebulon Pike heard a report of gold in South Park, present-day Park County, Colorado, in 1807. Gold discoveries in Colorado began around Denver; the Cripple Creek district, far from the mineral belt, was one of the last gold districts to be discovered and is still in production. On June 22, 1850, a wagon train bound for California crossed the South Platte River just north of the confluence with Clear Creek and followed Clear Creek west for six miles. Lewis Ralston dipped his gold pan into a stream flowing into Clear Creek and found about a quarter of a troy ounce in his first pan. John Lowery Brown, who kept a diary of the party's journey from Georgia to California, wrote on that day: "Lay bye. Gold found." In a notation above the entry, he wrote, "We called this Ralston's Creek because a man of that name found gold here." Ralston continued to California, but returned to'Ralston's Creek' with the Green Russell party eight years later.
Members of this party touched off the gold rush to the Rockies. The confluence of Clear Creek and Ralston Creek, the site of Colorado's first gold discovery, is now in Arvada, Colorado. A gold discovery in 1858 in the vicinity of present-day Denver sparked the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. In 1858, prospectors focused on the placers east of the mountains in the sands of Cherry Creek, Clear Creek, the South Platte River. However, the placer deposits on the plains were small, when the first rich discoveries were made in early 1859 in the mountains farther west, the miners abandoned the placers around Denver. Although the economic portions of the gold placers around Denver were exhausted, producers of construction aggregate in the area sometimes recover small amounts of gold from their sand and gravel washing; the plains counties of Adams, Douglas, Denver and Jefferson are each credited with having produced small amounts of gold. On January 5, 1859, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, prospector George A. Jackson discovered placer gold at the present site of Idaho Springs, where Chicago Creek empties into Clear Creek.
It was the first substantial gold discovery in Colorado. Jackson, a Missouri native with experience in the California gold fields, was drawn to the area by clouds of steam rising from some nearby hot springs. Jackson kept his find secret for several months, but after he paid for some supplies with gold dust, others rushed to Jackson's diggings; the settlement was renamed Idaho Springs, after the hot springs. In May 1859, John H. Gregory found a gold-bearing vein in Gregory Gulch between Black Hawk and Central City. Within two months, many other veins were discovered, including the Bates, Gunnell and Burroughs. Other early mining towns in the district included Russell Gulch. Hardrock mining boomed for a few years, but declined in the mid-1860s as the miners exhausted the shallow parts of the veins that contained free gold and found that their amalgamation mills could not recover gold from the deeper sulfide ores. Nathaniel P. Hill built Colorado's first successful ore smelter in Blackhawk in 1868.
Hill's smelter could recover gold from the sulfide ores, an achievement that saved hardrock mining in the district. Other smelters were built nearby. Through 1959, the district produced about 6,300,000 troy ounces from sulfide veins in gneiss and granodiorite; the early gold discoveries were at the northeast end of the Colorado Mineral Belt, a large alignment of mineral deposits that stretches northeast-southwest across the mountainous part of Colorado. From Idaho Springs, prospectors followed the Colorado Mineral Belt west along Clear Creek over the mountain passes to South Park and to the headwaters of the Blue River. Placer gold was discovered in the Breckenridge, or Blue River district, in 1859 at Gold Run by the Weaver Brothers, at Georgia, American and Humbug Gulches on the Swan River, on the Blue River itself, at the confluence of French Gulch and the Blue River. Harry Farncomb found the source of the French Gulch placer gold on Farncomb Hill in 1878, his strike, Wire Patch, consisted of alluvial gold in wire and crystalline forms.
By 1880, he owned the hill. Farncomb discovered a gold vein, which became the Wire Patch Mine. Other vein discoveries included Ontario, Key West, Boss and Gold Flake. Lode deposits were developed in the 1880s, as prospectors followed the gold to its source veins in the hills. Gold in some upper gravel benches north of the Blue River was recovered by hydraulic mining. Gold production decreased in the late 1800s, but revived in 1908 by gold dredging operations along the Blue River and Swan River; the Breckenridge mining district is credited with production of about 1,000,000 troy ounces of gold. The gold mines around Breckenridge are all shut down; the characteristic gravel ridges left by the gold dredges can still be seen along the Blue River and Snake River, the remains of a dredge are still afloat in a pond off the Swan River. Prospectors discovered rich placer deposits on the west side of South Park in 1859; the deposits were in valleys on the east side of the Mosquito Range. The principal districts were the Alma-Fairplay district on the headwaters of the South Platte River, the Tarryall district along Tarryall Creek northwe