The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
The Town of Monument is a statutory town situated at the base of the Rampart Range in El Paso County, United States. Monument is bordered by Pike National Forest on the west, Colorado Springs and the United States Air Force Academy to the south and rock outcroppings to the north, rolling plains to the east. Monument was first settled as a stop along the Rio Grande Railroad in 1872, the area was incorporated as a town called Henry's Station in 1879, but the name was changed to Monument; the town population was 5,530 at the 2010 United States Census, an increase of 181% from the population of 1,971 in 2000. Monument's first homesteaders arrived in 1865 to mark out the town's preliminary shape, but settlement increased when Monument became a stop along the Rio Grande Railroad in 1872; the area was incorporated as a town called Henry's Station, after prominent settler Henry Limbach, on June 2, 1879, the first town meeting was held July 3, 1879. However, three years the name was changed to Monument after Monument Creek and Monument Rock in the west.
The first records of the town can be found in various volumes in the El Paso County Courthouse dating back to 1872. With the help of the railroad, which brought in necessities, people started small businesses and started to create a town. Monument is located at 39°04′52″N 104°51′45″W, it is north of Colorado Springs and the United States Air Force Academy, east of the Rampart Range, the eastern front range of the Rocky Mountains. Monument Creek, a gentle mountain stream beginning in the Rampart Range tumbles down through Palmer Lake and the west side of Monument to become one of the main waterways flowing south through Colorado Springs. According to the United States Census Bureau, Monument has a total area of 4.6 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,971 people, 725 households, 550 families residing in the town; the population density was 426.1 people per square mile. There were 770 housing units at an average density of 166.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 91.98% White, 0.91% African American, 1.42% Native American, 0.96% Asian, 2.03% from other races, 2.69% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.71% of the population. There were 725 households out of which 45.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.2% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.1% were non-families. 19.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, 4.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $50,000, the median income for a family was $54,211. Males had a median income of $41,071 versus $27,583 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,878. About 5.4% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.
Monument is not under a Home Rule Charter. This means. There are seven Trustees, including the mayor; the mayor is considered part of the Board of Trustees, has the same power as the other Trustees. Trustees are elected for overlapping 4 year terms, the mayor is elected for four years as well. A vacancy in office will be filled Trustee appointment or by voters at a regular or special election. There is a set term limit of two consecutive terms for Trustees. All regular and special meetings must be open to the public, people must be given the opportunity to be heard. By Colorado law, Monument is a school-choice community; because of this, there are opportunities for public schools, private schools, charter schools, home schooling groups. The public school system is Lewis-Palmer School District 38; the Lewis-Palmer District ACT scores are about 20% higher than the average state scores in the two high schools. The Lewis-Palmer district as a whole performs 15-20% better on CSAP tests than the Colorado state average.
There are five public elementary schools in District 38: Lewis-Palmer Elementary, Palmer Lake Elementary, Prairie Winds Elementary, Bear Creek Elementary. There is one public middle school serving all of District 38: Lewis-Palmer Middle School. Monument Academy is the only charter school and serves grades K through 8; the residents of Monument support many different organizations. It is home to various types of churches, such as Presbyterian, Lutheran, Mennonite and nondenominational. Monument has several organizations that are unique to the community, several nationwide organizations. Local organizations in Monument include: Pikes Peak Library District. Boy Scout Troop 514 is in possession of the Challenger flag; this flag was on board of the ill-fated last mission of the Space Shuttle Challenger and was recovered undamaged. Monument is accessed from Interstate 25 at exit 161 and exit 158. State Highway 105 runs through Monument. Monument experiences a hemiboreal continental climate with warm wet summers and cold, snowy winters.
Kevin J. Anderson, bestselling science fiction author Robert Liparulo, bestselling thriller novelist Jennifer Barringer, professional runner and Olympian Bobby Burling, prof
Office of Management and Budget
The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB measures the quality of agency programs and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives. While the current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, he is also the acting White House Chief of Staff. Many of his duties and responsibilities have been assigned to Deputy Director Russell Vought; the OMB Director reports to Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established in 1921 as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, signed into law by president Warren G. Harding; the Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the government's rapid expansion of spending during the Second World War.
James L. Sundquist, a staffer at the Bureau of the Budget described the relationship between the President and the Bureau as close and of subsequent Bureau Directors as politicians and not public administrators; the Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included two dozen others. In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining the dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices. OMB prepares the President's budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies. OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules and proposed legislation are consistent with the president's budget and with administration policies. OMB oversees and coordinates the administration's procurement, financial management and regulatory policies.
In each of these areas, OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public. OMB's critical missions are: Budget development and execution is a prominent government-wide process managed from the Executive Office of the President and a device by which a president implements his policies and actions in everything from the Department of Defense to NASA. OMB manages other agencies' financials, IT; the Office is made up of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and persons in the White House. Six positions within OMB – the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, the administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed positions; the largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the five Resource Management Offices which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.
S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U. S. Navy warships; these staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president's budget, they perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, oversee the aspects of the president's management agenda including agency management scorecards. They are called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member, they provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, the Office of E-Government & Information Technology whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.
Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division, the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president's budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress; the Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distils the comments into a consensus opinion of the
Fort Carson is a United States Army installation located in unincorporated El Paso County, near the city of Colorado Springs. The 137,000-acre installation extends southward into Fremont counties; that part of the installation located within El Paso County forms a census-designated place which had a population of 13,815 in the 2010 census. Fort Carson is the home of the 4th Infantry Division, the 10th Special Forces Group, the 4th Security Force Assistance Brigade, the 440th Civil Affairs Battalion, the 71st Ordnance Group, the 4th Engineer Battalion, the 759th Military Police Battalion, the 10th Combat Support Hospital, the 43rd Sustainment Brigade, the Army Field Support Battalion-Fort Carson, the 423rd Transportation Company and the 13th Air Support Operations Squadron of the United States Air Force; the post hosts units of the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve and the Colorado Army National Guard. Ft. Carson was home to the 5th Infantry Div. Known as the Red Devils. Camp Carson was established following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
The city of Colorado Springs, Colorado purchased land south of the city and donated it to the War Department. Construction began and the first building, the camp headquarters, was completed January 31, 1942. Camp Carson was named in honor of the legendary Army scout, General Christopher "Kit" Carson, who explored much of the West in the 1800s. At the construction's peak, nearly 11,500 workers were employed on various construction projects at the new camp. Facilities were provided for 1,818 officers and 592 nurses. Nearly all of the buildings were of mobilization type construction, with wood sided exteriors; the hospital complex was constructed of concrete block, considered to be semi-permanent, had space for 1,726 beds, expandable to 2,000 beds. The 89th Infantry Division was the first major unit to be activated at Camp Carson. During World War II, over 100,000 soldiers trained at Camp Carson. Along with three other infantry divisions – the 71st Infantry Division, 104th Infantry Division and 10th Mountain Division – more than 125 units were activated at Camp Carson and more than 100 others were transferred to the mountain post from other installations.
Nurses, mule packers, tank battalions, a Greek infantry battalion, an Italian ordnance company trained at Camp Carson during the war years. Camp Carson was home to nearly 9,000 Axis prisoners of war – Italians and Germans; the internment camp at Camp Carson opened on the first day of 1943. These POWs alleviated the manpower shortage in Colorado by doing general farm work, canning tomatoes, cutting corn, aiding in logging operations on Colorado's Western Slope. Between 1942 and 1956, pack mules were a common sight at Camp Carson; the first shipment arrived by train from Nebraska in July 1942. The mules were used by Field Artillery battalions to carry equipment and supplies over mountainous terrain; the most famous of these animals was the pride of the 4th Field Artillery Battalion. For 13 years, he carried first sergeants up Ute Pass to Camp Hale. Camp Hale, located near Leadville, was where the Army conducted cold weather and mountain warfare training. Hambone was buried with full military honors.
By April 1946, the post-war military strength at the camp was around 600 and on 16 December 1949, Strategic Air Command opened a survival school at Camp Carson for training in mountainous terrain Camp Carson was designated Fort Carson in 1954. In the 1960s, mechanized units were assigned to the fort and it was expanded to the present 137,000 acres. Butts Army Air Field at the fort was constructed between 1963 and 1966 with a 4,573-foot runway for light fixed-wing aircraft Throughout its history Fort Carson has been home to nine divisions. An additional training area, comprising 235,000 acres, was purchased in September 1983. Named the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, this training area is located 150 miles road miles to the southeast, is used for large force-on-force maneuver training. Comprehensive maneuver and live fire training occurs downrange at Fort Carson. Exercises and deployments continually hone the skills of Fort Carson soldiers; when not deployed, soldiers train annually at Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site and the National Training Center near Barstow, California.
Additionally, units participate in joint exercises around the world, including Central and South Africa and Southwest Asia. In 2003, most Fort Carson units were deployed in support of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Troops from the 984th Military Police CO, 759th Military Police BN were sent in support of the guard mission at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba. President George W. Bush addressed soldiers and family members at the post on November 24, 2003, in praise of the soldiers' determination and the sacrifices their families have made. Fort Carson's scenic location has made it one of the most requested duty stations in the U. S. Army, it is considered the second most popular CONUS duty station, after Fort Lewis and adopted "Best Hometown in the Army" as its motto in 2007. Construction in 2007 and 2008 preceded the return of the 4th Infantry Division from Fort Hood after their 2008 Operation Iraqi Freedom deployment. Fort Carson is located at 38°44'45" North, 104°47'6" West, it is located in Pueblo County, El Paso County, Fremont County.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.7 square miles, all land. As of t
Cascade is an unincorporated community and U. S. Post Office in El Paso County, United States; the ZIP Code of the Cascade Post Office is 80809. It was a resort town, from the 1880s to the 1920s. Tourists traveled through Ute Pass on the Colorado Midland Railway, experiencing scenic views of Cascade canon and its falls during their journey. Carriage tours brought tourists up Pikes Pike to its summit. Tourism fell when the Manitou and Pike's Peak Cog Railway opened in 1892, tourists were about to travel to the summit of Pikes Peak through Manitou Springs; when visitors traveled by automobiles, beginning in the 1920s, they had different needs and came in smaller numbers than the previous decades. The Ute Pass region could no longer support large hotels and 2 of the 3 hotels in town were demolished by 1926. Eastholme, a small inn, has been foreclosed and is for sale; the Pikes Peak Highway entrance is at Cascade. Cascade remains a tourist destination, with visitors staying in inns and breakfasts, cottages and guest houses.
Eliza Marriott Hewlett, the oldest of three sisters, left the state of New York for Colorado in the 1880s, brought her two children with her to Cascade before it was a town. It was quite uncommon for "ladies of leisure" to have moved to Colorado during this period. Most of Cascade Canyon was homesteaded by the sisters. Others came to the area for their health. In the 1880s, there were people in the Cascade Canyon area that ran businesses delivering supplies via mule trains to the Leadville and Cripple Creek mining towns. After 1887, the Colorado Midland Railway provided service from Old Colorado City Colorado City, west through Ute Pass. A railroad depot, dining hall and water tank were established in Cascade by the railway in 1888. Views from the train ride through Cascade Canon were McGregor Falls, Lullaby Falls, Dome Rock, Peek-a-Boo Falls, Artist's Glen, Sylvan Nook and Cascade, Twin Cascade, Crystal Spray, Queen of the Canon, Souvenir Falls, The Key Hole, The Stairway, Naiad's Bath, Upper Falls and Grotto Falls.
Cascade canon and its falls were described in 1914: The canon and falls are rare in beauty and constitute the chief attraction... The canon is about three-quarters of a mile long and deep; this exceptional vegetation is produced by the flow of Cascade creek through the canon and the mist and spray from its falls. Some of these falls are as much as 30 feet in height, but the difference in elevation between the foot and the head of the canon is so great that the falls are continuous from the head down; the volume of water is the greatest during the summer season. It comes from the melting snows on the north slope of Pike's Peak. Thousands of tourists traveled along the Pikes Peak Carriage Road known as the Pikes Peak Wagon Road, up to Pikes Peak's summit. Passengers were picked up at a railway stop by awaiting carriages and taken to the summit of Pikes Peak, it was opened by the Cascade Town Company in 1888 and closed in 1902. The carriage road company went bankrupt following the success of the Manitou and Pike's Peak Cog Railway that opened in 1892.
The Cascade Town and Improvement Company was founded and, with Eliza Hewlett, contributed to the cost of the development of the Pikes Peak Carriage Road. It purchased land from the Marriott-Hewlett sisters in 1886, shortly thereafter platted the village's roads; the town of Cascade was established in 1886, was named for the many waterfalls in the area. Ute Park, now Chipita, Green Mountain Falls and Crystola were developed in this time period. Eastholme, a boarding room and small hotel was built between 1885 and 1887, by Eliza Marriot Hewlett and her sisters; the Cascade Canyon House was opened by the Cascade Town Company in 1887 and The Ramona House, "the town's centerpiece", was built in 1890 and opened in 1891. Hotel Ramona was a three-story hotel with verandas and a radish-shaped dome and "would dominate the entrance to Cascade Canon, it was named after the book Ramona by Helen Hunt. People traveled to Cascade during the summers: It was a place where families -- privileged and correct -- returned summer after summer.
They picnicked far up in the canyon. Under the pavilion at Deer Lick Springs, they faithfully sipped mineral waters... They tripped the light fantastic on Saturdays, they attended musicals in the parlor of the Ramona on Sundays; the young ones danced at the pavilion down by the depot. The town had natural cold water springs and mineral springs. One of the springs near the Fountain, it contains carbonic acid, silica, sulfuric acid, lime or calcium and sodium. Another is up the canon a short distance and has a high iron content, as well as chlorine, sulfuric acid, carbonic acid, magnesia and soda. There were 2 or 3 "pure, cold water" springs that were located near the Hotel Ramona; the Cascade Post Office opened on August 16, 1887. Mrs. Hewlett has a church built in the area after her sister Caroline was married to an Episcopalian minister. Eastholme was abandoned in 1918 following the closure of the Colorado Midland Railway. Large hotels "would disappear in the 1920s." In Cascade, the railway depot, dining hall, the large hotels, Cascade Canyon House and Hotel Ramona, were demolished by 1926.
A community house was built on the site of the Cascade Canyon House. During the 1920s many tourists began to travel by car, rather than train. Eastholme accommodated the travelers, as well as the Red Cloud Inn that open
Crystola is an unincorporated community in El Paso and Teller counties, United States. ZIP code 80863 serves Crystola. On 27 June 2012, the town came under a mandatory evacuation notice due to the Waldo Canyon Fire. Crystola is located at 38°57′21″N 105°01′38″W