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1600 in science

The year 1600 CE in science and technology included some significant events. January 1 – Scotland adopts today as being New Year's Day. February 4 – Johannes Kepler joins Tycho Brahe as his assistant at the castle of Benátky, near Prague. February 17 – Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake for heresy in Rome. July – Danish astronomer Longomontanus arrives in Prague, where he works with the Moon orbital theory. University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden established. Olivier de Serres publishes Le Théâtre d'Agriculture in France. First recorded use of the word Naturalist in its modern English sense, in Christopher Sutton's Disce Mori. February 19 – The Peruvian volcano Huaynaputina erupts catastrophically; this is the largest known volcanic explosion in South America and triggers severe global climatic events including the Russian famine of 1601–1603. William Gilbert publishes De Magnete in England. January – Sebald de Weert makes the first definite sighting of the Falkland Islands. Tadoussac, France's first trading post on the mainland of New France, is established.

Approximate date – Stradanus's engravings of notable inventions, Nova Reperta, begin publication by Philip Galle in the Netherlands. Approx. Date – Ludolph van Ceulen computes the first 35 decimals of pi. William Gilbert coins the Latin word "electricus" to describe electricity. Simon Stevin invents a carriage propelled by sails. Early? – Dud Dudley, English metallurgist November – John Ogilby, Scottish cartographer approx. Date – Lionel Lockyer, English quack doctor approx. Date – Martine Bertereau, French mineralogist February 15 – José de Acosta, Spanish naturalist February 17 – Giordano Bruno, Dominican friar, mathematician, poet and astronomer is burned at the stake in the Campo de' Fiori by the Roman Inquisition for heresy. In the 19th and 20th centuries, he becomes regarded as a martyr for free thought and modern scientific ideas. September 1 – Tadeáš Hájek, Czech physician and astronomer

Oxford Vaccine Group

The Oxford Vaccine Group is a vaccine research group within the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Oxford. It was founded in 1994 by Professor E. Richard Moxon, was based at the John Radcliffe Hospital, moved in 2003 to its current location in the Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine at the Churchill Hospital in Oxford, England; the group, led by Professor Andrew Pollard since 2001, comprises around 75 members across a number of disciplines, including consultants in paediatrics and vaccinology, clinical research fellows, research nurses, post-doctoral laboratory scientists, research assistants and DPhil students. OVG carries out research on vaccines to improve human health, it works to enhance the understanding of immunity, studies the epidemiology of infectious diseases, conducts clinical trials into new and improved vaccines for children and adults. Research by Richard Moxon into the public health impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive disease in the UK, efficacy studies of the Hib conjugate vaccine in UK children, led to the founding of OVG in 1994.

Since OVG has specialised in research into meningococcal disease and vaccines to prevent the disease. OVG has been involved with the development of the new vaccine against MenB, licensed in Europe in 2013; the Group has carried out research on pneumococcal vaccines, typhoid vaccines and, more new vaccines against Ebola. OVG is a research group within the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Oxford, it is a UK Clinical Research Collaboration registered clinical trials unit working in collaboration with the Primary Care Unit Clinical Trials Unit and the Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford. It is a participant in the UK Paediatric Vaccine Group and contributes to the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust’s tertiary Paediatric Infectious Disease and Immunology Service. All OVG trials are listed on the UK Clinical Trials Gateway. OVG supports the All Trials Campaign. Professor Andrew Pollard, OVG’s Director, was appointed Chair of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation in March 2014.

Senior staff at OVG are periodically asked to give expert opinions on aspects of vaccines and infectious disease meningococcal disease. For example the 2015 announcement that 14- to 18-year-olds in the UK are to be vaccinated against MenW disease, the 2012 European Medicines Agency recommendation for approval of a new meningitis B vaccine. Since 2001, OVG has enrolled over 12,500 adults and children into clinical trials in the Thames Valley area of England. OVG research has included: 2003: a study looking at the mid- to long-term effectiveness of the Meningitis C vaccine; this research showed that immunity waned over time, formed part of the evidence leading to the changes in the UK MenC vaccine schedule in 2013. 2005 onwards: collaborative projects with the paediatric department of Patan Hospital in Nepal, studying children admitted to the hospital with febrile illnesses and cases of typhoid, Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumonia, evaluating carriage of Hib disease and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

2006: a study looking at the effectiveness of a new vaccine against the bird flu virus H5N1 in children and adults. 2006: a phase II trial of a new vaccine against MenB disease. This was the first time; the trial results were successful and led to phase III trials and the licensing of the new vaccine, Bexsero, in 2013. 2009: a study comparing the effectiveness of two new vaccines against the swine flu virus H1N1 in children and adults. 2010: a study of a new quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine. 2011 onwards: Ongoing participation in an EU Childhood Life-threatening Infectious Disease Study work package looking at genetic responses to MenC and MenB vaccines. 2011 onwards: a series of challenge studies to test new vaccines against typhoid and paratyphoid fever. 2014-15: a phase 1 study into a new vaccine against Ebola. In January 2015 this trial was commended in the House of Commons by Nicola Blackwood MP and Prime Minister David Cameron. In 2011, the group launched the Vaccine Knowledge Project, funded by the Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.

The project website aims to provide independent, evidence-based information about vaccines and infectious diseases. The NHS Choices website lists the Vaccine Knowledge website as a recommended external link on several of its pages; the website has been referenced in the national media in the UK during the 2014-15 US measles outbreak originating in Disneyland California. Oxford Vaccine Group website Vaccine Knowledge website University of Oxford Department of Paediatrics website

Super League International Board

The Super League International Board was the international governing body for Super League-aligned rugby league football nations between 1995 and 1998. The Board was formed to administer Super League globally during the Super League war, a corporate dispute fought in and out of court during the mid-1990s by the Rupert Murdoch and News Corporation-backed Super League and the Kerry Packer and Optus Vision-backed Australian Rugby League organisations over broadcasting rights for, control of the top-level professional rugby league football competition in Australasia. In December 1995, the Board was formed in Australia. Maurice Lindsay, the chief executive of the British Rugby Football League was elected the Board's first chairperson. Lindsay was the British delegate. John Ribot, the chief executive of Super League and a key figure in the Super League project, became Deputy Chairman. In response to his election, Lindsay shared the thoughts he and Ribot had on the future of the sport under Super League: The Super League International Board's responsibilities included controlling the laws of the game.

Several new rules had been trialled in Britain and the Board, during its inaugural meeting, decided they should be introduced to other Super League-aligned nations worldwide. The four rule changes related to kick-off and scrums. In 1996, a ruling in the high court meant that Super League would be able to run a domestic competition in Australia the next year; the ruling meant that the Super League International Board was able operate several international competitions, including the 1997 World Club Championship which consisted of 12 European and 10 Australasian sides. The European clubs did not perform well financially. In 1996 and 1997 the Super League World Nines competition was held. Nines rugby league is a faster form of the game with only nine players on the field at a time playing in shorter halves; the World Nines competitions were held as an alternative to the Australian Rugby League's World Sevens. The 1996 World Nines saw. Under the Super League International Board, competition between national teams was organised.

In 1997, Great Britain hosted the Australian Super League test team, losing the series 2–1. The Australian side played New Zealand; the Rugby Football League and New Zealand Rugby League recognise these matches as having test match status, while the Australian Rugby League has declined to include in its records those of its rival. This means that Matt Adamson, Ken Nagas, Paul Green, Craig Greenhill, Solomon Haumono, Julian O'Neill and David Peachey, all of whom only represented the Super League version of the Australian team, are listed as never having played a test for Australia in official Australian records; the creation of the board was expected to weaken the position of the Australian Rugby League, increasing their isolation. During 1995, more rugby league governing bodies outside Australia, such as France and Papua New Guinea, signed on with Super League, joining Britain and New Zealand; these agreements had the effect of "usurping" the international board's control of the sport and removing international playing opposition for the Australian Rugby League's representative sides.

The director-general of the international board was the Australian Rugby League's chairman, Ken Arthurson. In 1998, the Super League International Board was disestablished and replaced by the Rugby League International Federation as the Super League war ended in Australia and international rugby league reunited; the replacement saw worldwide governance of rugby league handed back to the sport's national governing bodies. John McDonald, the chair of the Australian Rugby League, became chair of the RLIF. Sir Rodney Walker was elected a member of the RLIF, beating Maurice Lindsay and signifying a power shift in the British game. Walker took the position of vice-chair. One of the Rugby League International Federation's first tasks upon assuming control was to re-codify the Laws of the Game following the divergence that occurred whilst the game was split. During their attempts to attract partners, the Super League International Board agreed to give a place in their planned 1998 world cup to the New Zealand Māori rugby league team at a meeting in Paris in 1997.

Despite that world cup not taking place, the Rugby League International Federation repeated the offer for the 2000 World Cup and the team competed as "Aotearoa Māori"

Dénes Kőnig

Dénes Kőnig was a Hungarian mathematician of Jewish heritage who worked in and wrote the first textbook on the field of graph theory. Kőnig was born in the son of mathematician Gyula Kőnig. In 1907, he received his doctorate at, joined the faculty of the Royal Joseph University in Budapest, his classes were visited by Paul Erdős. Kőnig became a full professor there in 1935. To honor his fathers' death in 1913, Kőnig and his brother György created the Gyula Kőnig prize in 1918; this prize was meant to be an endowment for young mathematicians, however was devaluated. But the prize remained as a medal of high scientific recognition. In 1899, he published his first work while still attending High School in a journal Matematikai és Fizikai Lapok. After his graduation in 1902, he won first place in a mathematical competition "Eötvös Loránd". Shortly after he wrote the first of two book collections Matematikai Mulatságok, he spent four semesters at the university in Budapest and his last five in Göttingen, during which he studied under the famous mathematicians József Kürschák and Hermann Minkowski.

He received his doctorate in 1907 due to his dissertation in geometry, that same year he began working for the Technische Hochschule in Budapest and remained a part of the faculty till his death in 1944. At first he started as an assistant in problem sessions, in 1910 he was promoted to "oberassistant", promoted to "Privatdocent" in 1911 teaching nomography, analysis situs, set theory, real numbers and functions, graph theory. During this time he would be a guest speaker giving mathematics lecture for architecture and chemistry students, in 1920 these lectures made their way into book form. At the Technische Hochschule. From 1915 to 1942 he was on a committee to judge school contests in mathematics, collecting problems for these contests, organizing them. In 1933 he was elected as secretary of the society and in 1942 he became the chairman of this committee, he decided to make edits in the society's journal during his time on the committee till his death. Kőnig's activities and lectures played a vital role in the growth of graph theoretical work of: László Egyed, Paul Erdős, Tibor Gallai, György Hajós, József Kraus, Tibor Szele, Pál Turán, Endre Vázsonyi, many others.

He went on to write the first book on graph theory Theorie der endlichen und unendlichen Graphen in 1936. This marked the beginning of graph theory as its own branch of mathematics. In 1958, Claude Berge wrote the second book on graph theory, Théorie des Graphes et ses applications, following Kőnig. After the occupation of Hungary by the Nazis, he worked to help persecuted mathematicians. On October 15, 1944 the National Socialist Arrow Cross Party took over the country. Days on October 19, 1944 he committed suicide to evade persecution from the Nazis being a Hungarian Jew. 1899 – Matematikai és Fizikai Lapok written while attending High School 1902 – First place in "Eötvös Lorád" 1907 – received his Doctorate Degree 1910 – promoted to "oberassistant" 1911 – promoted to "Privatdocent" in 1911 teaching nomography, analysis situs, set theory, real numbers and functions, graph theory 1935 – gained full professorship at Technische Hochschule 1936 – he wrote the first book on graph theory, Theorie der endlichen und unendlichen Graphen Kőnig's theorem Kőnig's theorem is due to Dénes' father, Gyula Kőnig.

Kőnig's lemma Labyrinth problem Chartrand, Gary. A first course in graph theory. Mineola, N. Y.: Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486483689. Kőnig, Dénes, Theorie der endlichen und unendlichen Graphen, Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft. Translated from German by Richard McCoart, Theory of finite and infinite graphs, Birkhäuser, 1990, ISBN 0-8176-3389-8. O'Connor, John J.. Dénes Kőnig at the Mathematics Genealogy Project a Hungarian biography site Dénes König Prize

Östergötland Runic Inscription MÖLM1960;230

Östergötland Runic Inscription MÖLM1960. The runestone has an inscription which depicts a ship. Runestone Ög MÖLM1960. Before the historic significance of runestones was understood, they were reused as building materials for roads and other buildings. After being repaired, it was raised outside of the church; the runic inscription on this granite stone, 2.4 meters in height, consists of text in the younger futhark within an arching text band, under a depiction of a ship. The inscription is classified as being carved in runestone style RAK, the classification used for text bands that have straight ends and do not have any attached serpent or beast heads. Ship images appear on several Viking Age runic inscriptions. Other runic inscriptions from the Viking Age which depict ships include DR 77 in Hjermind, DR 119 in Spentrup, DR 220 in Sønder Kirkeby, DR 258 in Bösarp, DR 271 in Tullstorp, DR 328 in Holmby, DR EM85. Three stones, the Hørdum and Långtora kyrka stones and U 1001 in Rasbo, depict ships but do not have any runes on them and may never have had any.

The runic text, damaged at the beginning, indicates that the stone is a memorial to a man named Drengr, the son of a man named Eygeirr, that the person or persons who sponsored the stone and Drengr were members of a guild. This is one of four runestones that mention guilds in Viking Age Sweden, the others being U 379 in Kyrkogården, U 391 in Prästgatan, Ög 64 in Bjälbo; these stones and others discussing félags are evidence of the trading activities during this period of Scandinavian history. One scholar has suggested that the image of the ship may have been a type of heraldic badge or symbol of the guild that raised the stone; the name Drengr is a bit unusual as it is a title associated with warriors or merchants. However, there are several examples from Scandinavia in which an Old Norse word, a designation of status has become a personal name. In the inscription, each word in the runic text is separated with a punctuation mark consisting of two dots except for the name Drengr, emphasized by using a different word divider consisting of a single dot.

The Rundata catalog number for this stone, Ög MÖLM1960. Alveʀ/Ølveʀ ræistu stæin þenns æftiʀ Dræng, Øygæiʀs sun, gilda sinn.... Ôlvir raised this stone in memory of Drengr, his guild-brother. Photograph of runestone in 1985 – Swedish National Heritage Board