A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials colors, it must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint, plastic, cosmetics and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants ground into a fine powder. For use in paint, this powder is added to a binder, a neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion.
A distinction is made between a pigment, insoluble in its vehicle, a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle. A colorant can act as either a dye depending on the vehicle involved. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt; the resulting pigment is called a lake pigment. The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. In 2006, around 7.4 million tons of inorganic and special pigments were marketed worldwide. Asia has the highest rate on a quantity basis followed by North America; the global demand on pigments was US$20.5 billion in 2009. Pigments appear colored because they selectively reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of visible light. White light is a equal mixture of the entire spectrum of visible light with a wavelength in a range from about 375 or 400 nanometers to about 760 or 780 nm; when this light encounters a pigment, parts of the spectrum are absorbed by the pigment.
Organic pigments such as diazo or phthalocyanine compounds feature conjugated systems of double bonds. Some inorganic pigments, such as vermilion or cadmium yellow, absorb light by transferring an electron from the negative ion to the positive ion; the other wavelengths or parts of the spectrum are scattered. The new reflected. Pigments, unlike fluorescent or phosphorescent substances, can only subtract wavelengths from the source light, never add new ones; the appearance of pigments is intimately connected to the color of the source light. Sunlight has a high color temperature and a uniform spectrum and is considered a standard for white light, while artificial light sources tend to have strong peaks in parts of their spectra. Viewed under different lights, pigments will appear different colors. Color spaces used to represent colors. Lab color measurements, unless otherwise noted, assume that the measurement was taken under a D65 light source, or "Daylight 6500 K", the color temperature of sunlight.
Other properties of a color, such as its saturation or lightness, may be determined by the other substances that accompany pigments. Binders and fillers added to pure pigment chemicals have their own reflection and absorption patterns, which can affect the final spectrum. For example, in pigment/binder mixtures, individual rays of light may not encounter pigment molecules and may be reflected unchanged; these stray rays of source light make. Pure pigment allows little white light to escape, producing a saturated color, while a small quantity of pigment mixed with a lot of white binder will appear unsaturated and pale due to incident white light escaping unchanged. Occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes such as body decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old have been reported in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia.
Before the Industrial Revolution, the range of color available for art and decorative uses was technologically limited. Most of the pigments in use were pigments of biological origin. Pigments from unusual sources such as botanical materials, animal waste and mollusks were harvested and traded over long distances; some colors were impossible to obtain, given the range of pigments that were available. Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because of their rarity. Biological pigments were difficult to acquire, the details of their production were kept secret by the manufacturers. Tyrian Purple is a pigment made from the mucus of one of several species of Murex snail. Production of Tyrian Purple for use as a fabric dye began as early as 1200 BCE by the Phoenicians, was continued by the Greeks and Romans until 1453 CE, with the fall of Constantinople; the pigment was expensive and complex to produce, items colored with it became associated with power and wealth. Greek historian Theopompus, writing in the 4th century BCE, reported that "purple for dyes fetched its weight in silver at Colophon."Mineral pigments were traded over long distances.
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Schwan-STABILO is a German maker of pens for writing and cosmetics as well as markers and highlighters for office use. It is the world's largest manufacturer of Stabilo Boss; the company was founded as Grossberger & Kurz Bleistiftfabrik in Nuremberg in 1855 alongside other pencil manufacturers such as Staedtler and Faber-Castell, because the area is surrounded by graphite and clay mines. It was acquired by the Schwanhäusser family in 1865. Taking the first part from the family name, the company was renamed Schwan Bleistift Fabrik and started using the swan logo as one of the earliest trademarks. In 1909 the Dermatograph cosmetic pen was created, used by surgeons for marking skin. During the Great Depression, Schwan had three brands: Stabilo premium pencils for the most demanding users, Othello pencils for mass markets and Swano non-toxic pencils for children; the company rebranded itself from Schwan Bleistift Fabrik to Schwan-Stabilo in 1976 in honour of the Schwanhäußer family. In 1992, Schwan-Stabilo split into two separate companies: Schwan-STABILO Cosmetics and Schwan-STABILO The company headquarters is in Heroldsberg and has three production subsidiaries: Weißenburg in Bayern, where the highlighter is manufactured, incorporated in 1986 Johor Bahru, where the ballpoint pen is manufactured, incorporated in 1976 as Swan Malaysia Český Krumlov, Czech Republic, where the wood based pencil is manufactured, incorporated in 1992 Stabilo Products Website, Schawn-Stabilo Products Website, Official website Schwan-Stabilo Award Schwan-Stabilo's eraser collection
Blue pencil (editing)
A blue pencil is a pencil traditionally used by a copy editor or sub-editor to show corrections to a written copy. The colour is used because it will not show in some lithographic or photographic reproduction processes. For similar reasons, sometimes red pencils are used since their pigment will not reproduce by xerography. With the introduction of electronic editing using word processors or desktop publishing, literal blue pencils are seen more rarely; the "blue pencil test" is used by courts of law as a method for deciding whether contractual obligations can be enforced. Non-photo blue Colored pencil Johnston, The Lord Chamberlain's Blue Pencil, Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 978-0-340-52529-6
Canadian English is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada. According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of 19 million Canadians, or 57% of the population. A larger number, 28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language. 82% of Canadians outside the province of Quebec reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec the figure was just 7.7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec French. Canadian English contains major elements of both British English and American English, as well as many uniquely Canadian characteristics. While, broadly speaking, Canadian English tends to be closest to American English in terms of linguistic distance, the precise influence of American English, British English and other sources on Canadian English varieties has been the ongoing focus of systematic studies since the 1950s. Phonologically and American English are classified together as North American English, emphasizing the fact that the vast majority of outsiders other native English speakers, cannot distinguish the typical accents of the two countries by sound alone.
There are minor disagreements over the degree to which Canadians and Americans themselves can differentiate their own two accents, there is evidence that some Western American English is undergoing a vowel shift coinciding with the one first reported in mainland Canadian English in the early 1990s. The term "Canadian English" is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857. Geikie, a Scottish-born Canadian, reflected the Anglocentric attitude that would be prevalent in Canada for the next hundred years when he referred to the language as "a corrupt dialect", in comparison with what he considered the proper English spoken by immigrants from Britain. Canadian English is the product of five waves of immigration and settlement over a period of more than two centuries; the first large wave of permanent English-speaking settlement in Canada, linguistically the most important, was the influx of Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, chiefly from the Mid-Atlantic States – as such, Canadian English is believed by some scholars to have derived from northern American English.
Canadian English has been developing features of its own since the early 19th century. The second wave from Britain and Ireland was encouraged to settle in Canada after the War of 1812 by the governors of Canada, who were worried about American dominance and influence among its citizens. Further waves of immigration from around the globe peaked in 1910, 1960 and at the present time had a lesser influence, but they did make Canada a multicultural country, ready to accept linguistic change from around the world during the current period of globalization; the languages of Aboriginal peoples in Canada started to influence European languages used in Canada before widespread settlement took place, the French of Lower Canada provided vocabulary, with words such as toque and portage, to the English of Upper Canada. Studies on earlier forms of English in Canada are rare, yet connections with other work to historical linguistics can be forged. An overview of diachronic work on Canadian English, or diachronically-relevant work, is Dollinger.
Until the 2000s all commentators on the history of CanE have argued from the "language-external" history, i.e. social and political history. An exception has been in the area of lexis, where Avis et al's Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles, offered real-time historical data through its quotations. Historical linguists have started to study earlier Canadian English on historical linguistic data. DCHP-1 is now available in open access. Most notably, Dollinger pioneered the historical corpus linguistic approach for English in Canada with CONTE and offers a developmental scenario for 18th- and 19th-century Ontario. Reuter, with a 19th-century newspaper corpus from Ontario, has confirmed the scenario laid out in Dollinger. Canadian English included a class-based sociolect known as Canadian dainty. Treated as a marker of upper-class prestige in the 19th century and the early part of the 20th, Canadian dainty was marked by the use of some features of British English pronunciation, resulting in an accent similar to the Mid-Atlantic accent known in the United States.
This accent faded in prominence following World War II, when it became stigmatized as pretentious, is now never heard in contemporary Canadian life outside of archival recordings used in film, television or radio documentaries. Canadian spelling of the English language combines American conventions. Words such as realize and paralyze are spelled with -ize or -yze rather than -ise or -yse. French-derived words that in American English end with -or and -er, such as color or center retain British spellings. While the United States uses the Anglo-French spelling defense and offense, most Canadians use the British spellings defence and offence; some nouns, as in British English, take -ice while matching verbs take -ise – for example and licence are nouns while practise and license are the re
A crayon is a stick of colored wax, chalk or other material used for writing or drawing. A crayon made of pigment with a dry binder is a pastel. A grease pencil or Chinese marker is made of colored hardened grease. There are watercolor crayons, sometimes called water-soluble crayons. Crayons are easy to work with, they are less messy than most paints and markers, blunt nontoxic, available in a wide variety of colors. These characteristics make them good instruments for teaching small children to draw in addition to being used by student and professional artists. In the modern English-speaking world, the term crayon is associated with the standard wax crayon, such as those available for use by children; such crayons are approximately 3.5 inches in length and made of paraffin wax. Paraffin wax is heated and cooled to achieve the correct temperature at which a usable wax substance can be dyed and manufactured and shipped for use around the world. Paraffin waxes are used for cosmetics, for the preparation of printing ink, fruit preserving, in the pharmaceutical industry, for lubricating purposes, crayons.
Colin Snedeker, a chemist for Binney & Smith, developed the first washable crayons in response to consumer complaints regarding stained fabrics and walls. A patent for the washable solid marking composition utilized in the washable crayons was awarded to Snedeker in 1990; the history of the crayon is not clear. The word "crayon" dates to 1644, coming from the Latin word creta; the notion to combine a form of wax with pigment goes back thousands of years. Encaustic painting is a technique that uses hot beeswax combined with colored pigment to bind color into stone. A heat source was used to "burn in" and fix the image in place. Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar, was thought to describe the first techniques of wax crayon drawings; this method, employed by the Egyptians, Romans and indigenous people in the Philippines, is still used today. However, the process wasn't used to make crayons into a form intended to be held and colored with and was therefore ineffective to use in a classroom or as crafts for children.
Contemporary crayons are purported to have originated in Europe, where some of the first cylinder-shaped crayons were made with charcoal and oil. Pastels are an art medium having roots with the modern crayon and stem back to Leonardo da Vinci in 1495. Conté crayons, out of Paris, are a hybrid between a pastel and a conventional crayon, used since the late 1790s as a drawing crayon for artists. Various hues of powdered pigment replaced the primary charcoal ingredient found in most early 19th century products. References to crayons in literature appear as early as 1813 in Prejudice. Joseph Lemercier, considered by some of his contemporaries to be "the soul of lithography", was one of the founders of the modern crayon. Through his Paris business circa 1828 he produced a variety of crayon and color related products, but as those in Europe were discovering that substituting wax for the oil strengthened the crayon, various efforts in the United States were developing. The initial era of wax crayons saw a number of companies and products competing for the lucrative education and artist markets.
In addition to the giants such as Binney & Smith/Crayola and American Crayon/Dixon Ticonderoga, other companies popped up in the industry at various times from the late 19th century to the early 1910s. Crayola developed their line of wax crayons beginning on June 10, 1903. Edwin Binney and C. Harold Smith had been long established in the coloring marketplace through Binney's Peekskill, NY chemical works factory making lampblack by burning whale and carbon black and instrumental in the coloring of automobile tires. In 1902 they introduced the Staonal marking crayon. Edwin Binney, working with his wife, Alice Stead Binney, who coined the name Crayola by combining the French word for chalk, with the first part of oleaginous, the oily paraffin wax used to make the crayon. Binney and Smith were quick to capitalize on their creation by offering 19 boxes with 30 colors, including the Crayola No 51, with 28, featured their largest selection of colors; the Rubens Crayola line started in 1903 as well was for artists and designed to compete with the Raphael brand of crayons from Europe.
Rubens were featured in everything from the small 6-color box to the No. 500 with 24 colors. They made many other crayon lines including Anti-Roll, Art-Toy, Boston, Cerola, Chic'ago, Doo Zee, Easy-Off, Liquitex, Munsell Crayola, Pooh, Rubens, Tiny Tots and Widstrok. By far the most recognizable brand was their Crayola "Gold Medal" line in the familiar yellow boxes; the Gold Medal referred to one the company earned with their An-du-Septic dustless chalk during the March 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Over 39,000 awards were given out using the medals designed by Adolph A. Weinman. Receiving a medal at an Exposition was and still is something of importance with many companies featuring their medal on their products. Two companies to use the 1904 medal were Binney & Smith, they used the award to design a new line of crayons featuring the medal on the front of thei
Berol is a British brand of stationery products commercialized by Paper Mate. The company, based in Lichfield, produced pencils and other stationary items. Berol is now a brand of imported products, with UK manufacturing closed since Berol's purchase by Sanford L. P. a division of the Newell Companies, in 1995. The "Eagle Pencil Company" was founded by Bavarian immigrant Daniel Berolzheimer in 1856 opening a pencil shop in New York City and a factory in Yonkers. In 1894 the company extended its business opening office and showrooms in London. Eagle Pencil opened a factory in Tottenham, that started operating towards the end of 1907; the outbreak of the World War II in 1939 saw the factory pause pencil manufacture and instead produce secret military equipment. Pencil manufacture recommenced in 1946. A series of post-war corporate acquisitions meant that the Eagle Pencil name was no longer appropriate. In 1969 the company name was changed to the owning family's now-shortened surname. Berol's head office remained at the Tottenham factory until the need for extra production space led to a move to Whetstone, London.
In June 1967 the company opened a purpose built factory on the Hardwick Industrial Estate in King’s Lynn, Norfolk. The company’s head office moved from Whetstone to King's Lynn in 1978. In 1986, Chairman Kenneth Berol, announced the family's intention to sell the company as there was no sixth generation family successor. In 1987, Berol was acquired by the Empire Pencil Corporation of Tennessee. In February 1992 the company decided to close the Tottenham factory and moved some production to King's Lynn. 1995 saw the Newell Company acquire the Berol Corporation with Berol being placed in its Sanford division. 2003 saw the King's Lynn factory close with 230 redundancies. Some production was transferred to the former Parker Pen factory in Newhaven, but the factory was closed in 2010. From on, all Berol products are imported. Berol's product lines include: Art and crafts — Paints, pastels, oil pastels, crayons, mediums Writing instruments — Pencils, colouring pencils, colouring pens, sharpeners List of pen types and companies Berol Official website Eagle Pencils vintage models "That Common Pencil & The Eagle Pencil Company", by Sterling Picard