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Colossus computer

Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher. Colossus used thermionic valves to perform counting operations. Colossus is thus regarded as the world's first programmable, digital computer, although it was programmed by switches and plugs and not by a stored program. Colossus was designed by General Post Office research telephone engineer Tommy Flowers to solve a problem posed by mathematician Max Newman at the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park. Alan Turing's use of probability in cryptanalysis contributed to its design, it has sometimes been erroneously stated that Turing designed Colossus to aid the cryptanalysis of the Enigma. Turing's machine that helped decode; the prototype, Colossus Mark 1, was shown to be working in December 1943 and was in use at Bletchley Park by early 1944. An improved Colossus Mark 2 that used shift registers to quintuple the processing speed, first worked on 1 June 1944, just in time for the Normandy landings on D-Day.

Ten Colossi were in use by the end of the war and an eleventh was being commissioned. Bletchley Park's use of these machines allowed the Allies to obtain a vast amount of high-level military intelligence from intercepted radiotelegraphy messages between the German High Command and their army commands throughout occupied Europe; the existence of the Colossus machines was kept secret until the mid-1970s. This deprived most of those involved with Colossus of the credit for pioneering electronic digital computing during their lifetimes. A functioning rebuild of a Mark 2 Colossus was completed in 2008 by some volunteers; the Colossus computers were used to help decipher intercepted radio teleprinter messages, encrypted using an unknown device. Intelligence information revealed that the Germans called the wireless teleprinter transmission systems "Sägefisch"; this led the British to call encrypted German teleprinter traffic "Fish", the unknown machine and its intercepted messages "Tunny". Before the Germans increased the security of their operating procedures, British cryptanalysts diagnosed how the unseen machine functioned and built an imitation of it called "British Tunny".

It was deduced that the machine had twelve wheels and used a Vernam ciphering technique on message characters in the standard 5-bit ITA2 telegraph code. It did this by combining the plaintext characters with a stream of key characters using the XOR Boolean function to produce the ciphertext. In August 1941, a blunder by German operators led to the transmission of two versions of the same message with identical machine settings; these were worked on at Bletchley Park. First, John Tiltman, a talented GC&CS cryptanalyst, derived a key stream of 4000 characters. Bill Tutte, a newly arrived member of the Research Section, used this key stream to work out the logical structure of the Lorenz machine, he deduced that the twelve wheels consisted of two groups of five, which he named the χ and ψ wheels, the remaining two he called μ or "motor" wheels. The chi wheels stepped with each letter, encrypted, while the psi wheels stepped irregularly, under the control of the motor wheels. With a sufficiently random key stream, a Vernam cipher removes the natural language property of a plaintext message of having an uneven frequency distribution of the different characters, to produce a uniform distribution in the ciphertext.

The Tunny machine did this well. However, the cryptanalysts worked out that by examining the frequency distribution of the character-to-character changes in the ciphertext, instead of the plain characters, there was a departure from uniformity which provided a way into the system; this was achieved by "differencing" in which each character was XOR-ed with its successor. After Germany surrendered, allied forces captured a Tunny machine and discovered that it was the electromechanical Lorenz SZ in-line cipher machine. In order to decrypt the transmitted messages, two tasks had to be performed; the first was "wheel breaking", the discovery of the cam patterns for all the wheels. These patterns were set up on the Lorenz machine and used for a fixed period of time for a succession of different messages; each transmission, which contained more than one message, was enciphered with a different start position of the wheels. Alan Turing invented a method of wheel-breaking. Turing's technique was further developed into "Rectangling", for which Colossus could produce tables for manual analysis.

Colossi 2, 4, 6, 7 and 9 had a "gadget" to aid this process. The second task was "wheel setting", which worked out the start positions of the wheels for a particular message, could only be attempted once the cam patterns were known, it was this task for which Colossus was designed. To discover the start position of the chi wheels for a message, Colossus compared two character streams, counting statistics from the evaluation of programmable Boolean functions; the two streams were the ciphertext, read at high speed from a paper tape, the key stream, generated internally, in a simulation of the unknown German machine. After a succession of different Colossus runs to discover the chi-wheel settings, they were checked by examining the frequency distribution of the characters in processed

Angular displacement

Angular displacement of a body is the angle in radians through which a point revolves around a centre or line has been rotated in a specified sense about a specified axis. When a body rotates about its axis, the motion cannot be analyzed as a particle, as in circular motion it undergoes a changing velocity and acceleration at any time; when dealing with the rotation of a body, it becomes simpler to consider the body itself rigid. A body is considered rigid when the separations between all the particles remains constant throughout the body's motion, so for example parts of its mass are not flying off. In a realistic sense, all things can be deformable, however this impact is minimal and negligible, thus the rotation of a rigid body over a fixed axis is referred to as rotational motion. In the example illustrated to the right, a particle or body P is at a fixed distance r from the origin, O, rotating counterclockwise, it becomes important to represent the position of particle P in terms of its polar coordinates.

In this particular example, the value of θ is changing, while the value of the radius remains the same.. As the particle moves along the circle, it travels an arc length s, which becomes related to the angular position through the relationship:- s = r θ Angular displacement may be measured in radians or degrees. Using radians provides a simple relationship between distance traveled around the circle and the distance r from the centre. Θ = s r For example, if a body rotates 360° around a circle of radius r, the angular displacement is given by the distance traveled around the circumference -, 2πr - divided by the radius: θ = 2 π r r which simplifies to: θ = 2 π. Therefore, 1 revolution is 2 π radians; when a particle travels from point P to point Q over δ t, as it does in the illustration to the left, the radius of the circle goes through a change in angle Δ θ = θ 2 − θ 1 which equals the angular displacement. In three dimensions, angular displacement is an entity with a magnitude; the direction specifies the axis of rotation, which always exists by virtue of the Euler's rotation theorem.

This entity is called an axis-angle. Despite having direction and magnitude, angular displacement is not a vector because it does not obey the commutative law for addition; when dealing with infinitesimal rotations, second order infinitesimals can be discarded and in this case commutativity appears. Several ways to describe angular displacement exist, like rotation matrices or Euler angles. See charts on SO for others. Given that any frame in the space can be described by a rotation matrix, the displacement among them can be described by a rotation matrix. Being A 0 and A f two matrices, the angular displacement matrix between them can be obtained as Δ A = A f. A 0 − 1; when this product is performed having a small difference between both frames we will obtain a matrix close to the identity. In the limit, we will have an infinitesimal rotation matrix. An infinitesimal angular displacement is an infinitesimal rotation matrix: As any rotation matrix has a single real eigenvalue, +1, this eigenvalue shows the rotation axis.

Its module can be deduced from the value of the infinitesimal rotation. The shape of the matrix is like this: A = We can introduce here the infinitesimal angular displacement tensor or rotation generator associated: d Φ = ( 0 − d ϕ z d ϕ y ( t


A ciénega is a wetland system unique to the American Southwest. Ciénagas are alkaline, spongy, wet meadows with shallow-gradient, permanently saturated soils in otherwise arid landscapes that occupied nearly the entire widths of valley bottoms; that description satisfies historic, pre-damaged ciénagas, although few can be described that way now. Incised ciénagas are common today. Ciénagas are associated with seeps or springs, found in canyon headwaters or along margins of streams. Ciénagas occur because the geomorphology forces water to the surface, over large areas, not through a single pool or channel. In a healthy ciénaga, water migrates through long, wide-scale mats of thick, sponge-like wetland sod. Ciénaga soils are squishy, permanently saturated organic, black in color or anaerobic. Adapted sedges and reeds are the dominant plants, with succession plants—Goodding's willow, Fremont cottonwoods and scattered Arizona walnuts—found on drier margins, down-valley in healthy ciénagas where water goes underground or along the banks of incised ciénagas.

Ciénagas are not considered true swamps due to their lack of trees, which will drown in historic ciénagas. However, trees do grow in many drained ciénagas, making the distinction less clear. Undamaged ciénagas nonexistent today, were characterized by a slow-moving, broad flow through extensive emergent vegetation as just described, but today, the ongoing region-wide erosion that followed the arrival of Europeans in the American Southwest and the subsequent misuse of the land by settlers entrenched water flow between vertical walls, resulting in an ever-worsening incision process, a drawdown of local water tables and the drying up of most marshland environments, leaving behind scarcely few undamaged ciénagas. Many that remain today look and function like a creek: narrow and continuing to degrade. "Since the late 1800s, natural wetlands in arid and semi-arid desert grasslands of the American Southwest and Northern Mexico have disappeared."Ciénagas in Progressive States from Healthy to Dead Ciénaga is a Spanish term meaning desert marsh, bog or shallow, slow-moving flow of water through dense surface vegetation — mistakenly thought of as originating from cién-aguas "100 waters" — derived from ciéno, meaning silt.

There are ciénaga and ciénega. Spelling it with an a, would seem best because the Spanish word for water, agua, is spelled with an a, although spelling with an e is far more common and used by most in the scientific community. There are an inordinate variety of pronunciations, spellings — corruptions and variants — definition and confusion about the etymology of the word ciénaga. · Spellings: ciénega ciénaga cieneguilla cienequita sienaga sinigie senigie seneca chenegays · Pronunciations, in descending order of usage: see-en-ă-ga see-en-ā-ga sen-ă-key · Etymology: cieno – The Real Academia Espanola, 2009, states that the root for ciénaga is “silt,”, the meaning of cieno. The linguist says that the term has nothing to do with “hundred.” Cien agua – Meaning “100 waters” Although under recognized, ciénagas have been important for a long time. “In general, most prehistoric agricultural settlements were located near ciénagas or on the floodplains of the major perennial streams where irrigated agriculture could be practiced.”

It was not until 1984 that Dean A. Hendrickson and W. L. Minckley alerted academics in the Southwest to the importance of its overlooked ciénagas. So-called progress and development led to the unfortunate thinking that, "the only good wetland was a drained wetland." Since their rather inauspicious invitation for further study, the effort to understand and restore ciénagas has gained prominence. Although not the exclusive view, but suggestive of how ciénagas were thought of is this exchange, a 1940s-era conversation between Richard Bradford's narrator, Joshua Arnold, his school chum in the New Mexico novel, Red Sky at Morning"I didn't know there was this much water around Sagrado," I said. "The Sagrado River's been dry since I got here.""This is a cienega," Parker said. "It's some kind of underground spring. Costs a fortune to drain it or pump it off, Cloyd isn't about to spend money for things like that." The importance of ciénagas is staggering. They are critical for other animals. Wetlands in the Southwest occupy under two percent of the land area and have an exorbitant impact on the region.

“There are over 1,900 species listed under the Endangered Species Act as either threatened or endangered. Although their numerical count is less dramatic, ninety-five percent of ciénaga habitat is dry today. Abundant archeology surrounds ciénagas.

Wilhelm Huberts

Wilhelm Huberts Willi or Willy Huberts is a former Austrian football player. Huberts began his career in his hometown with ASK Voitsberg. From there he was transferred to Grazer AK, who got him to the Stadion an der Körösistraße in 1955. Through his immense technical skills and his scoring qualities he became a supporter's favourite in Graz; when GAK played a couple of friendlies in New York in 1959, two of them against Real Madrid, it had causes for Huberts. The midfielder could convince at this tour, so New York Hungarians of the German American Soccer League signed him in 1960. With this club he won National Challenge Cup in 1962. In 1963 he went to Frankfurt in Germany. In this year the Bundesliga was founded and the Eagles from Hesse were a founding member. Huberts was one of only four foreign players in German pro football, the only Austrian. In the 1960s team of Frankfurt he was a key player. With the jersey number 10 he scored 80 times for the boys from Main. For the 1970–71 season he returned to Austria and joined Austria Wien and his home club Grazer AK in 1971 and retired in 1975.

He was capped scoring in his debut in a 2-0 win against Belgium. With the club change to New York came travel limitations, he was no longer selected for Austria and when he joined Eintracht Frankfurt he never played again for the national team due to the politics of the clubs not to release foreign players except for big tournaments. National Challenge Cup: 1962 Austrian Cup: 1971 Wilhelm Huberts at Austria Archive Wilhelm Huberts at Fussballportal Wilhelm Huberts at Wilhelm Huberts at

Jane Kitchel

Martha Jane Beattie Kitchel is a Democratic member of the Vermont State Senate, representing the Caledonia senate district since January 2005. Kitchel was born in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, on August 23, 1945; the second of Catherine and Harold Beattie's ten children, she had four half-siblings. Born to a fifth-generation Vermont farming family, she grew up on her family's dairy farm in Danville, Vermont. In addition to running the farm, Kitchel's parents were involved in local politics: her mother was a member of the Vermont Farm Bureau and a former state legislator, while her father was a local selectman, she went to Danville High School and graduated in 1963. In 1967, Kitchel received her bachelor's degree from Wilson College. Kitchel volunteered on multiple Democratic political campaigns in the 1960s, including Philip H. Hoff's campaign for Governor and John F. Kennedy's presidential campaign. After graduating college in 1967, Kitchel began her career as an entry-level social worker in the St. Johnsbury district office of the Vermont Department of Social Welfare.

Continuing to work in the Department, she oversaw six district offices by 1979 and was appointed Deputy Commissioner of the Department of Social Welfare by Governor Madeleine Kunin in 1985. In 1992, Governor Howard Dean appointed her Commissioner of the Department of Social Welfare, where she had been working for 25 years. Kitchel was appointed Secretary of the Vermont Agency of Human Services, Vermont's largest state agency, in 1992, where she served until her retirement in 2002. Throughout her work in Social Welfare/Human Services, she played an instrumental role in enacting Vermont's 2-1-1 information and referral service and the Ready Up cash assistance program. Governor Howard Dean praised her as "the driving force" behind his administration's welfare reforms and described her as "the architect of our universal healthcare program," referring to Dr. Dynasaur, Vermont's publicly funded health insurance program for children, established in 1989. Kitchel proposed expanding Dr. Dynasaur coverage to children in families making up to 300 percent of the federal poverty line, achieved in October 1998.

She was elected to the Vermont Senate in November 2004, becoming the first Democratic state senator from Caledonia County in 16 years. She has been reelected every two years since, most in 2016. Due to her experience in the state government, Kitchel was appointed Vice Chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee in her first term, she became Chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee in 2011, serves as Clerk of the Senate Transportation Committee. She serves on the Health Reform Oversight and Joint Fiscal committees, as well as on the Governor's Task Force on Hunger and the Vermont Justice for Children Task Force, she is reside in Danville. They have Nathaniel. Kitchel's sister, Catherine "Kitty" Toll, serves in the Vermont House of Representatives. Toll became Chair of the Vermont House Appropriations Committee in 2017, now serving as the House counterpart to Kitchel, who has chaired the Senate Appropriations Committee since 2011. Kitchel volunteers in her local community and serves on the boards of the Vermont Foodbank, Bradford's Enhanced Living Inc. the Northeast Regional Community High School of Vermont, the Northeastern Vermont Area Health Education Center.

She is a Corporator for the Northeastern Vermont Regional Hospital. Members of the Vermont Senate, 2005–2006 session Members of the Vermont Senate, 2007–2008 session Vermont Senate Biographies

Medford, New York

Medford is a hamlet and census-designated place in Suffolk County, New York, United States. The population was 24,142 at the 2010 census. Medford is a community in the southwest part of the Town of Brookhaven, it is served by the Patchogue-Medford School District, except for extreme southeastern Medford, served by the South Country Central School District, extreme northeastern Medford, served by the Longwood Central School District. Some neighborhoods in Yaphank have Medford's zip code; the Long Island Rail Road established the Medford Station in 1843 in a flat wilderness in the Long Island Central Pine Barrens. The station connected to the Patchogue Stage Road between Patchogue and Port Jefferson, a post office was established. In 1850 the LIRR auctioned the land around the station; the O. L. Schwenke Land & Investment Co. bought 4 square miles and subdivided the land into 25-by-100-foot lots which sold for $10 to $75. The land remained poor for farming. According to legend, in a marketing attempt a mock factory with a phony roof was built near the tracks, when a train neared, tar paper was burned to give the impression that a booming industry existed in the community.

In 1907 the LIRR established the Medford Prosperity Farm on 80 acres to show that crops could be raised in the Pine Barrens. Theodore Roosevelt visited the station in August 1910; as the car drove across a trail between Medford and Wading River, it got stuck in the mud and Roosevelt was said to take a "flying leap" to get out. By the mid-to-late-20th century, developers were building new neighborhoods within Medford. Eagle Estates was built along Horse Block Road east of NY 112 in 1963, although it was planned as far back as the 1930s; the development included a King Kullen shopping center on Horse Block Road west of Eagle Avenue, a youth baseball and athletic field east of Sipp Avenue between Wave and Race avenues. The Long Island Expressway was built through Medford in 1970, with interchanges at NY 112 and Horse Block Road, the latter of, close to an older interchange with Horse Block Road and Long Island Avenue, was not completed until 1999; the Pines was established in the 1970s east of Buffalo Avenue, south of Jamaica Avenue, north of Woodside Avenue and far west of Patchogue-Yaphank Road.

A segment of Peconic Avenue east of Buffalo Avenue has been lined with automotive junk yards since the mid-20th century. Two long-standing auto wreckers have been Gershow Recycling. Medford is located at 40°49′4″N 72°59′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.8 square miles, all land. Medford is crossed by several busy roadways, including Horseblock Road, NY 112, Patchogue-Yaphank Road/Sills Road and the Long Island Expressway. Public transportation in Medford has been provided by the Long Island Rail Road since the town was created. Suffolk County Transit provides bus service; as of the census of 2000, there were 21,985 people, 6,791 households, 5,629 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 2,088.5 per square mile. There were 6,939 housing units at an average density of 659.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 89.18% White, 3.98% African American, 0.25% Native American, 1.38% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 3.11% from other races, 2.07% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.79% of the population. There were 6,791 households out of which 42.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.2% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.1% were non-families. 13.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.23 and the average family size was 3.52. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, 7.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $67,153, the median income for a family was $70,493. Males had a median income of $46,485 versus $30,427 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $22,579. About 1.5% of families and 3.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.5% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over.

Tricia Cast, soap opera actress Christine Goerke, opera singer Marcus Stroman, Pitcher for the New York Mets and the Toronto Blue Jays of Major League Baseball. Bryant Neal Vinas, convicted of participating in and supporting al-Qaeda plots in Afghanistan and the U. S. and helping al-Qaeda plan a bomb attack on the LIRR