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Colour guard

In military organizations, a colour guard is a detachment of soldiers assigned to the protection of regimental colours. This duty is so prestigious that the colour is carried by a young officer, while experienced non-commissioned officers are assigned to the protection of the flag; these NCOs, accompanied sometimes by warrant officers, can be ceremonially armed with either sabres or rifles to protect the colour. Colour guards are dismounted, but there are mounted colour guard formations as well; as armies became trained and adopted set formations, each regiment's ability to keep its formation was critical to its, therefore its army's, success. In the chaos of battle, not least due to the amount of dust and smoke on a battlefield, soldiers needed to be able to determine where their regiment was. Flags and banners have been used by many armies in battle to serve this purpose. Regimental flags were awarded to a regiment by a head-of-State during a ceremony and colours may be inscribed with battle honours or other symbols representing former achievements.

They were therefore treated with reverence as they represented the honour and traditions of the regiment. The loss of a unit's flag was not only shameful, but losing this central point of reference could make the unit break up. So regiments tended to adopt colour guards, a detachment of experienced or élite soldiers, to protect their colours; as a result, the capture of an enemy's standard was considered as a great feat of arms. Due to the advent of modern weapons, subsequent changes in tactics, colours are no longer used in battle, but continue to be carried by colour guards at events of formal character. Colour guards are used in the military throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, including Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand, the United Kingdom. A colour guard unit consists of the standard-bearer, of the rank of second lieutenant or equivalent, positioned in the centre of the colour guard, flanked by two or more individuals armed with rifles or sabres. A colour sergeant major stands behind the colours carrying a pace stick.

So, the formation is as follows: Colour Sergeants carrying rifles Ensigns Sergeant of the Guard Colour Sergeant Major behind the colourAside from presenting arms and sabres, colour guards of the Commonwealth of Nations are expected to lower their flags to the ground in full and regular salutes in ceremonies and parades. Civilians should stand during such times and soldiers are expected to salute them when not in formation; as the British Army, the Royal Air Force, the Royal Marines and the Royal Navy have several types of colours, there are colour guards for these colours and these colours and their colour guards are as follows: Queen's ColourUnion Flag Colour Sergeants and Ensign State Colour – Crimson with insignia and the honours and the Royal Cypher at the corners, used only for the Guards Division in ceremonies in the presence of the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh Colour Sergeants and Ensign Regimental Colour – Union Flag on the canton with the Regimental Arms and honours Foot Guards regiments Royal Regiments Royal Irish Regiment other regimental colourssame as in the Queen's Colour Combined Colour Guards Colour Sergeants, Guard Sergeant of the Colours, Colour Sergeant Major In the cavalry, the Queen's Standard or Guidon and the Regimental/Squadron Standard or Guidon are the equivalents to the Queen's and Regimental Colours.

Queen's Standard – Crimson with the Royal coat of arms, the Royal Cypher and the regimental honours Colour Sergeant/Corporal of Horse, Warrant Officers Regimental/Squadron Standard/Guidon – Crimson or scarlet or other colours with the Royal Cypher, the Union Badge, regimental insignia and honours same as in the Queen's Standard/Guidon Combined Colour Guards Colour Corporals/Sergeants, Warrant Officers, Guard Corporal/Sergeant of the Colours, Colours Corporal Major, Colours Sergeant Major Colour guards in the artillery units are technically the lead gun's crew and leader and there are no colour guards in the rifle regiments, the Royal Gurkha Rifles and in the Royal Hospital in Chelsea. All of the RN's Queen's Colours are identical. Within the RN a colour guard unit consists of: Queen's Colour – White Ensign defaced with the Sovereign's cypher and inscribed with honours Ensigns and Escorts White Ensign Same as Queen's Colour Combined Colour Guards Escorts, Guard Sergeant of the Colours, CSM Queen's Colour – Union Jack with the Sovereign's cypher and the RM emblem and motto with the "Gibraltar" battle honour Ensigns and Escorts Regimental Colour – Union Jack on the canton and dark blue with HM King George IV's cypher and the unit name, the Sovereign's cypher on the other corners Enisgns and Escorts Combined Colour Guards for the RM Escorts, Guard Sergeant of the Colours, CSM Queen's Colour – Royal Air Force Ensign with the Sovereign's cypher and the RAF roundel Ensign and Armed escorts RAF Ensign Same as Queen's Colour Squadron Colour – Air Force blue with the unit insignia and honours same as Queen's Colour Combined Colour Guards Colour Sgts.

Ensigns, Guard Sergeant of the Colours, CSM In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, are colour guards composed of One ensign holding the flag of the People's Liberation Army as the national colou

Bones Knob Radar Station

Bones Knob Radar Station is a heritage-listed radar station at Bowcock Road, Tablelands Region, Australia. It was built in 1943, it is known as WWII RAAF 220 Radar Station. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 14 May 2010. RAAF 220 Radar Station was one of five British-designed Advanced Chain Overseas radar stations constructed in Queensland during World War II: four being completed and a fifth not completed. Early British wartime radar technology evolved and the ACO system was outdated when introduced in Australia in 1943. ACO radar stations were built to the design of the Directorate of Works for the British Air Ministry and were conspicuous through their two 40-metre high timber towers and two reinforced concrete radar transmitting and receiving shelters. RAAF 220 Radar Station, located at Bones Knob near Tolga on the Atherton Tableland, became operational in September 1943, it played a role in the protection of the large concentration of ammunition and stores depots established on the Atherton Tableland as part of the assembly and training of Australian troops for the final phase of the New Guinea and island campaigns.

Operation of the Radar Station at Bones Knob ceased in December 1944 as the South West Pacific frontline moved further north. Radar in Australia By the late 1930s Britain had become concerned with defence against aerial bombing and the development of radio direction finding systems for air warning and interception was receiving top priority. By contrast Australia's defence strategy was focused on preventing attacks on coastal targets by enemy warships. Air Warning radar had low priority in Australia and if the need arose, so went the argument, AW sets could be obtained from Britain; the British Committee of Imperial Defence first shared their technical radar knowledge with Australian, New Zealand, South African and Canadian scientists in a top secret meeting in London in February 1939. It was anticipated that the Commonwealth countries would commence their own research and use the new technology for defence developments. Australia was represented at the meeting by Dr David Martyn who ordered a substantial quantity of British radar equipment including six high frequency transmitters, designated MB.

With appropriate aerials on high towers, broad coverage patterns were being produced by the new British CH stations. These stations gave long-range warning of high flying aircraft. However, transmitter/receivers for an air warning system against low flying aircraft were still being developed in Britain. Sets were ordered for delivery to Australia when completed. In August 1939, just weeks before the outbreak of World War II, the Australian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research approved the creation of the Radiophysics Laboratory within the University of Sydney. Scientists at RPL, led by Dr David Martyn and Dr John Piddington, were concerned that sooner or AW radar would be needed in Australia to warn of aerial attack and that existing air defence policy was too complacent. During the first months of the war the Australian defence forces were without anyone specially trained in the tactical operation of radar and in March 1940 each service selected an officer to be sent to Britain for this purpose.

The RAAF candidate was Pilot Officer Albert Pither who had completed an RAF signals course in England. In September 1940 he was posted to Britain for a two-month course in the tactical uses of radar including inspection of equipment in each of the British services. Pither was in Britain, he returned to Australia by way of the United States of America. In May 1941 Pither was promoted to Wing Commander in charge of the Radar Section of the RAAF Directorate of Signals, he began developing a plan to surround Australia with a chain of radar stations based on his experience with the British Chain Home system which relied on fixed transmitter and receiver towers. He established a Radio School at the Richmond RAAF Station near Sydney. In early November 1941, one month before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the RAAF was given full responsibility for Australia's early warning radar operations and adopted Pither's radar defence strategy; the delays that Australia experienced in acquiring British radar equipment spurred an innovative period of radar development by Australian scientists.

Distance, competing demands and lack of material resources made it that Australia would not receive its first shipment of radar equipment until the middle of 1942. As a result, when news of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor broke, Dr Piddington and his colleagues at RPL set about modifying the electronics of an experimental British set, available. Within five and a half days they produced the first Australian-made AW set; the AW employed an innovative switching circuit developed by Dr Joseph Pawsey of RPL and aerials engineered by J. G. Worledge at the New South Wales Railway's Eveleigh Railway Workshops; the set provided Sydney's only air warning for some months. The transmitter and receiver were comparatively light in weight and were subsequently modified to provide the electronics for Australia's principal air warning radar the LW/AW MkI and MkII; the radar equipment was manufactured in Sydney by HMV known as The Gramophone Company. By the time the British ACO radar system was installed at Bones Knob in September 1943, features of its design had been superseded by the Australian LW/AW radar its

Xinhua Sports & Entertainment

Xinhua Sports & Entertainment Limited was a Chinese media company, delisted in 2011, as well as the arrest of top management of the firm. The company was known as Xinhua Finance Media Limited until 2009. In 2007 the state-owned enterprise Xinhua News Agency declared that they have no relation with XSEL's parent company Xinhua Finance. In 2013 Fredy Bush, former CEO was jailed. Xinhua Finance Media Limited was incorporated in the Cayman Islands on 7 November 2005; the company was listed in NASDAQ in March 2007. On 2009/03/02, XFMedia has changed its name to Xinhua Sports & Entertainment Limited. In 2011, follow the exposure of the real financial condition of the company which ended as liquidation, Lynn Tilton sued former friend and CEO of XSEL, Fredy Bush, for fraud. Xinhua Finance Media official website Xinhua Sports & Entertainment official website