A dual carriageway or divided highway is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation. Roads with two or more carriageways which are designed to higher standards with controlled access are classed as motorways, etc. rather than dual carriageways. A road without a central reservation is a single carriageway regardless of the number of lanes. Dual carriageways have improved road traffic safety over single carriageways and have higher speed limits as a result. In some places, express lanes and local/collector lanes are used within a local-express-lane system to provide more capacity and to smooth traffic flows for longer-distance travel. A early example of a dual carriageway was the Via Portuensis, built in the first century by the Roman emperor Claudius between Rome and its port Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. One claim for the first divided highway in the United States was Savery Avenue in Carver, first built in 1860, where the two roadways were separated by a narrow strip of trees down the middle.
In 1907 the Long Island Motor Parkway opened, 20% of it featured a semi-dual-carriageway design. The New York City Belt Parkway system, built between 1907 and 1934 pioneered the same design; however the majority of it featured concrete or brick railings as lane dividers instead of grass medians. In 1924 the first Italian autostrada was opened running 55 km from Milan to Varese, it featured a broad road bed and did not feature lane dividers except near cities and through the mountains. The London end of the Great West Road became Britain's first dual carriageway when it was opened in 1925 by King George V. In 1927 the Rome bypass was opened, it ran 92 km bypassing Rome to the east. The entire length featured a dual-carriageway design. In the early 1930s it was extended northward to Florence. Most of the original routing was destroyed by the Allies in World War II. By 1930 several US and European cities had built dual-carriageway highways to control traffic jams and/or to provide bypass routes for traffic.
In 1932 the first German autobahn opened between Bonn. It became a precedent for future highways. Although it, like the first autostrada, did not feature a dual-carriageway design, it inspired the mass construction of future high-speed roadways. During the 1930s, Germany and the Soviet Union began construction of a network of dual carriageway expressways. By 1942, Germany had over 3,200 km of dual carriageway roads, Italy had nearly 1,300 km, the Soviet Union had 400 km. What may be the world's first long-distance intercity dual carriageway/freeway is the Queen Elizabeth Way in Southern Ontario in Canada linking the large cities of Toronto and Hamilton together by 1939, with construction on this stretch of the present-day Queen Elizabeth Way beginning in 1936 as "Middle Road". Opened to traffic in 1940, the 160-mile-long Pennsylvania Turnpike was the first rural dual carriageway built in the United States. By 1955 several states had built dual carriageway freeways and turnpikes and in 1957 the Interstate Highway System began.
Completed in 1994, the major highway system links all the major cities of the United States. In the UK, although the term "dual carriageway" applies to any road with physically separated lanes, it is used as a descriptive term for major routes built in this style; such major dual carriageways have two lanes of traffic in each direction, with the lane nearest the centre being reserved for overtaking. Dual carriageways have only one lane in each direction, or more than two lanes each way. Different speed limits apply on dual carriageway sections from those that apply on single carriageway sections of the same class of road, except in cities and built-up areas where the dual carriageway is more of a safety measure; when first constructed, many dual carriageways—including the first motorways—had no crash- or other barriers in the central reservation. In the event of congestion, or if a driver missed their exit, some drivers made U-turns onto the opposite carriageway; the majority of dual carriageway roads now have barriers.
Some are heavy concrete obstructions. On urban dual carriageways where the road has been converted from a four-lane single carriageway the central reservation will not be substantial: just a small steel divider to save space. Turning right is permitted only at specific locations; the driver will be required to turn left in order to loop around to an access road that permits crossing the major road. Roundabouts on dual carriageways are common in cities or where the cost of a grade-separated junction would be prohibitive. Where space is more limited, intersections may be controlled by traffic lights. Smaller residential roads adjoining urban dual carriageways may be blocked off at one end to limit the number of junctions on the dual carriageway. A dual carriageway with grade-separa
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It comprises most of Yorkshire, as well as North East Lincolnshire, it does not include Middlesbrough and Cleveland or other areas of Yorkshire, such as Sedbergh not included in the aforementioned administrative areas. The largest settlements are, Sheffield, Bradford and York; the population in 2011 was 5,284,000. The committees for the regions, including the one for Yorkshire and the Humber, ceased to exist upon the dissolution of Parliament on 12 April 2010. Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, the Government Offices were abolished in 2011. Scammonden Dam, is the highest dam in UK at 73 metres, Dean Head cutting is the deepest roadway cutting in Europe at 183 ft, at Scammonden Bridge, on the M62. Sutton-under-Whitestonecliffe claims to be longest place name in England. In the Yorkshire and the Humber region, there is a close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology.
The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic; the North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age, while the Yorkshire Wolds and Lincolnshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands. The highest point of the region is Whernside, in the Yorkshire Dales, at 737 metres; the region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire, the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse, which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary; the most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure; the River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York. The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck; the River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.
The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse. The most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole; the River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south westwards through the Vale of Pickering turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh. In the far north of the county, the River Tees flows eastwards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough; the smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby. To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds, the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull; the western Pennines are served by the River Ribble, which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes. The lower stretches of the River Trent flow through North Lincolnshire and meet the Ouse at Trent Falls.
The largest freshwater lake in the region is Hornsea Mere in the East Riding of Yorkshire. This region of England has cool summers and mild winters, with the upland areas of the North York Moors and the Pennines experiencing the coolest weather and the Vale of York the warmest. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season; the latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather in winter. Between depressions, there are small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring settled conditions which can lead to drought. For its latitude, this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a seasonal basis. Cities such as Sheffield and Bradford are cooler due to their inland and upland location, while York and Wakefield are warmer due to their lowland location.
The temperature is lower at night. Snow is not uncommon in the winter, Yorkshire is hilly/mountainous, the Yorkshire Dales and the Pennines can have extreme snowstorms with high snowdrifts. Inland/upland settlements, such as Skipton or Ilkley, have more snow than coastal towns. Hull and Scarborough have less snow. Climate data for settlements in the region: There are seven cities in Yorkshire and the Humber: Bradford, Kingston upon Hull, Ripon, Sheffield and York. Large towns in the area include Barnsley, Grimsby, Harrogate and Scunthorpe. Leeds is the largest settlement and the largest part of an urban area with a population of 1.5 million. Leeds is now one of the largest financial centres in the United Kingdom. Sheffield is a large manufacturing centre. Bradford was a textile manufacturing city; as jobs moved offshore the decline of this industry has resulted in a more diverse economy. Kingston upon Hull is the main port in the region and a notable fishing harbou
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Cross Gates is a suburb in east Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. The area sits between Seacroft and Swarcliffe to the north and Colton to the south, Killingbeck to the west and Austhorpe to the south east. Manston and Pendas Fields are generally regarded as part of Cross Gates, it serves as an important transport hub for the nearby large housing estates of Seacroft and Gipton too. At the 2011 census, Cross Gates had a population of 7,770, situated in the Cross Gates & Whinmoor ward of Leeds City Council with a population of 22,099; the suburb lies in the LS15 Leeds postcode area. Cross Gates means "crossroads" from Old English cros "cross" and Old Norse gata "street, gait". An alternative theory is that the name is derived from its location between the parishes of Whitkirk and Barwick where the boundary was marked by'gates'; the name was recorded as Crosget in 1129. Cross Gates was part of Austhorpe, as were Colton and Barrowby, indicated through various streets in Cross Gates beginning with "Austhorpe".
Until the building of the railway, Cross Gates was a quiet village. However, Leeds' industrialisation, as well as the building of the railway, developed Cross Gates into a'commuter village'. At this time Cross Gates was'well removed' from the city and the collieries to the west of the village, so Cross Gates began to attract Leeds' more affluent residents. Cross Gates' development however had always been attributable to its proximity to Leeds. Before 1900 there was little evidence of Cross Gates, unlike nearby suburbs such as Halton and Austhorpe there is no mention of Cross Gates in the Domesday Book; the earliest housing in Cross Gates was built for the workers at Cross Gates Colliery. In the twentieth century Cross Gates became a suburb of Leeds, with the open fields in between being developed into housing; this led to much development around Cross Gates, including the building of the Cross Gates estate, a development of council housing and private development around Austhorpe and Manston.
Cross Gates outgrew its amenities, which led to the building of the Arndale Centre. Barnbow Tragedy The worst tragedy to happen within Leeds was the Barnbow tragedy of 5 December 1916. 35 workers were killed in the Barnbow Munitions Factory, which became ROF Barnbow. The plant employed 16,000 workers, from Leeds, Wakefield and Wetherby and had its own railway station to cope with the daily influx of workers; the railway station had an 850-foot platform and 38 special trains from surrounding towns and cities. An explosion from Hall 42 mutilated many more. Mechanic, Mr William Parking was presented with an engraved silver watch for his bravery in saving factory workers during the incident. There are two memorials: one in Manston Park and one on Cross Gates Road by the roundabout with the Ring Road; the demolition of Gas holder Number Two at the Cross Gates Gasworks made way for a shopping centre in Cross Gates as some felt that Cross Gates was badly lacking in amenities. This led to the building of the Cross Gates Arndale Centre.
It was the first indoor "American-style" shopping mall in England. It was situated on the old coal and goods yards which were behind what is now the parade of shops at the bottom of Station Road, just north of the Station Pub. In the mid-1980s it was renamed Cross Gates Shopping Centre and was renamed again into Crossgates in January 2005 as a consequence of new ownership and re-branding; this is a large indoor shopping centre containing retailers such as Poundland, Newlook, Iceland, Home Bargains and Bon Marche. There is a LB's situated upstairs, Flavours Cafe, several banks and building societies with 60 stores in total; the Centre is'L'-shaped, with both legs being equal in length. The centre is single storey, except for the central part where there is a second storey containing LB's cafe, an external unit with an East of India restaurant; the barrelled roofs at the Station Road and Austhorpe Road entrances were added several years after the shopping centre's construction in 1967 - they were refurbished in 2001.
There have been many small-scale renovations in the Centre since its construction, including the car parks, which are operated on a ticket-on-entry and pay-on-foot system. Other shopping facilities in Cross Gates are found along Austhorpe Road. Cross Gates' main supermarket was a Fine Fare next to the Methodist Church on Austhorpe Road, the GEM supermarket which became an Asda on the western side of the roundabout where the Ring Road meets Cross Gates Road; this became a'Questword' supermarket and is now Mecca Bingo. There are nearby shopping facilities in Halton and Colton, which has a Sainsbury's, DW Sports Fitness and an Argos, as well as various eating locations; the area's housing includes semi-detached houses and terraced houses. A block of new low-rise flats has been built opposite the Crossgates Shopping Centre, apartments are being sold and rented at high prices. Austhorpe Road and the areas surrounding Marshall Street are made up of Victorian through terraces. There are some upmarket Victorian villas around Tranquility Avenue.
Manston Park is a large park in Cross Gates with football pitches, a bowling green, tennis courts and a playgrou
The A63 is a major road in Yorkshire, England between Leeds and Kingston upon Hull. A section between South Cave and Hull forms the eastward continuation of the M62 motorway and is part of the unsigned Euroroute E20; the route from Leeds out to Selby runs parallel, between 0.6 and 2 miles south of the route of the Leeds and Selby Railway. The route begins just east of Leeds city centre at a junction with the A61, before its February 2009 realignment along the new East Leeds Link Road, it began at a junction with the A64 in the Halton Moor area of the city; the road passes as Pontefract Lane. At the end of this dual carriageway section, the route meets the M1, the road continues north along the motorway for one junction resumes as the A63. From junction 46 of the M1, the Thorpe Park roundabout, the route continues east, meeting the A642 at Garforth. There is a turning for Lidgett Lane to the left, next to Garforth Academy, with the Shell garage on the right, it crosses the Leeds Country Way, there is the B6137 to the right for Kippax.
On the Garforth/Micklefield parish boundary is a roundabout with the A656 Roman Ridge. At the Boot and Shoe junction, with the former A1, there is the Esso Boot & Shoe Service Station, the Best Western Milford Hotel. There is a grade-separated left turn for the B1222; this dual-carriageway section of the former A1, follows the Leeds – North Yorkshire boundary, was built as part of the Brotherton-Micklefield scheme in November 1964 by Dowsett Engineering Construction. At the Selby Fork junction south of the Selby Fork Hotel, the A1246 continues southwards along the former A1, the road enters the district of Selby, in North Yorkshire, it crosses the A1 at junction 42 at South Milford. It meets the A162 at a roundabout, crosses a railway, passes through Monk Fryston, it follows Causeway Dike and passes through Hambleton, where to the east it crosses the Selby Diversion of the East Coast Main Line, the A1238 at a roundabout. The route follows the six-mile £44 million Selby Bypass and £5 million Barlby Bypass, the latter of, shared with the north-south A19, although the A19 still passes through Selby itself.
On the bypass the road passes Selby Golf Club, meets the A19 at a roundabout at Brayton, crosses the Selby Canal, crosses the Doncaster-Selby railway, meets the A1041 at a roundabout, crosses the River Ouse and the Selby-Hull railway. The short section around Barlby follows what was the old East Coast Main Line railway before the Selby Diversion opened in the early 1980s. An alternative route eastwards from the Selby bypass, to the M62, is the A1041 via Camblesforth the A645 past Drax power station; the route out to Hull is shadowed by the Selby-Hull railway line. It leaves at the Barlby Roundabout to the right, passing Osgodby over the railway line and passes Hemingbrough. A planned bypass at Osgodby was cancelled due to increases in prices of land, it enters the East Riding of Yorkshire. It passes through Newsholme before passing straight through Howden next to Howden Minster, it passes through the town as Bridgegate and Hull Road, passing Howden School, where it meets the A614 at a roundabout at the BP Longs Corner Garage.
Access to the M62 is along Boothferry Road. East of Howden, the A63 has been downgraded and is now the B1230; the B1230 onwards into Gilberdyke. When the B1230 was the A63, a three mile section, through Gilberdyke and Newport, was dual carriageway. Where the B1230 crosses the M62 motorway east of Newport, the M62 finishes and the A63 re-starts. Before the last eastern section of the M62 was built, the motorway terminated at a temporary junction at Balkholme. Before the M62 opened, the single carriageway A63 was Hull's main route to the South of England, causing many bottlenecks; the section from junction 38 of the M62 to the A1034 junction near South Cave was single carriageway before the M62 opened in May 1976. The section was constructed as the dualling of the Caves Bypass and opened when the last eastern section of the M62 opened, completing the dual carriageway link to the outskirts of Hull. From junction 38, the B1230 leads to North Cave along the former A63; the BP Triangle North Cave is alongside the junction.
There is the Beacon Service Area on the eastbound side, with the South Cave East Little Chef and Shell Beacon, situated just south of Everthorpe and Wolds prisons. The road skirts the southern edge of South Cave, near Ellerker it crosses the former route at the A1034 junction; the 2.5 miles Elloughton bypass was built in October 1971, from the A1034 to the Welton/Brough junction passing Brantingham to the west. It replaced the former road through Brough; this section skirts the southern edge of the Yorkshire Wolds. The Welton/Brough – North Ferriby section opened in 1961. At the Elloughton-cum-Brough-Welton parish boundary, there is a grade-separated junction for Brough to the south and Welton to the north; the road passes on the south side of South Hunsley School at part of the parish of Welton. A new grade separated junction was constructed east of Melton near North Ferriby in 2006/7; the Shell Grand Dale filling station is on west of the Melton interchange. The
Austhorpe is a civil parish and residential suburb of east Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. It is close to the A643 dual carriageway and M1 motorway; the area is situated between Pendas Fields to the north, Cross Gates to the north west, Whitkirk to the west, Colton to the south and Garforth to the east. Judging by the old boundaries of the former Austhorpe township, Austhorpe includes the areas of Cross Gates, Colton Common and Barrowby. Colton Common became part of Colton when the Ingram family of Temple Newsam kept it for their own after buying and selling the rest of the Austhorpe Lodge estate, it crosses both of the Cross Whinmoor and Temple Newsam wards of Leeds City Council. The current east half of the civil parish of Austhorpe and large Thorpe Park business park lie in the western tip of Garforth and Swillington ward. Austhorpe Parish Council declared nil balance accounts for the financial year ended 31 March 2017. At the 2011 Census, the population of Austhorpe was shown to be included in Cross Gates and Whinmoor ward.
The suffix of Thorp indicates a farm, thorp prevails in the area. Austhorpe is derived form the east farm. After the Township dissolved, Austhorpe stopped developing as as it was doing due to the once abundant coal fields close to the surface, a major source of commerce for the area since Roman times becoming empty with deep shaft mining proving to be unsuccessful compared to the close by coal source at Garforth. Whereas Cross Gates and Colton developed, Barrowby, if anything, did not develop. Pioneering Civil Engineer John Smeaton, designer of the longest standing Eddystone Lighthouse, was born in Austhorpe. Leeds band the Kaiser Chiefs make a positive reference to him in their hit song "I Predict a Riot". Austhorpe Hall is a grade II* listed building dated from 1694. Austhorpe lies in the LS15 postcode area. Here is a population breakdown of the postcode area in comparison with the UK population. Austhorpe Hall Cross Gates Colton, Leeds John Smeaton The ancient parish of Whitkirk: historical and genealogical information at GENUKI.
Austhorpe in the Domesday Book