Founded on June 3, 1770, Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico until 1850. Monterey hosted California's first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, newspaper. Monterey was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846, the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, California became part of the United States after the Mexican–American War. The city is located in Monterey County in the U. S. state of California, on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on California's Central Coast. The city hall is at 26 feet above sea level, the city occupies a land area of 8.466 sq mi. The 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810; the city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century and many celebrated painters and writers have lived there. Until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Monterey's notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman's Wharf and the annual Monterey Jazz Festival.
Long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula. Researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlone's primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone. A number of midden sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans' Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name "Bahía de Monterrey", which has evolved into Monterey Bay. Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the "Point of Pines". All other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcaino's name for the bay.
Variants of the city's name are recorded as Monte Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolá expedition, traveled north from San Diego, seeking Vizcaino's "Port of Monterey" from 167 years earlier. For some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1, 1769; the party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back. On the return journey, they camped near one of Monterey's lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, "We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a small lagoon which has rather muddy water, but abounds in pasture and firewood."Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcaino's Port of Monterey after all. The land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3, 1770, Serra founded the Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo inside the presidio enclosure.
Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the second governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. San Diego is the only city in California older than Monterey. Serra's missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, he moved the mission to Carmel the following year to gain greater independence from Fages; the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio. Monterey became the capital of the "Province of Both Californias" in 1777, the chapel was renamed the Royal Presidio Chapel; the original church was replaced by the present sandstone structure. It was completed in 1794 by Indian labor. In 1840, the chapel was rededicated to the patronage of Saint Charles Borromeo; the cathedral is the oldest continuously operating parish and the oldest stone building in California. It is the oldest serving cathedral along with St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans, Louisiana.
It is the only existing presidio chapel in California and the only surviving building from the original Monterey Presidio. The city was the only port of entry for all taxable goods in California. All shipments into California by sea were required to go through the Custom House, the oldest governmental building in the state and California's Historic Landmark Number One. Built in three phases, the Spanish began construction of the Custom House in 1814, the Mexican government completed the center section in 1827, the United States government finished the lower end in 1846. On 24 November 1818 Argentine corsair Hippolyte Bouchard landed 7 km away from the Presidio of Monterey in a hidden creek; the fort resisted ineffectively, after an hour of combat the Argentine flag flew over it. The Argentines took the city for six days, during which time they stole the cattle and burned the fort, the artillery headquarters, the governor's residence and the Spanish houses; the town's residents were unharmed. Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, but the civil and religious institutions of Alta California remained much the same until the 1830s, when the secularization of the missions converted most of the mission pasture lands into private land grant ranchos.
Monterey was the site of the Battle of Monterey on July 1846, during the Mexican -- American War. It was on
San Jose, California
San Jose the City of San José, is an economic and political center of Silicon Valley, the largest city in Northern California. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,035,317, it is the third-most populous city in California and the tenth-most populous in United States. Located in the center of the Santa Clara Valley, on the southern shore of San Francisco Bay, San Jose covers an area of 179.97 square miles. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County, the most affluent county in California and one of the most affluent counties in the United States. San Jose is the most populous city in both the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area, which contain 7.7 million and 8.7 million people respectively. San Jose is a global city, notable as a center of innovation, for its affluence, Mediterranean climate, high cost of living. San Jose's location within the booming high tech industry, as a cultural and economic center has earned the city the nickname "Capital of Silicon Valley".
San Jose is one of the wealthiest major cities in the United States and the world, has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita. With a median home price of $1,085,000, San Jose has the most expensive housing market in the country and the fifth most expensive housing market in the world, according to the 2017 Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey. Major global tech companies including Cisco Systems, eBay, Adobe Systems, PayPal, Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Western Digital maintain their headquarters in San Jose, in the center of Silicon Valley. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area around San Jose was inhabited by the Tamien nation of the Ohlone peoples of California. San Jose was founded on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the first city founded in the Californias, it became a part of Mexico in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence.
Following the American Conquest of California during the Mexican–American War, the territory was ceded to the United States in 1848. After California achieved statehood two years San Jose became the state's first capital. Following World War II, San Jose experienced an economic boom, with a rapid population growth and aggressive annexation of nearby cities and communities carried out in the 1950s and 1960s; the rapid growth of the high-technology and electronics industries further accelerated the transition from an agricultural center to an urbanized metropolitan area. Results of the 1990 U. S. Census indicated that San Jose had surpassed San Francisco as the most populous city in Northern California. By the 1990s, San Jose and the rest of Silicon Valley had become the global center for the high tech and internet industries, making it California's fastest-growing economy; the Santa Clara Valley has been home to the Tamyen group of the Ohlone people since around 4,000 BCE. The Tamyen spoke Tamyen language of the Ohlone language family.
With the Spanish colonization of California, the majority of the Tamyen came to inhabit Mission Santa Clara de Asís and Mission San José. California was claimed as part of the Spanish Empire in 1542, when explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo charted the Californian coast. During this time and Baja California were administered together as Province of the California. For nearly 200 years, the Californias were sparsely populated and ignored by the government of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City. Only in 1769 was Northern California surveyed by Spanish authorities, with the Portolá Expedition. In 1776, the Californias were included as part of the Captaincy General of the Provincias Internas, a large administrative division created by José de Gálvez, Spanish Minister of the Indies, in order to provide greater autonomy for the Spanish Empire's populated and ungoverned borderlands; that year, King Carlos III of Spain approved an expedition by Juan Bautista de Anza to survey the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to choose the sites for two future settlements and their accompanying mission.
First he chose the site for a military settlement in San Francisco, for the Royal Presidio of San Francisco, Mission San Francisco de Asís. On his way back to Mexico from San Francisco, de Anza chose the sites in Santa Clara Valley for a civilian settlement, San Jose, on the eastern bank of the Guadalupe River, a mission on its western bank, Mission Santa Clara de Asís. San Jose was founded as California's first civilian settlement on November 29, 1777, as the Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga, under orders of Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Viceroy of New Spain. San Jose served as a strategic settlement along El Camino Real, connecting the military fortifications at the Monterey Presidio and the San Francisco Presidio, as well as the California mission network. In 1791, due to the severe flooding which characterized the pueblo, San Jose's settlement was moved a mile south, centered on the Pueblo Plaza. In 1800, due to the growing population in the northern part of the Californias, Diego de Borica, Governor of the Californias split the province into two parts: Alta California, which would become a U.
S. state, Baja California, which would become two Mexican states. San Jose became part of the First M
Rev. Walter Colton was a Chaplain for the United States Navy, the Alcalde of Monterey, the author of Three Years in California and Deck and Port, he was co-publisher of California's first newspaper, The Californian. Walter Colton was born in Rutland County, Vermont, on May 9, 1797, he was the third of 12 children born to Thankful Colton. Walter went to Connecticut, at the age of 17 to learn to be a cabinetmaker, he attended Hartford Grammar School and entered Yale in the fall of 1818. He won the Berkeleyan Prize for the best Latin translation, delivered the valedictory poem at his graduation in 1822, he entered Andover Theological Seminary and graduated in 1825. He became a professor of moral philosophy and letters at the Scientific and Military Academy at Middletown, Connecticut, he moved to Washington, D. C. to become the editor of the American Washington City Chronicle. He was elected to preach at a church attended by President Andrew Jackson; the men developed a close acquaintanceship. The president offered Colton the choice of being a chaplain in a consul abroad.
Colton was nominated chaplain of the West India Squadron in 1831 and visited ports throughout the world. He was married to a Philadelphia woman of the same family name, he sailed to the Pacific in 1845, he recorded the story of that eventful voyage in his book and Port. Soon after Colton's arrival in Monterey, Commodore Robert F. Stockton appointed him the first American Alcalde of Monterey, a title he held from 1846 to 1849; this role was a combination of judge and governor over much of Northern California. He served with wisdom and sound judgment in dealing with lawbreakers, built Colton Hall, fined every gambler $20 to help cover the costs of building California’s first schoolhouse, he won wide acclaim as a fair judge and impaneled the first jury in California to assist in making decisions. During this period, he met Robert B. Semple and the two launched the first newspaper published in California, The Californian on August 15, 1846; the first issue was released only a month after the American flag was raised at Monterey, The Californian carried the news of the declaration of war with Mexico.
Colton's book about his experiences, Three Years in California, was published in 1850 after his return to the east. He was buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia. Walter Colton has been inducted into the California Newspaper Hall of Fame, his book, Three years in California, is regarded as a principal description of California before the California Gold Rush. Colton Hall, now preserved as a museum, was the site of the 1849 California Constitutional Convention. For a time it served as a grade school; the subsequent Walter Colton Middle School, located some two miles uphill from Colton Hall, was changed first to a 6-8-grade middle school back to a K-8-grade school in support of the Monterey Peninsula Unified School District's enforced school closings in early 2002. California Newspaper Hall of Fame Colton Hall Museum
Constitution of California
The Constitution of California is the primary organizing law for the U. S. state of California, describing the duties, powers and functions of the government of California. Following cession of the area from Mexico to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War, California's original constitution was drafted in both English and Spanish by delegates elected on August 1, 1849, to represent all communities home to non-indigenous citizens; the delegates wrote and adopted the constitution at the 1849 Constitutional Convention, held beginning on September 3 in Monterey, voters approved the new constitution on November 13, 1849. Adoption of the "state" constitution preceded California's Admission to the Union on September 9, 1850 by ten months. A second constitutional convention, the Sacramento Convention of 1878–79, amended the original document, ratifying the amended constitution on 7 May 1879; the Constitution of California is one of the longest collections of laws in the world due to provisions enacted during the Progressive Era limiting powers of elected officials, but due to additions by California ballot proposition and voter initiatives, which take form as constitutional amendments.
Initiatives can be proposed by the governor, legislature, or by popular petition, giving California one of the most flexible legal systems in the world. It is the 8th longest constitution in the world. Many of the individual rights clauses in the state constitution have been construed as protecting rights broader than the United States Bill of Rights in the Federal Constitution. An example is the case of Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins, in which "free speech" rights beyond those addressed by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution were found in the California Constitution by the California courts. One of California's most significant prohibitions is against "cruel or unusual punishment," a stronger prohibition than the U. S. Constitution's Eighth Amendment prohibition against "cruel and unusual punishment." This caused the California Supreme Court to find Capital Punishment unconstitutional on state Constitutional grounds in the 1972 case of People v. Anderson; the constitution has undergone numerous changes since its original drafting.
It was rewritten from scratch several times before the drafting of the current 1879 constitution, which has itself been amended or revised. In response to widespread public disgust with the powerful railroads that controlled California's politics and economy at the start of the 20th century, Progressive Era politicians pioneered the concept of aggressively amending the state constitution by initiative in order to remedy perceived evils. From 1911, the height of the U. S. Progressive Era, to 1986, the California Constitution was amended or revised over 500 times; the constitution became bloated, leading to abortive efforts towards a third constitutional convention in 1897, 1914, 1919, 1930, 1934 and 1947. By 1962, the constitution had grown to 75,000 words, which at that time was longer than any other state constitution but Louisiana's; that year, the electorate approved the creation of a California Constitution Revision Commission, which worked on a comprehensive revision of the constitution from 1964 to 1976.
The electorate ratified the Commission's revisions in 1966, 1970, 1972, 1974, but rejected the 1968 revision, whose primary substantive effect would have been to make the state's superintendent of schools into an appointed rather than an elected official. The Commission removed about 40,000 words from the constitution; the California Constitution is one of the longest in the world. The length has been attributed to a variety of factors, such as influence of previous Mexican civil law, lack of faith in elected officials and the fact that many initiatives take the form of a constitutional amendment. Several amendments involved the authorization of the creation of state government agencies, including the State Compensation Insurance Fund and the State Bar of California. Unlike other state constitutions, the California Constitution protects the corporate existence of cities and counties and grants them broad plenary home rule powers; the Constitution gives charter cities, in particular, supreme authority over municipal affairs allowing such cities' local laws to trump state law.
By enabling cities to pay counties to perform governmental functions for them, Section 8 of Article XI resulted in the rise of the contract city. Article 4, section 8 defines an "urgency statute" as one "necessary for immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety". Many of the individual rights clauses in the state constitution have been construed as protecting rights broader than the Bill of Rights in the federal constitution. Two examples include the Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins case involving an implied right to free speech in private shopping centers, the first decision in America in 1972 which found the death penalty unconstitutional, California v. Anderson, 6 Cal. 3d 628. This noted that under California's state constitution a stronger protection applies than under the U. S. Constitution's 8th Amendment.
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the U. S. state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below: The first, only, or most significant of its type in the state or within a large geographic region. California Historical Landmarks of number 770 and above are automatically listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event, of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. Why Stop? A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. P. 213. ISBN 9780884159230. OCLC 32168093. Official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP: California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
Monterey County, California
Monterey County the County of Monterey, is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 415,057; the county seat and largest city is Salinas. Monterey County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it borders the Monterey Bay. The northern half of the bay is in Santa Cruz County. Monterey County is a member of the regional governmental agency, Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments; the coastline, including Big Sur, State Route 1, the 17 Mile Drive on the Monterey Peninsula, has made the county world-famous. The city of Monterey was the capital of California under Mexican rule; the economy is based upon tourism in the coastal regions and agriculture in the Salinas River valley. Most of the county's people live near the northern coast and Salinas Valley, while the southern coast and inland mountain regions are sparsely populated. Monterey County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood.
Parts of the county were given to San Benito County in 1874. The area was populated by Ohlone and Esselen tribes; the county derives its name from Monterey Bay. The bay was named by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602 in honor of the Conde de Monterrey the Viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey is a variation of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain where the Conde de Monterrey and his father were from. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,771 square miles, of which 3,281 square miles is land and 491 square miles is water; the county is 1.5 times larger than the state of Delaware, similar in population and size to Santa Barbara County. Los Padres National Forest Pinnacles National Park Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge Ventana Wilderness Monterey County has habitat to support the following endangered species: Hickman's potentilla Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander Santa Cruz Tarweed Southern Steelhead Trout Yadon's piperia Generally, the western/southern parts of the Monterey Peninsula, Carmel Valley and eastern parts of Prundale were the county's most affluent and educated.
These areas had a median household income above that of the California or the U. S. overall and comprised 8%-10% of neighborhoods. Educational attainment was at least on part with, or above and national levels, in these areas while the percentage of people living in poverty was a third or less than national and statewide average. Social deprivation was concentrated in the central and eastern parts of Salinas, central areas of Monterey, Marina and King City. In central and eastern Salinas up to 46% of individuals lived below the poverty line and those without a secondary educations formed a plurality or majority of residents. Overall, the Salinas metropolitan area, defined as coterminous with Monterey County, was among the least educated urban areas in the nation. 8% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income above $100,000 per year, about 60% above the national median. This coincided with the top 20 census block groups in the county listed below. Most affluent neighborhoods * Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups.
About 4.5% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income below $30,000 per year, about 60% below the national median. This coincided with the 10 poorest of the 20 lowest income neighborhoods listed in the table below. Least affluent neighborhoods * Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups; the 2010 United States Census reported that Monterey County had a population of 415,057. The racial makeup of Monterey County was 230,717 White, 12,785 African American, 5,464 Native American, 25,258 Asian, 2,071 Pacific Islander, 117,405 from other races, 21,357 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 230,003 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 401,762 people, 121,236 households, 87,896 families residing in the county. The population density was 121 people per square mile. There were 131,708 housing units at an average density of 40 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 55.9% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 6.0% Asian, 0.5% Pacific Islander, 27.8% from other races, 5.0% from two or more races.
46.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 6.3% were of German and 5.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 52.9% spoke English, 39.6% Spanish and 1.6% Tagalog as their first language. There were 121,236 households out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 21.2%
The Monterey Formation is an extensive Miocene oil-rich geological sedimentary formation in California, with outcrops of the formation in parts of the California Coast Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, on some of California's off-shore islands. The type locality is near the city of California; the Monterey Formation is the major source-rock for 37 to 38 billion barrels of oil in conventional traps such as sandstones. This is most of California's known oil resources; the Monterey has been extensively investigated and mapped for petroleum potential, is of major importance for understanding the complex geological history of California. Its rocks are highly siliceous strata that vary in composition and tectono-stratigraphic history; the US Energy Information Administration estimated in 2014 that the 1,750 square mile Monterey Formation could yield about 600 million barrels of oil, from tight oil contained in the formation, down from their 2011 estimate of a potential 15.4 billion barrels. An independent review by the California Council on Science and Technology found both of these estimates to be "highly uncertain."
Despite intense industry efforts, there has been little success to date in producing Monterey-hosted tight oil/shale oil, except in places where it is naturally fractured, it may be many years, if before the Monterey becomes a significant producer of shale oil. The Monterey Formation strata vary, its lower Miocene members show indications of weak coastal upwelling, with fossil assemblages and calcareous-siliceous rocks formed from diatoms and coccolithophorids. Its middle and upper Miocene upwelling-rich assemblages, its unique siliceous rocks from diatom-rich plankton, became diatomites and banded cherts; the Monterey formation has long been recognized as the primary source of the oil produced from other formations in Southern California. Since 2011, the possibility that hydraulic fracturing might make the Monterey Shale productive over large areas has gained widespread public attention. According to the US Energy Information Administration in 2011, the 1,750-square-mile Monterey Shale Formation contained more than half of the United States’s total estimated technically recoverable shale oil resource, about 15.4 billion barrels.
In 2012, the EIA revised its recoverable volume downward, to 13.7 billion barrels. As of 2013 advances in hydraulic fracturing called "fracking," and the high price of oil resulted in spirited bidding by oil companies for leases. Occidental Petroleum and Venoco were reported to have been major players; the deposit lies 15,000 feet below the surface. A cited March 2013 study released by the University of Southern California estimated that if extensive resource-play development of the Monterey through hydraulic fracturing were successful, it could generate as many as 2.8 million jobs and as much as $24.6 billion in state and local taxes. However, observers have pointed out that as of 2012, however large its theoretical potential, no one as yet has succeeded in making the Monterey Shale economic through hydraulic fracturing. Richard Behl, a geology professor who heads the "Monterey And Related Sediments" consortium at California State University Long Beach, said that "The numbers were overblown, but it was a simple method and had an essence of truth."
Compared to other shale oil plays, the Monterey formation is much thicker and more laterally extensive, but much more geologically complex and deformed. See the linked photos from a field trip to Monterey outcrops at Vandenberg Air Force Base. "To say California geology is complex is an understatement.... The Monterey play is no slam-dunk." In 2013, Bakken shale-oil pioneer Harold Hamm said the Monterey "might have a lot of potential, but there are reasons why it’s not being produced." J. David Hughes, a Canadian geoscientist and Fellow of Post Carbon Institute, published a report in December 2013 analyzing the assumptions behind the EIA's forecast of Monterey tight oil production and the USC's forecast of resulting job and tax revenue growth, he found the EIA report's assumptions on prospective well productivity to be "extremely optimistic," and the total estimate of 15.4 billion barrels of recoverable oil "highly overstated." He found the USC study's assumption that development of the Monterey shale could increase California oil production as much as seven-fold to be "unfounded," and the economic projections regarding jobs and tax revenue to be "extremely suspect."
The Monterey Formation is considered the source of 84% of the oil in known fields of the San Joaquin Basin, a total of 12.2 billion barrels of oil. Of this, 112 million barrels of oil in known fields is produced from the Monterey itself; the Monterey formation is the source for such giant oilfields as the Kern River, Elk Hills, Midway-Sunset Oil Field, probable source for the overlying North and South Belridge Oil Fields. Monterey Formation oil was discovered at the Orcutt Oil Field in the Santa Maria Basin of Santa Barbara County in 1901; this was followed by other Monterey discoveries nearby, including the Cat Canyon Oil Field and Lompoc Oil Field. Each of these early Monterey discoveries depended on natural fractures in the Monterey; the Monterey Formation is one of the reservoirs in the Elk Hills Oil Field of Kern County. Major Monterey production was discovered in offshore oil fields, such as the South Ellwood Oil Field in the Santa Barbara Channel, the Poi